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appetite for whisky. As a preliminary step to the negotiations,
the commissioners ordered that no spirits should be given to the
Indians. The chief of the latter was a man about a hundred
old, but still of a good constitution. The commissioners urged
every consideration to convince him and the other Indians of the
propriety of the course they had adopted, but in vain. “Father,"
said the old chieftain, we do not care for the land, nor the money,
nor the goods: what we want is whisky; give us whisky.” But
the commissioners were inexorable, and the Indians were forced to
content themselves.

This year (1821) also two Indians were hung for murder. There was some fear that the event would be made by the British an occasion of arousing Indian atrocities in the vicinity, and the petition for the pardon of the wretches was considered by Gov. Cass with a great deal of embarrassment. He finally concluded to let the law take its course, and accordingly, Dec. 25, the murderers were hung.

In 1822 six new counties were created, namely, Lapeer, Sanilac, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Washtenaw and Lenawee; and they contained much more territory then they do at the present day. This year the first stage line was established in the Territory, connecting the county seat of Macomb county with the steamer “ Walk-in-theWater” at Detroit.

In 1823 Congress changed the form of Territorial government, abrogating the legislative power of the governor and judges and establishing a “ Legislative Council,” to consist of nine members, appointed by the President of the United States out of 18 candidates elected by the people. By the same act the term of judicial office was limited to four years, and eligibility to office was made to require the same qualifications as the right to suffrage. The people now took new interest in their government, and felt encouraged to lay deeper the foundations of future prosperity. The first legislative council under the new regime met at Detroit June 7, 1824, when Gov. Cass delivered his message, reviewing the progress of the Territory, calling attention to the needs of popular education and recommending a policy of governmental administration. During this year he also called the attention of the general Government to the mineral resources of the Superior region, and asked for gov. ernmental explorations therein. At its second session after this, Congress authorized a commission to treat with the Indians of the upper peninsula for permission to explore that country.

In 1825 the Erie canal was completed from the Hudson river to Buffalo, N. Y., and the effect was to increase materially the flow of people and wealth into the young Territory of Michigan. The citizens of the East began to learn the truth concerning the agricultural value of this peninsula, and those in search of good and permanent homes came to see for themselves, and afterward came with their friends or families to reinain as industrious residents, to develop a powerful State. The number in the Territorial council

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was increased to 13, to be chosen by the President from 26 persons elected by the people. In 1827 an act was passed authorizing the electors to choose their electors directly, without the further sanction of either the President or Congress. The power of enacting laws was given to the council, subject, however, to the approval of Congress and the veto of the Governor. This form of Territorial government remained in force until Michigan was organized as a State in 1837. William Woodbridge was Secretary of the Territory during the administration of Gov. Cass, and deserves great credit for the ability with which he performed the duties of his office. In the absence of the chief executive he was acting governor, and a portion of the time he represented the Territory as a delegate to Congress. In 1828 he was succeeded by James Witherell, and in two years by Gen. John T. Mason.

In 1831 Gen. Cass was appointed Secretary of War in the cabinet of President Jackson, after having served Michigan as its chief executive for 18 years. He had been appointed six times, running through the presidency of Madison, Monroe and John Q. Adams, without any opposing candidate or a single vote against him in the senate. He faithfully discharged his duties as Indian commissioner and concluded 19 treaties with the Indians, acquiring large cessions of territory in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. He was a practical patriot of whom the people of the peninsular State justly feel proud. Probably more than any other man, Gen. Cass was the father of Michigan.

GEN. GEO. B. PORTER'S ADMINISTRATION.

On the promotion of Gen. Cass to a seat in the cabinet of President Jackson and his consequent resignation as Governor of Michigan, Gen. Geo. B. Porter was appointed Governor in July, 1831, and Sept. 22 following he entered upon the duties of the office. The population of the Territory at this time was about 35,000, prosperity was reigning all around and peace everywhere prevailed, except that in 1832 the Black Hawk war took place in Illinois, but did not affect this peninsula. In this war, however, Gov. Porter co-operated with other States in furnishing militia.

While Gov. Porter was the chief executive, Wisconsin was detached from Michigan and erected into a separate Territory; many new townships were organized and wagon roads opened and improved; land began to rise rapidly in value, and speculators multiplied. The council provided for the establishment and regulation of common schools, incorporated “The Lake Michigan Steamboat Company," with a capital of $40,000; and incorporated the first railroad company in Michigan, the Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad Company," since called the “ Michigan Central.” The original corporators were, John Biddle, John R. Williams, Charles Larned, E. P. Hastings, Oliver Newberry, De Garmo James, James Abbott, John Gilbert, Abel Millington, Job Gorton, John Allen,

Anson Brown, Samuel W. Dexter, W. E. Perrine, Wm. A. Thompson, Isaac Crary. O. W. Colden, Caleb Eldred, Cyrus Lovell, Calvin Brittain and Talman Wheeler. The act of incorporation required that the road should be completed within 30 years; this condition was complied with in less than one-third of that time. The same council also incorporated the “Bank of the River Raisin," with a branch at Pontiac. Previous to this two other banks had been chartered, namely: the “Bank of Michigan," in 1817, with a branch at Bronson, and the “ Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan,' with a branch at St. Joseph.

