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river and north of Ganson street: Provided, That whenever a street or river is mentioned in this act as a boundary or division line, the center of said street or continuation thereof, or river, shall be deemed to be the said line."

To give the history of Jackson from this period to the present time, in the most solid form, we will divide the matter topically.

VOTE OF THE CITY FROM 1857 to 1880.

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Name of Candidate.
.J. C. Wood, dem....
.Chas. W. Penny, rep.....
..J. L. Mitchell, dem.
E. Pringle, rep.
.P. B. Loomis, rep.
.J. C. Wood, dem.
..Ben. Newkirk, rep
..J. L. Holmes, dem.
.Wm. Jackson, rep.
Fidus Livermore, dem.
.J. D. Conely, dem.
..J. W. Hulin, rep.

Amos Root,, rep.
H. A. Hayden, dem..
..F. M. Foster, dem.
.G. W. Brown..
Amasa B. Gibson, dem..
Daniel Upton, rep.
.Enoch Bancker, dem.
.E. H. Ring, rep.
..A. B. Gibson, dem..

.Jas. E. Dyer, rep.
..C. C. Esmond, dem.
.Levi J. Burr, rep
.A. B. Gibson, dem..
.M. A. McNaughton, rep.
.James O'Donnell. rep.
.B. L. Carlton, dem..
.Delos Fisher, rep..
Henry A. Hayden, dem.
.James O'Donnell, rep.
.H. F. Knapp, dem.
.D. B. Hibbard, dem..

Wm. Jackson, rep.
..James O'Doud, rep......

Thomas J. Conely, dem.....
..M. A. McNaughton, rep..
..A. B. Gibson, dem..
.James O'Donnell, rep.
. Edward Crowe, dem..
.W. N. Buck, dem......
.E. A. Webster, rep
. Thomas J. Conely, dem.
Erastus Peck, rep.....

W. N. Buck, den.
..Geo. H. Lathrop, rep.
Thomas A. Wilson, dem.
W. W. Andrew, rep.
.W. M. Bennett, dem.
.George H. Lathrop, rep.
.. Thomas A. Wilson, dem.
.W. W: Andrews, rep.

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W. M. Bennett, dem....
M. A. McNaughton, rep.
.T. A. Wilson, dem..
.James O'Donnell, rep.
.Jasper H. Noyes, dem.
W. L. Seaton, rep.
.A.M. Tinker, rep.
L. M. Powell, dem.
B: G. Mosies, dem.
B. F. Eggleston, rep.
G. A. Foster, dem...
A. M. Tinker, rep.
B. G. Mosies, dem..
James O'Donnell, rep.
.G. A. Foster, dem.
.S. C. Rodgers, rep.
.James O'Donnell, rep.
Douglas Gibson, dem.
.J. S. Harrington.
Wm. F. Johnson.
.James O'Donnell, rep.
Cyrus W. Higby, dem.
H. F. Knapp, dem.
.J. S. Harrington, greenbacker.
C. R. Taylor..
.Joseph Mabley, dem.
.N. C. Lowe, rep.
Milar McLaughlin, greenbacker...
.Geo. R. Holden, dem.
.Wm. A. Ernst, rep..
.Jonn Harrington, greenbacker.

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The city officers holding positions in January, 1881,

1881, were Joseph Mabley, Mayor; Wm. A. Ernst, Recorder; Albert Stiles, Treasurer; Wm. Dilley, Chief of Police; Erastus Peck, City Attorney ; Nathan H. Williams, City Physician; John W. Orr, Overseer of the Poor ; Charles B. Hyde, City Engineer; Cyrus H. Fountain, Superintendent Public Works ; Lewis D. Welling, Horace Hunt, Minard F. Cook and David G. Palmer, Justices of the Peace.

