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in The United States, since our last Contest with Great Britain, and one upon which I am anxious that there should exist no difference of opinion. The principle, upon which the right of exclusion from any specific Port is founded, is the temporary sovereignty acquired by the presence of the Force of one Belligerent, competent, as to the other, to controul the mouth of such Port, or Harbour. Hence, it is obvious that, to the legal exercise of the rights growing out of the Blockade, the Force must be permanent in its Station.
There will offer a conveyance to The United States, in a few days, of which I could wish to avail myself, as well to satisfy the President of the strict adherence to principles maintained by his Excellency the Supreme Director, as to defeat the effect of rumours that must have a pernicious tendency at home. The Hon. Joaquin de Echeverria,
J. B. PREVOST. Secretary of State of the Republick of Chili.
(Inclosure 2.)-General O'Higgins to Mr. Prevost. MY DEAR SIR,
St. Jago de Chili, 23d June, 1821. I
much obliged to you for the indication which favours me with your Note of this day. You might be sure of my Resolution about the necessity of an actual Force to be stationed at the sight of the Ports that are to constitute the Blockade. This very moment I am answering Sir Thomas Hardy about this point, declaring that must be considered as such, the Ports from Pisco to Ancon, and orders will be dispatched to the Vice-Admiral, Lord Cochrane, and General San Martin, by the first safe conduct.
By next Tuesday's Post to Valparaiso, will be sent to you, by the Minister of State, all what has occurred about the matter; meanwhile
I remain, &c. J. B. Prevost, Esq.
(15.)-Mr. Hogan to the Secretary of State. (Extract.)
Valparaiso, 18th August, 1821. I have now the honour to inform you that, on the 13th instant, a Dispatch Vessel arrived here from Callao, which Place she left on the 23d ultimo, with advices to this Government, of the surrender of Lima to General San Martin, and of the Inhabitants having sworn to the Independence of the Place. On the 12th July, the Spanish Troops proceeded to the mountains with their General, who first placed a garrison of 2,000 Men in Callao, which Place had not surrendered when the Dispatch came away, but could not be expected to hold out, as there was not more than a week's provision in the Fortress, which was to be attacked by land and by sea from the Squadron. The sufferings of the People in Lima for want of bread-stuffs and other food had been great; but there is no publick Gazette issued explanatory of the pro
ceedings, and the private Letters are so short and unsatisfactory, it is impossible to say, to what extent they had carried their attachment to Royalty, or, rather, their opposition to being conquered by the Forces of Chili, which they had even treated and considered as an inferior People, not entitled to the enjoyment of equal rights with themselves. To expect them to submit tamely to the dictation of this slip of Country is, I believe, more than will be realized, although there can never be any doubt of the Country of South America facing the Pacifick Ocean being for ever free from the Government of Old Spain.
An additional export duty of 15 per cent. is laid by this Government upon all articles shipped from this Port for Lima; many Vessels are in Port ready to depart as soon as permitted. The Constellation was at Callao, and may (by report only) be expected here soon.
Mr. Prevost is expected from Santiago, to embark by the first Vessel from Lima. I send this Letter in duplicate by 2 Ships bound this day to London, in the hope that either may be put on board of some Vessel bound to The United States. I have also written to Mr. Rush by them, requesting he may communicate the information by the earliest opportunity.
Soon after my arrival here I wrote to Captain Ridgely, requesting he would use his endeavours to inform you, by way of Panama, of the fall of that important Section of South America, which I doubt not will be the first Communication you will receive. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
(16.)-Act of the Independence of Peru.-Lima, 15th July, 1821.
In the Royal City of Peru, 15th July, 1821. THE Señors who compose the same, having yesterday assembled in the Most Excellent Senate, with the Most Excellent and Most Illustrious Señor the Archbishop of this Holy Metropolitan Church, the Prelates of the religious Convents, Titulars of Castile, and various neighbours of this Capital, for the purpose of fulfilling what had been provided in the Official Letter of the Most Excellent Señor the General in Chief of the Liberator Army of Peru, D. José de San Martin, dated Yesterday, the contents of which were read; and the same being reduced to what Persons of known probity, learning, and patriotism, who inhabit this Capital, would express, if the general opinion for Independence had been resolved on, which vote would serve as a guide to the said General for proceeding to take the Oath : All the Señors, agreeing for themselves, and satisfied of the opinion of the Inhabitants of the Capital, declared, that the general will was decided for the Independence of Peru of the Spanish Dominion, and of any other Foreign Dominion whatever, and that they would proceed to its sanction by means of the corresponding
oath. It was compared with a certified Copy of this Act to the same most Excellent Señor, and the Señors signed it.
THE COUNT OF SAN ISIDRO.
(17.)-Mr. Brent to the Secretary of State. Sir,
Madrid, 10th July, 1821. The late Session of the Cortes had far advanced when most of the Deputies from Mexico arrived. They had been detained 2 months at Vera Cruz by the Commander of the Frigate Pronta, and were at last obliged to make the best of their way to Spain in Foreign Vessels, running every risk, and incurring great expense. They had not been long in Madrid when they began to press their Claims, and on the 3d of May, Count Toreno, one of the most distinguished Members of the Cortes of Old Spain, a friend, as is supposed, to their Cause, made a motion in the Cortes, that a Special Committee be appointed, composed of Deputies of Ultramar and Europe, to consider of, and propose, conjointly with the Executive, such Measures as they should deem most proper “to terminate the dissentions prevailing in the various Parts of America.” This Motion was agreed to, and the Committee appointed.
