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beautiful. The entire cost of both buildings, with all the auxiliary structures, and 195 acres of land, is abont $727,173.90. The buildings were constructed during the war and immediately afterward. The asylum was opened in 1859 for the care of patients, and up to Oct. 1, 1875, there had been expended for the care and maintenance of patients, exclusive of the cost of construction, $994,711.32. Indigent patients are received and treated at the asylumn at the expense of the counties to which they belong, on the certification of the county authorities, the average cost of maintenance being about $4.127 per week. Pay patients are received when there is room for them, the minimum price of board being $5 per week.
EASTERN ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, AT PONTIAC.
These large, beautiful and very modern structures are located upon a farm of upward of 300 acres, and were erected in 1873-'6 at a cost of about $400,000. The general plans are similar to those at Kalamazoo. They are built of brick, with stone window caps, belt-courses, etc. There are accommodations for not less than 300 patients.
Michigan pursues a very enlightened policy toward the .chronic insane. Provisions have been made for the treatment even of the incurable, so that as much good as possible may be done even to the most unfortunate. The design is to cure whenever the nature of the mental malady will permit; but failing this, to cease no effort which could minister to the comfort and welfare of the patient.
The Detroit House of Correction, although a local institution, is used to a considerable extent as an intermediate prison, to which persons are sentenced by the courts throughout the State for minor offenses. Women convicted of felonies are also sentenced to this place. The whole number in confinement at this prison for the past decade has averaged a little over 400 at any one time, more males than females. The average term of confinement is but a little more than two inonths, and the institution is very faithfully conducted.
The State Prison at Jackson is one of the best conducted in the Union. The total value of the property is valued at $552,113. The earnings of the prison in 1878 were $92,378; number of prisoners; 800. Their work is let to contractors, who employ 450 men at different trades. A coal mine has been recently discovered on the prison property, which proves a saving of several thousand dollars per annum to the State. The earnings of this prison since Gen. Wm. Humphrey has been warden (1875) has exceeded its current expenses.
The State Prison at Ionia was established a few years ago for the reception of convicts whose crimes are not of the worst type, and those who are young, but too old for the Reform School. The ground comprises 53 acres of land, 137 of which is enclosed by a brick wall 18 feet high. Estimated value of property, $277,490; current expenses for 1878, $45,744; earnings for 1878, $5,892; number of prisoners Dec. 31, 1878, 250; number received during the
THE STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY
is distinct from the State Agricultural Board, the latter being simply an executive over the Agricultural College under the laws of the State. The former was organized at Lansing March 23, 1849, and was specially incorporated by act of April 2 following, since which time it has numbered among its officers and executive members some of the foremost men of the State. It has held annual fairs in various places, and the number of entries for premiums has risen from 623 to several thousand, and its receipts from $808.50 to $58,780. The premiums offered and awarded have increased pro. portionally.
STATE POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
At an informal meeting of several gentlemen in Grand Rapids Feb. 11, 1870, it was resolved to organize a State pomological society, and at an adjourned meeting on the 26th of the same month, the organization was perfected, and the first officers elected were: H. G. Saunders, President; S. L. Fuller, Treasurer; and A. T. Linderman, Secretary. The society was incorporated April 15, 1871," for the purpose of promoting the interest of pomology, horticulture, agriculture, and kindred sciences and arts. During the first two years monthly meetings were required, but in 1872 quarterly meetings were substituted. It now has a room in the basement of the new capitol. T. T. Lyon, of South Haven, is President, and Charles W. Garfield, of Grand Rapids, Secretary. Under the supervision of this society, Michigan led the world in the centennial exposition at Philadelphia in the exhibition of winter apples. The contributions of this society to pomological literature are also richer than can be found elsewhere in the United States.
Very naturally, the denser population of the white race, as it took possession of this wild country, consumed what they found already abundant long before they commenced to renew the stock. It was so with the forests; it was so with the fish. An abundance of a good variety of fish was found in all our rivers and little lakes by the early settlers, but that abundance was gradually reduced until these waters were entirely robbed of their useful inhabitants. Scarcely a thought of re-stocking the inland waters of this State was entertained until the spring of 1873, when a board of fish commissioners was authorized by law; and while the people generally still shook their heads in skepticism, the board went on with its duty until these same people are made glad with the results.
Under the efficient superintendency of Geo. H. Jerome, of Niles, nearly all the lakes and streams within the lower peninsula have been more or less stocked with shad, white-fish, salmon or lake trout, land-locked or native salmon, eel, etc., and special efforts are also made to propagate that beautiful and useful fish, the grayling, whose home is in the Manistee and Muskegon rivers. Much more is hoped for, however, than is yet realized. Like every other great innovation, many failures must be suffered before the brilliant crown of final success is won.
The value of all the property employed in fish propagation in the State is but a little over $4,000, and the total expenses of con. ducting the business from Dec. 1, 1876, to July 1, 1877, were $14,000.
The principal hatcheries are at Detroit and Pokagon.
TUE MICHIGAN STATE FIREMEN'S ASSOCIATION
was organized April 13, 1875, at Battle Creek, for the protection and promotion of the best interests of the firemen of Michigan, the compilation of fire statistics, the collection of information concerning the practical working of different systems of organization; the examination of the merits of the different kinds of fire apparatus in use, and the improvement in the same; and the cultivation of a fraternal fellowship between the different companies in the State.' The association holds it meetings annually, at various places in the State, and as often publish their proceedings, in pamphlet form.
