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when the express train bound east was hindered for a time. Order again prevailed until next day.

Gen. Humphrey, in the meantime, obtained from the governor a promise of such military help as he might need. L. W. Heath, of Detroit, Inspector General, Cols. Wormer, Pulford, Grisson and Duffield, and Adj. Gen. Robertson were all ready for prompt action.

The necessity for encamping the troops being fully established in the foregoing record of events, and as their services fortunately were not brought into actual conflict, the question arises, how far their presence tended to prevent the commission of more serious acts against law and good order than those already detailed. Of this, a conclusion may in a measure be arrived at, by judging of the action of parties at other points, under like circumstances. At Pittsburg, where the most disastrous results of the strike occurred, the first overt acts were not any more formidable than at Jackson, yet the riot progressed, accumulating strength, while its suppression, even by troops, became a failure, until after an immense destruction of property was accomplished, with great loss of life.

Experience has fully established that very trifling occurrences often bring about a collision between rioters and troops, such as a thoughtless boy in a crowd throwing a stone, an impertinent and insulting jeer or threat, or the accidental discharge of a musket by a careless soldier. To guard against such occurrences when troops are called out to suppress riot, discretion in selecting their position, the location of their camp, and its management with reference to avoiding premature collision, are all important; while they should avoid a very near approach to the scene of riot until required to do so by proper authority.

The strike ended ingloriously for its promoters and their innocent victims; the action of the railroad company in the matter, sustained; and the people made doubly determined to resist such rash enterprises in the future.

In closing the sketch of those evil times, it is deemed proper to subscribe the following leader, from the pen of one of the editors of the Patriot.

“It is quite likely,” said he, “that the laborers with whom the present deplorable strike originated, have suffered, and perhaps seriously, from the reductions—actual and proposed-of their wages. They are, however, not alone in their suffering.

Not only have higher classes of laborers suffered a similar reduction but in the universal business depression of the last three and a half years a large proportion of the business men and corporations of the country have been driven to the perilous edge, if not into the actual abyss of bankruptcy. With the exception of the comparatively very few who have been fortified during that period by capital accumulated previous to the panic of 1873, employers have experienced the stress of hard times, nearly if not quite as strenuously as the employed. Within the period referred to, the shrinkage in

value of property alone, or in other words one description of the losses of employers, immensely exceed the losses of the employed by reason of the shrinkage in wages.

“However we may sympathize, therefore, with the sufferings of the strikers, it is with the knowledge that the hardship of the situation has not been visited solely upon them. Conceding that the complaints of the strikers are altogether just, they by their appeal to violence and bloodshed changed the debate from a discussion of their particular grievance to a consideration of the supremacy of law and of the very existence of society. Labor is free, and the attempt to dictate to the employer the wages that he shall pay, or to the willing laborer that he shall not work, is no less intolerable than to attempt to drive the unwilling laborer to a distasteful task. The general and permanent success of any such attempt to coerce either the employers or employed, in defiance of law, would be inevitably fatal to even the semblance of a government of freemen. That the strikers have a right to stop work goes without saying. That the companies have the right to fix the compensation which they can afford to pay, and that the willing laborers have the right to accept those terms and fill the places of the strikers, is equally indisputable. While every leading journal in the country gives emphatic and earnest expression to its sympathy with the laborers in the unfortunate condition in which the business depression has involved them, not one fails to utter its condemnation of their unjustifiable appeal to force. A very little reflection on the part of the strikers themselves would satisfy them of the justice of the condemnation. Every one of them, in his own case and in ordinary times, would deem it a gross outrage if he were prevented by force from earning wages

which he needed and was willing to accept.