While this Committee were engaged in their important duties, the news was received, about the beginning of June, of the Insurrection of Iturbide, and the form of Government proposed by him to be adopted, Copy of which I transmit, (marked A,) and, in consequence of a Resolution offered by an American Deputy, the Ministers appeared, on the 4th June, before the Cortes, to give an account of the occurrences that had taken place in New Spain. The American Deputies availed themselves of this occasion to shew to the Cortes, and Executive, the impracticability of the Provinces of America being governed as those of the Peninsula, according to the provisions of the Constitution, on account of their great distance from the Metropolis; proved the necessity of adopting prompt and efficacious measures, and pressed the Government and Committee to come to an early decision.
They then moved that the Government should be requested to direct, without delay, the Vice-Roy of Mexico to inform Iturbide that the Cortes were occupied in projecting a Plan of Government for America, and propose a suspension of hostilities, until the Resolution should be finally made
by the Cortes and Executive. It was stated that, should this step be taken, they were perfectly convinced that Iturbide, and those under his standard, would suspend hostilities, the moment they knew that the Deputies of New Spain had arrived at the Capital in time to be able to make the " just reclamations of those Spaniards.” This was not agreed to. A Resolution was then offered and adopted, directing that the Minister of Ultramar,“ in consideration of the state of New Spain, should propose the measures he might think proper, whilst the Cortes were occupied in taking radical ones for its complete pacification."
The Committee laboured with great assiduity, and had various Conferences with the Ministers, who, at first, coincided in the opinions advanced, and in the arrangement proposed by it to be adopted, in regard to Spanish America, and which would have been satisfactory to the American Deputies. When, however, it was laid before the King, he was strenuously opposed to it; on the ground, as he informed them, that the arrangement contemplated would be a violation of the Constitution; that the publick opinion was not prepared for it; that it was against the interest, both of the Peninsula and America ; and finally, he spoke of the opposition that might be made to it by Foreign Powers, since they had not been consulted. In consequence of this, the accord between the Ministers and Committee ceased; and, as according to the Resolutions of Count Toreno, which gave rise to the appointment of the Committee, it being unauthorized without the concurrence of the Executive to offer any Plan, none was proposed to the Cortes. The Committee made their Report to the Cortes on the 24th June, (Copy marked B.) and state that the Government, not believing that the moment had arrived of convenience and necessity for the adoption of certain measures, they can do nothing more than excite the zeal of the Ministers, to the end that the wished-for moment may be accelerated, and recommend that the Executive should be pressed “ to present to their deliberations, with the greatest dispatch, the Fundamental Measures they may think proper, as well for the just and complete pacification of the revolted Provinces of America, as to secure to all of them the enjoyment of a firm and solid happiness.”
The disappointment and vexation of the American Deputies at this result, was proportionate to the flattering hopes that had been excited by the unanimity of sentiment that prevailed at the first Conferences of the Ministers and Committee. They then determined to present, themselves, a Plan to the Cortes, having the object in view, and the Propositions (Copy marked C.) were made on the 25th June; which, in substance, are the same as those that had at first met the approbation of the Ministers.
These Propositions are, that there shall be three Divisions made of America. In each a Cortes, having the powers delegated by the Constitution to the General Cortes, with the exception of the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th powers, that part of the seventh relative to the sanction
of Treaties, and the second part of the 22d power: In each Division, a Delegate, appointed by the King, from among the Persons most distinguished for their high qualifications, not excluding Members of the Royal Family, removeable at his will, who shall exercise, in the name of the King, the Executive Power, to be inviolable with respect to the American Cortes, and only responsible to the King and General Cortes : In each, 4 Ministers; of the Interior, of Finance, of Grace and Justice, and of War and Marine : In each, a Supreme Tribunal of Justice, and a Council of State. The Commerce between the Peninsula and America, to be considered as from one Province to another. And the Inhabitants of the latter to have equal eligibility with those of the former to all publick Employments.
New Spain binds herself to pay 200,000,000 of reals in 6 years, and contribute annually 40,000,000 of reals to the support of the Navy. The other Parts of America to contribute in the manner that shall be subsequently arranged. New Spain will also pay all the Debt contracted within its Territory, and all publick property to belong to it. On the Sitting of the 25th June, two of the Deputies offered an Amendment to the 5th Article, having for object to prevent the Appointment of Delegates being conferred on any of the Royal Family.
These Propositions were preceded by an Exposé read in the Cortes, a Copy of which I transmit herewith. In it they state that “they desire the Constitution, which ought to make them happy, but which in the actual state of things, they consider to be a beautiful theory, that can only be reduced to practice in the Peninsula. The Americans are freemen,-are Spaniards; have the same Rights as the Peninsulars: they are acquainted with, and have sufficient virtue to support them.
The measure recommended by the Committee, to request the Government to present a Plan at an early period, has been acted upon, as you will perceive by the King's Speech, in which he says that his Government, “urged by the Cortes to propose the measures they may think proper
for their welfare, on a consideration of the state of those Countries, will do so immediately, and with all possible generosity." These will, without doubt, be proposed on the meeting of the Cortes Extraordinary, which the Speech of the President of the Cortes to the King will have shewn you is to take place. It is supposed that its convocation will not be delayed longer than the 1st of October, if so long.
You will perceive that the Deputies do not demand an acknowledyment of Independence, and pretend not even to aspire to it; and they have declared in the Cortes, on the 4th June, that if the Revolutionists desire Independence, it is because means have not been devised that should make the welfare of those Provinces compatible with their Union with the Peninsula.
The Commissioners of Bolivar, who are still here, on the contrary, insist upon the acknowledgment of their Independence as the basis of