STATE BOARD OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
This Board was established in 1873, and consists of seven members, appointed by the Governor, the secretary ex officio a member and principal executive officer. It is tbe duty of this Board to make sanitary investigations and inquiries respecting the causes of disease, especially of epidemics; the causes of mortality, and the effects of localities, einployments, conditions, ingesta, habits and circumstances on the health of the people; to advise other officers in regard to the location, drainage, water supply, disposal of excreta, heating and ventilation of any public building; and also to advise all local health officers concerning their duties; and to recommend standard works from time to time on hygiene for the use of public schools. The secretary is required to collect information concerning vital statistics, knowledge respecting diseases and all useful information on the subject of hygiene, and through an annual report, and otherwise, as the Board may direct, to dissemi
nate such information ainong the people. These interesting duties have been performed by Dr. Henry B. Baker from the organization of the Board to the present time. The Board meets quarterly at Lansing.
THE LAND OFFICE
of this State has a great deal of business to transact, as it has within its jurisdiction an immense amount of new land in market, and much more to come in. During the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1877, the total number of acres sold was 50,835.72, for $87,968.05, of which $69,809.54 was paid in hand. At that time the amount of land still owned by the State was 3,049,905.46, of which 2,430,050.47 acres were swamp land, 447,270.89 primary school, 164,402.55 Agricultural College, 310.26 University, 160" Normal School, 2,115.63 Salt Spring, 1,840 Asylum, 32.40 State building, 3,342.75 asset, and 380.31 internal improvement. But of the foregoing, 1,817,084.25 acres, or more than half, are not in market.
Territorial Library, 1828–1835.-The first knowledge that we have of this library, is derived from the records found in the printed copies of the journals and documents of the Legislative Councils of the Territory, and in the manuscript copies of the executive journals.
The library was established by an act of the Legislative Council, approved June 16, 1828, authorizing the appointment of a librarian by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Council.
The librarian so appointed was required to take an oath of office and give bond to the treasurer of the Territory in the sun of $1,000, for the faithful performance of his duties; his time of service was for two years or until another be appointed.
The librarian was also required to take charge of the halls and committee room, and other property appertaining to the Legislative Council. He was also required to make an annual report to the Councii, upon the state of the library, and upon all such branches of duty as might from time to time be committed to his charge. For his services he was to receive annually the sum of $100.
The library seemed to have been kept open only during the actual sittings of the Legislative Council.
The executive journal by its records shows that under the provisions of this act, William B. Hunt was appointed librarian İnly 3, 1828, by Gov. Lewis Cass, for the term of two years. Mr. Hunt continued to act as librarian until March 7, 1834, when Gersham Mott Williams was appointed by Gov. Porter. Mr. Williams seems to have acted as librarian until the organization of the institution as a State library.
The honored names of Henry B. Schoolcraft, Charles Moran, Daniel S. Bacon, Calvin Brittain, Elon Farnsworth, Charles C. Has
call and others are found in the list of the members of the Library committee.
March, 1836, the State library was placed in charge of the Secretary of State; in February, 1837, it was given to the care of the private secretary of the Governor; Dec. 28 following its custody was given to the Governor and Secretary of State, with power to appoint a librarian and make rules and regulations for its government. O. C. Jackson acted as the first librarian for the State. Lewis Bond also had the care of the books for a time. Oren Marsh was appointed librarian in 1837, and had the office several years. In March, 1840, the law was again changed, and the library was placed in the care of the Secretary of State, and the members of the Legislature and executive officers of the State were to have free access to it at all times.
State Library.-The library was of course increased from time to time by Legislative appropriations. In 1844, as the result of the efforts of Alexandre Vattemare, from Paris, a system of international exchanges was adopted.
April 2, 1850, an act was passed requiring the Governor to appoint a State librarian with the consent of the Senate, and it was made the duty of the librarian to have the sole charge of the library. This act, with some amendments, still remains in force. It requires the librarian to make biennial reports and catalogues. The librarians under this act have been: Henry Tisdale, April 2, 1850, to Jan. 27, 1851; Charles J. Fox, to July 1, 1853; Charles P. Bush, to Dec. 5, 1854; John James Bush, to Jan. 6, 1855; DeWitt C. Leach, to Feb. 2, 1857; George W. Swift, to Jan. 27, 1859; J. Eugene Tenney, to April 5, 1869; and Mrs. Harriet A. Tenney to the present time. This lady has proved to be one of the best librarians in the United States. She has now in her charge about 60,000 volumes, besides thousands of articles in the new and rapidly growing museum department. She is also Secretary of the “ Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan,” and has charge of the books, papers and relics collected by that society. The library and these museums are now kept in the new State capitol at Lansing, in a series of rooms constructed for the purpose, and are all arranged in the most convenient order and with the neatest taste.
The earliest effort for the establishment of a bank within the present limits of the State of Michigan was in 1805. The act of Con. gress establishing the Territory of Michigan conferred legislative powers on the Governor and judges; and at their first session as a Board, a petition for an act incorporating a bank was presented to them. This was at a time when the local business conld scarcely have demanded a banking institution, or have afforded much promise of its success. The small town of Detroit had just been laid in ashes, and the population of the entire Territory was inconsidera