"The outrage is not less gross when it compels thousands of willing hands to remain idle. The strikers are scarcely less unjust to themselves than to their fellow laborers whom they obstruct. They refuse to accept low wages, and for an indefinite time they lose all wages. The experiment cannot be otherwise than expensive, even to those engaged in it. If it were simply a contest of endurance between the railways and the strikers, the public might possibly afford to await the result with a degree of calmness and impartiality. But the contest assumes more ominous proportions. Already the stoppage of freight communications is beginning to work its inevitable result in the suspension of large manufacturing enterprises in Pittsburg, Cleveland and elsewhere, with the consequent enforced idleness of thousands of additional laborers. The consequence of the ill-advised action of one class of laboring men are thus directly and promptly visited upon an army of their innocent fellow-laborers. With the continuance of the conditions, the number of innocent and peaceable laborers, thus compelled to suffer for no fault of theirs, must constantly and rapidly increase. The laboring classes are themselves primarily interested in the restoration of order, inasmuch as they are among the first to be visited by the unpleasant consequences of a movement professedly begun in the interest of laborers.

“But as we have already remarked, the matter is no longer a debate over the rights or wrongs of labor. It is a question of government against anarchy, of society against chaos. The strikers have professed a desire to avoid destruction of property or life. How futile the effort is, and always must be, to set beforehand a limit to the spread of lawlessness, let the terrible slaughter and lurid flames at Baltimore and Pittsburg answer. The brief space between the lawlessness of the strikers and anarchy is filled by the savage, merciless and ravening mob, swarming out of the depths, hungry for pillage and thirsting for blood. It is to this fearful power that the strikers have furnished an opportunity, and its terrible menace to society must compel the prompt and thorough combination of every desirable social force against it. Every householder must hate and oppose it, because in its red right hand it waves the incendiary's torch. Every citizen must hate and oppose it because its inspiration is rapine and murder."

There cannot exist a doubt regarding the justice of the part taken by the people of Jackson in suppressing the tumult." Jackson citizens were among the first to cry aloud against the curse of negro slavery, and it is not at all probable that they should oppose the rights of their own fellow citizens, if rights they sought for, rather than the rapine, wrong, and crime they threatened.


The terrible calamity of October 10, 1879, by which 15 persons were killed and 27 injured, absorbed public attention throughout the day to the exclusion of every other consideration. Hundreds gathered to witness the taking out of the dead and the rescuing of the injured in the early morning. As soon as the last of the wounded was removed, the wrecking car and a large force of men were set to work to clear the track of the debris of the wreck. As explained in the report in our second edition and reproduced on another page, several of the dead were not recovered until after the wreck had been partially removed by the steam derrick.

The force with which the two trains came together was absolutely terrific.

The west-bound train, the Pacific express, was running rapidly to make up lost time, with a down-grade in its favor. Its momentum could not have been less than 40 miles an hour. So great was the force with which the two locomotives struck that the ponderous machines were literally torn to pieces. The two huge boilers were pitched against the north side of the cut and lay together up the acclivity. They were hurled clear of trucks and drive wheels, and were even stripped of their sheet-iron jackets and of the appurtenances to which they were attached. The cabs were shivered to atoms and levers and bolts of steel lay broken and bent and scattered about the road-bed.

Between the engines and Wagner sleepers, of which there were seven in the express train, there were four ordinary passenger coaches. When the passenger engine struck the freight and stopped, the intervening passenger cars could not resist the heavy, swiftly moving sleepers, and two of them were crushed like egg shells. The third bulged out of the train, so to speak, and was thrown part way up the bank, while the fourth, next the sleepers, remained to a great extent intact, so far as the body of the car was concerned. Under this car were the trucks of the two crushed coaches packed as closely from end to end as possible. The heavy frame work or sills of the destroyed cars were shoved one above the other like a plane their full length, and this was what brought death and injury to the inmates. With the quickness of thought car was shoved into car, crushing the rows of seats as they telescoped as if they had been paper, and dashing and tearing out the life of fifteen human beings.

