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law was not without some good features, but it came into existence at a most unfortunate time, and the keenness and unscrupulousness of desperate men, taking advantage of its weak points and corruptly violating its salutary provisions, used it to the public injury.

Under this law about 40 banks went into operation, many of them in remote and obscure places, and before the commissioners could perfect their work of reformn the crisis came and the catastrophe could not be averted. Failure rapidly succeeded failure, and legitimately chartered banks were drawn into the same vortex with the “wild-cat” institutions. Only seven banks escaped the whirlpool, and the worthless paper afloat represented more than a million dollars. As ex-Gov. Alpheus Felch well says:

“Thus ends the history of that memorable financial epoch. Forty years have passed since these events, and few remain who can remember the excitement and distrust, the fear and despondency, the hopes and disappointments which agitated the cominunity, in those days of inflation and speculation, of bankruptcy and financial distress; and fewer still remain who bore part in the transactions connected with them. We look back upon them to read the lessons which their history teaches. The notion that banks without real capital, or a currency which can never be redeemned, can relieve from debts or insolvency, is tried and exploded. We are led to the true principle, that prosperity, both public and individual, awaits upon industry and economy, judicious enterprise and honest productive labor, free from wild speculation and unprofitable investments, and a wise and prudent use of our abundant resources.

In 1875 there were 77 national banks in this State, doing an annual business of about $26,000,000; 15 State banks, with a business of nearly $4,000,000, and 12 savings banks, with a business of $6,000,000.

GEOLOGY.

The lower peninsula occupies the central part of a great synclinal basin, toward which the strata dip from all directions, and which are bounded on all sides by anticlinal swells and ridges. The limits of this basin exceed those of the peninsula, extending to London, Ont., Madison, Wis., Marquette and Sault Ste. Marie. The whole series of strata may therefore be compared to a nest of dishes, the lower and exterior ones representing the older strata.

The upper peninsula is divided by the Marquette-Wisconsin anticlinal into two geological areas, the eastern belonging to the great basin above alluded to, and the western being lacustrine in its character, and largely covered by Lake Superior. The southern rim of the latter is seen uplifted along Keweenaw Point and the south shore of the lake, and these strata re-appear at Isle Royale. Between the Michigan and lacustrine basins the metalliferous Marquette-Wisconsin axis interposes a separating belt of about 50 iniles

The palæozoic great system of this state measures about 2,680 feet in thickness, of which the Silurian division is 920 feet, the Devonian 1,040 feet, and the carboniferous 720 feet.

The coal-bearing group occupies the central portion of the peninsula, extending from Jackson to township 20 north, and from range 8 east to 10 west.

Of iron, hematite and magnetite, in immense lenticular masses of unsurpassed purity, abound in the Huronian rocks of the upper peninsula. The former of these, under the action of water, becomes soft, and is called Limonite, and is abundant throughout the State as an earthy ore or ochre, bog ore, shot ure, yellow ochre,

Sometimes it is deposited in stalactitic, mammillary, botryoidal and velvety forms of great beauty. Kidney ore abounds in the Huron clays, and black-band” in the coal measures.

Of copper, native, in the “ trap” of Lake Superior, abounds in the form of sheets, strings and masses. Gold, silver and lead are also found in unimportant quantities in the Lake Superior region.

Salt abounds in the Saginaw region, gypsum, or “ land plaster in the vicinity of Grand Rapids, building stone throughout the State, manganese in many places, and many other valuable earths, ores and varieties of stone in many places.

etc.

NEWSPAPERS.

There are about 275 newspapers and periodical publications in Michigan, of all classes. Of these 224 are published weekly, 17 daily and weekly, two daily, seven semi-weekly, one tri-weekly, four semi-monthly, 19 monthly, one quarterly, and one yearly; 112 are Republican, 46 Democratic, 73 independent and neutral, 14 religious, and 15 miscellaneous. Among the latter are two Methodist, seven Adventist (two Dutch or ITollandisch), one Episcopal, one Catholic and one Baptist; four mining, five educational, one Masonic, one Odd Fellow, one Grange, three medical and one agri. cultural. Five are printed in the German language, six in the Dutch, one in the Swedish and one in the Danish.

The

present population of Michigan, according to the census of 1880, is as follows: Male, 862,278; females, 774,057; native born, 1,247,989; foreign, 338,346; white, 1,614,087; colored, 22,248; total, 1,636,335.

STATE OFFICERS.

1849 1852

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. . 1853

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Wm. L. Greenly..
Calvin Britain..
Andrew Parsons.
George A. Coe..
Edmund B. Fairfield.
James Biruey..
Joseph R. Williams, acting..
Henry T. Backus, acting..
Charles S. May.
E. O. Grosvenor.
Dwight May.
Morgan Bates.
Henry H. Holt..
Alonzo Sessions.
Moreau S. Crosby.