The Common Council, with Reuben S. Clark as president, included Frank P. Snyder and John L. Mitchell representing the 1st ward ; Christopher Van Horn and Geo. 0. Woodworth, the 2d ward ; Reuben E. Clark and Wm. B. Reid, the 3d ward ; Wm. Brown and Charles H. Palmer, the 4th ward ; Edward Sellers and Homer D. Fisher, the 5th ward; John C. Blaisdell and Oscar B. Driscoll, the 6th ward ; George Clinton and Patrick Casey, the 7th ward; Charles W. Cook and Howell T. Howells, the 8th ward.

The Board of Public Works comprised Nathaniel B. Hall, President; Chester Warriner, James L. Holmes, Edward A. Webster and Hiram H. Smith. This board supervises the water-works, streets and parks, sidewalks, sewers, public buildings, lamps and bridges.

The Board of Health is composed of President Abram L. Crawford, c. A. Baldwin and C. c. Page.

The Board of Assessors comprised Jonathan H. Emmons, Wm. Page and Geo. F. Rice.

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The Board of Cemetery Trustees, under the presidency of Andrew J. Gould, is formed

of three members, the president, Samuel O. Knapp, and Geo. Webb.

AN OLD TIME DESORIPTION OF THE VILLAGE.

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In 1838 the Gazeteer of Michigan was published, and in the pages of the quaint old volume a reference was of course made to the central village of Jackson. This description, though brief, is particularly interesting, since it will the better portray the rapid strides of the city within a period of 42 years:

Jackson, a village, the seat of justice for the county of Jackson, in a township of the same name, situated on the east bank of Grand river, contains a postoffice, court-house, jail, banking association, printing office, a druggist's store, a tannery furnace, two saw-mills, a flouring mill with four run of stone, four dry goods stores, eight lawyers and three physicians. A Baptist church is now erecting. A church, called the Union church, to accommodate several denominations, will be completed soon. The State penitentiary has been located here, and is in progress of construction. Here is likewise the location of a branch of the University. The Detroit & St. Joseph railroad is to pass through here. There is a fall of eight feet in the river at this place, and any amount of water-power can be obtained in the vicinity. Within half a mile of the village is a quarry of fine sandstone. It is very flourishing, distant 80 miles west from Detroit, 606 northwest of Washington city."

Such was Jackson village of 1837-28. What a change! What advance! During the year 1839 the industries named in the description given by the Gazeteer increased, so that instead of one bank there were two; instead of one printing office there were four, publishing two weekly papers and two semi-monthly journals, viz. : Jackson Sentinei, Michigan Democrat, American Freeman, and the Michigan Temperance Herald. During the same year there were added to the business establishments of the village one drug store and six-dry goods stores. Instead of two there were five churches. The population of 1837–38 was 400, inhabiting 75 dwellings; a year later this number rose to over 1,000, claiming. 200 buildings, and with 80 more large stores and dwellings in

process of completion. The year of 1839 was the first building era -the era of progress, in which the inhabitants resolved to raise their village to the pinnacle of its greatness.

THE MODERN BUILDERS.

The building of a city, or rather that epoch in its history when the capitalist steps forward to order the erection of houses for trade and dwellings for the people, is the most important, if not the most interesting, record. To review the works gotten up from

time to time by the enterprise of the modern builders would require volumes. Here it will be only necessary to refer briefly to those erections of the seventh and eighth decades of this century, the fourth and fifth in the history of Jackson. Let us take up a list of such improvements, written in 1871, examine it, and give honor where honor pointeth. Toward the close of that year the following buildings were completed, or in process of completion :

Mr. E. A. Webster had erected 36 houses, at an average value of $4,000 each, and was engaged in completing a magnificent residence for himself on one of the most sightly and most beautiful lots on North Main street. Mr. Silas Heyser built 24 houses, at an average value of $1,800 each. Mr. Wilcox built 21 houses, at an average value of $2,000. Mr. Rufus Heaton erected nine houses, valued at $2,500 each. I. N. Harwood built seven houses, worth on an average $2,000 each. Dr. Palmer built five houses, worth on an average $1,200. Dr. M. A. McNaughton is entitled to credit for placing within the reach of people of limited means, material and ground for building many houses, aiding and encouraging the providing of comfortable Homes. Mr. B. C. Harris also did a good work in this direction. He made an advance of money to aid in building some 21 houses, at an average value of $2,000, and he furnished the ground upon which to place them. This is upon Harris street, on the east hill, so called. This street is 50 rods long, and has been made one of the best-built streets in the city. There are quite a number of other builders and real estate owners who have erected three, four and five houses each; also a number of citizens who have built for themselves splendid homes.