The verdict of the coroner's jury censured principally Evander T. Colwell, the yard-master at Jackson Junction ; secondly, Joseph Sawyer, switchman, and Robert R. Jones, engineer of the switch engine, both of whom were acting under the orders of the yardmaster, knowing that he had made mistakes before, and that they were running a risk this time. The verdict further suggested certain additional safeguards to be adopted by the company about the Jackson grounds.

The close of this awful tragedy partook somewhat of a romantic character. A meeting of the survivors, quartered at the Hurd House, was held in one of the parlors on the night of Nov. 27, 1879. A series of resolutions were adopted, in which their thanks to the representatives of the M. C. R. R. Co., for their untiring efforts to alleviate their sufferings, were expressed. The second resolution referred directly to the medical faculty of Jackson, and to the devotion of Messrs. Ledyard, Brown and Conductor Ladd of the M. C. R. R. The third resolution tendered sincere thanks to Mrs. Dr. North, Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Hurd, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel B. Mettler, and Miss Kate Hurd.

The fourth resolution dealt with the courtesies and attentions received from Mayor Mabley and the citizens of Jackson.

The testimonial resolutions were beautifully written up, with the names of the deceased as well as the survivors subscribed, and the framed document presented to the Hurd House, as a memento of the terrible catastrophe, Dec. 10, 1879.

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Some time in 1858, Patrick Cody left his home, his wife and child, to seek a fortune in the wide, wide world. He battled with fate from place to place, and at last, discouraged in his own land, set sail for a foreign clime, and from that time was lost to his friends. The weary years went slowly by in which hope and fear alternately possessed the minds of the waiting wife and daughter.

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Spring came and went, summers and autumns and winters passed, and yet no tidings from the absent husband and father ; but the hearts of those who hoped and longed were sick with watching and waiting. Cody was dead! The silence had been long and deep, and the wife, believing herself a widow, married Mr. Holden sometime in 1872, and resided on John Street, Jackson. The child, who had now grown to be a fair and handsome maid, was wooed and won by Edward Deelan, a conductor on the M. C. R. R., who now resides at Marshall.

Nothing happened for a few years to interrupt the peaceful relations of the two families, until a letter put in an appearance at the Marshall postoffice bearing the post-mark of that far-off country, Australia, addressed to Mary Cody, the maiden name of Mrs. Deelan. She received it, gazed at it, broke the seal, and began to read. It proved to be from the American consul, stating that Patrick Cody had died in that far-away land, possessed of a large fortune, and in his will had bequeathed to his daughter Mary $75,000 in gold. Deelan soon sailed for Australia to claim the fortune of his wife. A strange coincidence in this bit of romance is the fact that Patrick Cody and Wm. Holden both died on the same day. Mr. Holden died here in March, 1875, and his remains were taken to Marshall for interment. Cody, in the desperation of his circumstances, did not halt to bid adieu to his wife and little one, but rushed forward to the distant land where fortune waited on his labors, and remained alone, to be a blessing or a curse to those who were to inherit it.


To follow the wanderings of Wm. Filley from Connecticut to California is beyond the domain of history. His coming to Michigan and subsequent abduction by the Indians are events which pertain properly to the subject, and therefore claim a place in these pages. It appears that in August, 1837, the boy was in charge of Mary Mount, while his mother was in Massachusetts. Ammi Filley, the father of the lost child, was then in Michigan, living only a short distance from the dwelling of the Mount family. The particulars regarding the abduction, as related in a work published by J. Z. Bullard, are full and precise.

He states that “Ammi Filley removed from Hartford county, Conn., in 1833, to the oak openings of Michigan, and located with his family in the township of Jacksonburgh, then a wilder

Although surrounded by bands of Indians, he entertained no fear, as all seemed friendly. It was on Aug. 3, 1837, that William Filley, then a child about five years old, went to a swamp near by with a hired girl named Mary Mount to gather berries. The swamp was between the house of Mr. Filley and that of Mr. Mount, the father of the girl. After pickingberries for some time, the boy expressed a wish to go home, whereupon the girl led him to the trail, and pointed out the way to her father's house,


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