1855 1859 .1861 . 1861 , 1862 .1863 1865 ..1867 .1869 .1873 ..1877 ..1881

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Secretaries of State. Kintzing Pritchette.. Randolph Manning. Thomas Rowland. Robert P Eldridge. G. 0. Whittemore. George W. Peck.... George Redfield. Charles H. Taylor. William Graves. John McKinney. Nelson G. Isbell. James B. Porter. O. L. Spaulding. Daniel Striker. E. G. D. Holden. William Jenney.

Gous. During French Rule. Apid. Sieur de Mesey.

..1663 Sieur de Courcelles.

..1665 Sieur de Frontenac.

.1672 Sieur de La Barre,

.1682 Marquis de Denonville.

1685 Sieur de Frontenac..

. 1689 Chevalier de Callieres

1699 Marquis de Vaudreuil.

.1703 Marquis de Beauharnois

1726 Compt de la Galissoniere.

.1747 Sieur de la Jonquiere.

1749 Marquis du Quesne de Menneville. 1752 Sieur de Vaudreuil de Cavagnal... .1755

Govs. During British Rule. James Murray.

1765 Paulus E. Irving

..1766 Guy Carleton.

.1766 Hector T. Cramahe.

..1770 Guy Carleton..

.1774 Frederick Haldimand.

...1778 Henry Hamilton..

.1784 Henry Hope... ..

.1785 Lord Dorchester.

1786 Alured Clarke..

.1791 Lord Dorchester.

.1798 Governors of Michigan Territory. William Hull...

1805 Lewis Cass..

.1813 George B. Porter.

.1831 Stevens T. Mason, ex officio. 1834 John T. Horner, ex officio... 1835

State Governors. Elected. Stevens T. Mason..

.1835 William Woodbridge. .

1840 J. Wright Gordon, acting.

.1841 John S. Barry

.1842 Alpheus Felch..

.1846 Wm. L. Greenly, acting

.1847 Epaphroditus Ransom.

.1848 John S. Barry..

.1850 Robert McClelland.

.1852 Andrew Parsons, acting.

.1853 Kinsley S. Bingham..

1855 Moses Wisner..

1859 Austin Blair..

1861 Henry H. Crapo.

1865 Henry P. Baldwin.

..1869 John J. Bagley..

..1873 Charles M. Croswell.

.1877 David H.Jerome.

...1881 Lieut.-Governors of Michigan. Edward Mundy..

...1835 J. Wright Gordon..

.1840 Origen D. Richardson.

.1842 Wm. L. Greenly..

..1846 Wm. M. Fenton...

..1848

1840 1842 1846 . 1848

1850 .1850 .1853 .1855 .. 1859 . 1861

1867 1871 .1875 .1879

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Henry Howard..
Peter Desnoyers.
Robert Stuart.
George W. Germain
John J. Adam..
George Redfield
George B. Cooper.
Barnard C. Whittemore.
Silas M. Holmes.
John McKinney
John Owen..
E. O, Grosvenor.
Victory P. Collier.
Wm. B. McCreery
Benj. D. Pritchard.

Attorneys-General.
Daniel Le Roy..
Peter Morey
Zephaniah Platt.
Elon Farnsworth.
Henry N. Walker.
Edward Mundy..
Geo. V. N. Lothrop.
William Hale...

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David Johnson.

.1852-7 Abner Pratt.

.1851-7 Charles W. Whipple.

.1852-5 Nathaniel Bacon..

.1855-8 Sandford M. Green.

..1856-8 E. H. C. Wilson..

.1856-8 Benj. F. H. Witherell, Benj. F.

Graves, Josiah Turner and Ed-
win Lawrence, to fill vacancies

in the latter part of.. ..1857 George Martin..

.1858-68 Randolph Manning

.1858-64 Isaac P. Christiancy.

1858-77 James V. Campbell.

1858 Thomas M. Cooley.

..1864 Benj. F. Graves.....

.1868 Isaac Marston ..

.1875

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Auditors-General.

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U. S. Senators.

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. 1875

John Norvell.
Lucius Lyon.
Augustus S. Porter..
Wm. Woodbridge.
Lewis Cass...
Thos. H. Fitzgerald.
Alpheus Felch...
Charles E. Stuart..
Zachariah Chandler
Kinsley S. Bingham.
Jacob M. Howard..
Thomas W. Ferry.
Henry P. Baldwin.
Z. Chandler...
Omar D. Conger.

1835-41 1836-40 .1840-5 1841-7 1845-57 .1848-9 .1847-53 .1853-9 .1857–77 .1859-61 .1862–71

1871 ..1880 .1878-9 1881

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Representatives in Congress.