BUSINESS BLOCKS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS, ETC.

The principal buildings of the city include the Bennett Block, Calvert, Courter and Crystal Palace blocks, Bronson, Durand, Goldsinith, Hanover, Hollon, Kennedy, Lathrop, Merriman, Morrison, Mosher, Reynolds, Sammons, Warriners, Wilcox, Smith Bros., Metropolitan, Keystone and Marble Front blocks. The Hurd House, Hibbard House, Union Hall blocks and the Glass Front Structure. Buildings, metropolitan in character, will soon Occupy the sight of the old Marion House and adjoining property, destroyed by fire on the morning of Dec. 31, 1880. Another large building will occupy the place of the old church at the southwest corner of Mechanic and Franklin streets, new churches and residences are projected, so that the present promises a full revival of the building era, the removal of frame structures from the business center of the city, and the possibility of obtaining a home or commercial house at a reasonable rent.

The Citizen building, county court-house, county jail, Jackson Gas Light Co.'s Works, and water-works buildings are all pretentious structures. The Odd Fellows Block, County Agricultural Society's buildings, and Opera House Block, are extensive and valuable; while the churches are numerous, commodious and beautiful. The First Methodist, Baptist, Catholic, Congregational, Free-Will Baptist and Protestant Episcopals are structures worthy of a Christian people. Of the other churches in the city few are below the character of such institutions as are found in large cities. The school buildings, modern in architecture, are elegant structures, and, like the churches, bear testimony to the character of the citizens. The buildings given up to the manufacturing interests are, as a rule, plain, but well adapted to their use.

The incorporated manufacturing institutions of the city comprise the Austin, Tomlinson & Webster Manufacturing Co.; Withington & Cooley Manufacturing Co.; Jackson Gas Light Co.; Porter Coal Co.; Bortin Manufacturing Co.; Michigan Coal Co., Jackson Bonanza Gold and Silver Mining Co.; and the Burtch WashingMachine Co.

The press is represented by two daily and four weekly newspapers, one of which, the Michigan Volksfreund, was projected in 1877, and is now published by Rudolph Worch.

There are five banking establishments, all resting on a firm foundation, and each of them well administered.

Six lines of railroad enter the city, thus rendering it one of the most important railway centers in the United States.

The Greenwood and City parks are limited recreation grounds for the citizens. These little parks, when compared with the five cemeteries now used as so many places of sepulture, would lead a stranger to believe that death was the only thing the citizens have in view. The public and private buildings, the hum of business, and the genial character of the people are magnificent contradictions of such a belief.

The other hotels of the city include the Central City, Central House, Commercial, Farmers, Franklin, Junction, Union, Montgomerie, Mosher, Railroad and Transient.

There are 78 insurance companies represented in the city by the following agents: R. Livermore, J. C. Lowell, W. B. Webb, Tinker & Brown, A. J. Gould, G. W. Kennedy, John McDevitt, E. A. Hough, Hall & Lowe, Wm. T. Gibson, G. W. Ford and Wm. M. Campbell.

The streets and avenues number 222, all graded, and many of them possessing a double line of shade trees. Main street, east and west, is the great artery of the city; west from Cooper street it presents a scene of commercial life similar in many respects to the great thoroughfares of older and larger cities.

The principal business offices, stores and manufacturing establishments number 865, not including the minor houses.

JACKSON CITY POSTOFFICE.

There is no record extant to show at what date the postoffice was established; but it is safe to conclude that very soon after the nucleus of civilization was planted in the “oak openings,” a

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