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among the Inhabitants of Colombia, and to maintain among Foreign Nations the respect and reputation of the Authorities of the Republick, which the Agents of Ferdinand the Seventh have constantly defamed, by circulating, through the medium of the Press, the most infamous falsehoods against them. He had no other means of realizing bis object but by exposing to the impartial World the perfidious conduct which the Peninsular Government had incessantly observed towards the Americans; and, to the incontrovertible manner in which he did so, by the Proclamation which he addressed to the Spaniards on the 25th of April, from the City of Barinas, is partly due the success of the Republican Arms in Colombia and in Peru.
The Inhabitants of Colombia, after 11 Years of a War, as unjust as cruel and destructive, guided by the genius of their Liberator President, have achieved the liberty and independence of their Country without the least Foreign aid; have given themselves a popular and representative Government, and a Constitution well calculated to preserve the principles of liberty and equality, and to promote the general prosperity.
With respect to the ability and capacity of Colombia to maintain its Independence, no well-founded doubt can arise upon that point, if we consider, on the one hand, the great Population of the Republick, which exceeds 3,600,000 Souls, the extent of its Territory, its natural and artificial resources, and its situation; and, on the other, the great military talent displayed by its Generals and Officers, and the discipline and valour manifested by its Troops on all occasions, but particularly in the celebrated Battles of Boyaca and Carabobo, in the Capture of St. Martha, defended by 17 exterior batteries, all taken by assault, and the reduction of the Fortresses of Carthagena and Cumana.
Some idea may be also formed of the degree of splendour, power, and future prosperity, of the New Republick, by considering it placed in the centre of the Universe, with an extent of coast of 1,200 miles on the Atlantic, from the Orinoco to the Isthmus of Darien, and of 700 miles on the Pacific Ocean, from Panama to Bahia de Tumbez; and exempt, at all seasons, from any of those dreadful hurricanes which cause such disasters in the Antilles, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in other places.
The great Canals which are formed by the River Orinoco and its tributary Streams, the Sulia, with the Lake of Maracaybo, the Magdalena, the Cauca, and the Atrato, which all empty into the Atlantic, render Colombia the most favoured part of the Universe for interior navigation; and, by a union of all climates, unites, also, in great abundance, the productions of the three kingdoms of Nature.
Agriculture is farther advanced in Colombia than in any other part of Continental America, formerly Spanish, and its products of exportation, which consist chiefly of cocoa, coffee, indigo, tobacco of
Barinas, and some cotton, are of a quality superior to those of other Countries, except the cotton. With respect to the precious metals, Colombia is inferior neither to Mexico nor Peru, with the advantage that their discovery is more easy and less expensive. She also unites, by prolonged Canals, two Oceans which Nature had separated ; and, by her proximity to The United States and to Europe, appears to have been destined, by the Author of Nature, as the centre of the empire of the human family.
Under these auspices it was, that the New Republick took her rank among other free, sovereign, and independent Nations, and that I had the honour, in my Note to you, Sir, of the 20th of February last, to solicit the Recognition of her Independence, on the part of the President of The United States; which request I repeat anew in this.
The glory and the satisfaction of being the first to recognize the Independence of a New Republick in the South of this Continent belongs, in all respects and considerations, to the Government of The United States; and this Recognition would be, after all, but a measure, which the humanity, the justice, and the convenience and interest, of this Nation, demand.
Reduced, as Spain is, to an absolute inability to continue the War, her pride wishes an opening, perhaps, to meet with a pretext for making her peace with the Americans, and nothing would better answer her purpose, than the Recognition of the Independence of Colombia by the Federal Government.
On the other hand, if the War between Spain and Colombia must continue, the Law of Neutrality of The United States would operate with equality with respect to both Belligerents, which was not and cannot be the case, whilst this Government does not recognize the Independence of the New Republick. Lastly, between The United States and Colombia, there never can exist a competition or rivalship in agriculture, commerce, and navigation, because Colombia has no mercantile Navy, nor can she form one for many years, and the products of exportation of her agriculture are entirely different from those which are cultivated in The United States. She wants annually 20,000 barrels of flour, and other provisions, from these States, for which she pays in coffee, indigo, hides in the hair, and in money, according as the intercourse between the two countries is favourable to the agriculture of both.
The political events of Peru and Mexico render the Recognition of the Independence of Colombia urgent, on account of the great confidence with which this Act would inspire those Nations to establish popular Representative Governments. All South America formerly Spanish, is emancipated, that is, upwards of 11,000,000 of Souls: this has given a new importance to the New World, and now they are no
longer afraid of the machinations of the Holy Alliance to keep America dependent upon Europe, and to prevent the establishment of Free Governments.