Robert Abbott..

..1836 Henry Howard.

1839 Eurotas P. Hastings.

.1840 Alpheus Felch.

.1842 Henry L. Whipple...

.1842 Charles G. Hammond.

1845 John J. Adam.

1845 Digby V. Bell.

1846 John J. Adam

1848 John Swegles, Jr.

1851 Whitney Jones.

1855 Daniel L. Case..

1859 Langford G. Berry.

1861 Emil Anneke...

.1863 William Humphrey.

.1867 Ralph Ely.. W. Irving Latimer.

.1879 Supts. Pub. Inst. John D. Pierce.

..1838 Franklin Sawyer, Jr.

1841 Oliver C. Comstock.

1843 Ira Mayhew.

1845 Francis W. Shearman.

1849 Ira Mayhew..

1855 John M. Gregory.

1859 Oramel Hosford. Daniel B. Briggs

1873 Horace S. Tarbell.

.1877 Cornelius A. Gower.

1878 Judges of the Supreme Court. Augustus B. Woodward.......1805-24 Frederick Bates..

.1805-8 John Griffin...

.1806-24 James Witherell..

1808-28 Solomon Sibley.

.1824-36 Heory Chipman.

..1827-32 Wm. Woodbridge.

..1828–32 Ross Wilkins...

1832-6 Wm. A. Fletcher.

.1836-42 Epaphroditus Ransom..

1836-47 George Morell......

.1836-42 Charles W. Whipple.

1843-52 Alpheus Felch.

1842-5 David Goodwin.

.1843-6 Warner Wing.

.1845-56 George Miles..

.1846-50 Edward Mundy.

..1848-51 Sanford M. Green.

1848-57 George Martin...

.1851-2 Joseph T. Copeland.

.1852-7 Samuel T. Douglas.

..1852–7

..1865

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Isaac E. Crary. Jacob M. Howard. Lucius Lyon.. Robert McClelland. James B. Hunt. John S. Chipman. Charles E. Stuart. Kinsley S. Bingham. Alex. W. Buel. William Sprague Charles E. Stuart. James L. Conger. Ebenezer J. Penniman. Samuel Clark... David A. Noble.. Hester L. Stevens. David Stuart... George W. Peck.. Wm. A. Howard.. Henry Waldron.., David S. Walbridge. D. C. Leach.. Francis W. Kellogg. B. F. Granger. F. C. Beaman.. R. E. Trowbridge. Charles Upson...

1835-41 1841-3

.1843-5 ...1843-9

1843-7 1845-7 1847-9 1849-51 1849 51 1849-50 1851-3 1851-3 .1851-3 1853-5 .1853-5 . 1853-5 .1853-5 .1855-7 .1855-61 1855-61 .1855-9 ..1857-61 ..1859-65

1861-3 1861-71 1861-3 1863-9

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The State printing is done by contract, the contractors for the last 13 years being W. S. George & Co. (Geo. Jerome), the former the active partner, who also publishes and edits the Lansing Republican, a paper noted for originality, condensation and careful

make-up.”

TOPOGRAPHY.

The upper

Michigan is a little southeast of the center of the continent of North America, and with reference to all the resources of wealth and civilization is most favorably situated. It is embraced between the parallels of 410.692 and 470.478 north latitude, and the merid. ians of 829.407 and 909.536 west of Greenwich. peninsula has its greatest extent east and west, and the lower, north and south. The extreme length of the upper peninsula is 318 miles, and its extreme breadth, 1647 miles; its area, 22,580 square miles. The length of the lower peninsula is 277 miles, its width, 259 miles, and its area, 33,871 square miles. The upper peninsula is rugged and rocky, affording scarcely anything but minerals as a source of wealth; the lower is level, covered with forests of valuable timber, and is excellent for all the products of Northern States.

The total length of the lake shore is 1,620 miles, and there are over 5,000 smaller lakes in the States, having a total area of 1,114 square miles.

A RETROSPECT.

And now, how natural to turn our eyes and thoughts back to the log-cabin days of less than 50 years ago, and contrast it with the elegant mansion of modern times. Before us stands the old log cabin. Let us enter. Instinctively the head is uncovered in token of reverence to this relic of ancestral beginnings and early struggles. To the left is the deep, wide fire-place, in whose commodious space a group of children may sit by the fire and up through the chimney may count the stars, while ghostly stories of witches and giants, and still more thrilling stories of Indians and wild beasts, are whisperingly told and shudderingly heard. On the great crane hang the old tea-kettle and the great iron pot. The huge shovel and tongs stand sentinel in either corner, while the great andirons

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