The Legislative Council of 1834 also authorized a vote of the residents to be taken on the question of organizing as a State and becoming a member of the Union; but the vote was so light and the majority so small that Congress neglected to consider the inatter seriously until two years afterward.

During Porter's administration a change was made in the method of disposing of the public lands, greatly to the benefit of the actual settlers. Prior to 1820 the Government price of land was $2 an acre, one-fourth to be paid down and the remainder in three annual installments; and the land was subject to forfeiture if these payments were not promptly made. This system having been found productive of many serious evils, the price of land was put at $1.25 an acre, all to be paid at the time of purchase. This change saved a deal of trouble.

During the administration of Gov. Porter occurred the “Black Hawk” war, mainly in Illinois, in 1832, which did not affect Michigan to any appreciable extent, except to raise sundry fears by the usual alarms accompanying war gossip. A few volunteers probably went to the scene of action from this Territory, but if any systematic account was ever kept of this service, we fail to find it.

In October, 1831, Edwin Jerome left Detroit with a surveying party composed of John Mullet, surveyor, and Utter, Brink and Peck, for that portion of Michigan Territory lying west of Lake Michigan, now Wisconsin. Their outfit consisted of a French pony team and a buffalo wagon to carry tent, camp equipage, blankets, etc. Most of the way to the southeast corner of Lake Michigan they followed a wagon track or an Indian trail, and a cabin or an Indian hut to lodge in at night; but west of the point mentioned they found neither road nor inhabitant. They arrived at Chicago in a terrible rain and “put-up” at the fort. This farfamed city at that time had but five or six houses, and they were built of logs. Within a distance of three or fönr miles of the fort the land was valued by its owners at 50 cents an acre.

After 23 days' weary travel through an uninhabited country, fording and swimming streams and exposed to much rainy weather, they arrived at Galena, where they commenced their survey, but in two days the ground froze so deep that further work was abandoned until the next spring. The day after the memorable Stillman battle with Black Hawk, while the Mullet party were crossing the Blue mounds, they met an Indian half-chief, who had just arrived from the Menominee camps with the details of the battle. He stated the slain to be three Indians and 11 whites. The long shaking of hands and the extreme cordiality of this Indian alarmed Mullet for the safety of his party, but he locked the secret in his own heart until the next day. They had just completed a town corner when Mullet, raising himself to his full height, said, “ Boys, I'm going in; I'll not risk my scalp for a few paltry shillings.” This laconic speech was an electric shock to the whole company. Mr. Jerome, in describing his own sensations, said that the hair of his head then became as porcupine quills, raising his hat in the air and himself from the ground; and the top of his head becaine as sore as a boil.

July 6, 1834, Gov. Porter died, and the administration devolved upon the secretary of the Territory, Stevens T. Mason, during whose time occurred

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This difficulty was inaugurated by a conflict of the acts of Congress from time to time, made either carelessly or in ignorance of th geography of the West and of the language of former public acts. Michigan claimed as her southern boundary a line running from the extreme southern point of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie, which would include Toledo, an important point, as it was the principal terminus of the proposed Wabash & Erie canal. This claim was made by virtue of clauses in the ordinance of 1787. Ohio, on the other hand, claimed that the ordinance had been superseded by the Constitution of the United States, and that Congress had the right to regulate the boundary; also, that the constitution of that State, which had been accepted by Congress, described a line different from that claimed by Michigan. Mr. Woodbridge, the delegate from Michigan, ably opposed in Congress the claim of Ohio, and the committee on public lands decided unanimously in favor of this State; but in the hurry of business no action was taken by Congress and the question remained open. The claim

of Michigan was based principally upon the following points: The ordinance of 1787 declares the acts therein contained “articles of compact between the original States and the people and States in said Territory (northwest of the river Ohio), and forever to remain unalterable, unless by common consent. This ordinance defines the Territory to include all that region lying north and northwest of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi rivers. In the fifth article it is provided that there shall be formed not less than three nor more than five States within its limits. The boundaries of the three States are defined so as to include the whole Territory; conditioned, however, that if it should be found expedient by Congress to form the one or two more States mentioned, Congress is anthorized to alter boundaries of the three States 6

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