The present political state of New Spain requires the most earnest attention of the Government of The United States: there has occurred a project, long since formed, to establish a Monarchy in Mexico, on purpose to favour the views of the Holy Alliance in the New World: this is a new reason which ought to determine the President of The United States no longer to delay a measure, which will naturally establish an American Alliance, capable of counteracting the projects of the European Powers, and of protecting our Republican Institutions. My Government has entire confidence in the prudence of the President, in his disposition to favour the cause of the Liberty and of the Independence of South America, and in his great experience in the management of publick business.
Confined, for about 3 months past, to my bed or my chamber, by a grievous indisposition, which still gives me very few moments of repose, it has not been in my power to address this Communication to you
I have the honour to remain, &c. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
(22.)-Don Manuel Torres to the Secretary of State.--(Translation.)
Philadelphia, 30th December, 1821. The General Congress of the Republick of Colombia, in the Session of the 6th of September, appointed the Liberator and Captain General, Simon Bolivar, President of the State, and General Fran. cisco de Paula Santander, Vice President, for the constitutional term of 4 years; and on the 3d of October they took possession of their respective Magistracies, after having taken the Oath prescribed by the Constitution.
The Functions of the Executive Power devolved, from the 10th of said October, on the Vice President of the State, agreeably to the 158th Article of the Constitution, in consequence of the Liberator President having taken the command of the Armies of the Republick.
The Supreme Government has fixed its residence in the City of Bogota, in virtue of a Deeree of the General Congress, of the 8th of the same October; and, by another Decree of the Liberator President, of the 7th, the Señor Pedro Gual has been appointed Secretary of State and Foreign Relations of the Government of Colombia.
I communicate this to you, Sir, that you may be pleased to communicate it to the President of The United States.
I renew to you, &c. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
(23.)-Don Manuel Torres to the Secretary of State.-(Translation.) SIR,
Philadelphia, 2d January, 1822. In the Official Note which I addressed to you, on the 20th of February of the last year, soliciting the Recognition of the Republick of Colombia, on the part of the President of The United States, I represented how important it was to my Government to know the de. termination of The United States respecting the said demand.
In that which I had the honour to transmit to you, dated the 30th of November last, I repeated the substance of that of the 20th of February, and I suggested some additional powerful reasons which urgently required the positive knowledge of the decision of the President of The United States, in regard to a question of so much importance to my Government in the present circumstances, for the regulation of its polítical and commercial relations with other Nations.
I ought not to conceal, Sir, my pain, in being compelled to distract your attention by requesting, once more, an Answer to my former Notes. This course, under all circumstances an indispensable duty of my station, has been rendered the more urgent by the Negotiations for Peace between Colombia and Spain, having lost all their importance, in consequence of the Peninsular Government tenaciously persisting in its extravagant and unjust pretensions, at the very time of its most absolute incapacity and impotence, to invade the Territory of the Republick, or to prevent the prosperity which its Inhabitants now begin to enjoy; a blessing of the Independence which they have gained by their arms, and of the Liberty which their Constitution secures to them.
The present state of my health does not yet permit me to visit the Capital; but I shall do as soon as I can undertake the journey without inconvenience.
Be pleased, Sir, to accept, &c. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
(24.)--The Secretary of State to Don Manuel Torres. SIR,
Department of State, Washington, 18th January, 1822. In reference to your Letters of the 30th of November last, and the 2d of this Month, I have the honour of informing you, that the subject to which they relate, is under the consideration of the President of The United States, whose definitive decision concerning it shall, when taken, be forthwith communicated to you. In the mean time, should you receive Advices of the Surrender of Porto Cavello, and the Isthmus of Panama, I have to request you would favour me with the information of those events as early as may suit your convenience.
I pray you, &c. Don Manuel Torres.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.
(25.) - James Smith Wilcocks, Esq. to the Secretary of State. SIR,
Mexico, 25th October, 1821. The love of my Country, the spring of every noble and generous action, induces me to communicate to you, for the information of the President, and for the benefit that may result to the Government and Citizens of The United States, the following circumstantial and exact Account of the happy Revolution that has lately occurred in this Kingdom of New Spain, which, by the blessing of God, the intrepidity, talents, and exertions, of its Patriotic Chief, General Don Augustin Iturbide, the enlightened policy of its Mother Country, and the liberal and philanthropic ideas of its late Captain General Don Juan O'Donoju, has ended in its complete and entire Emancipation.
That you may have a clear and distinct view of the subject, be fully impressed with the justice of the Cause of this hitherto afflicted and oppressed People, and have also a general idea of the face of the Country, its Inhabitants, productions, &c., it may not be improper to state, that, since its Conquest, which, if my memory serves me, was in the Year 1521, it has been governed by 62 Viceroys, and innumerable Commandant Generals, Governors, and Superintendents of Provinces, who, according to general tradition, have been, with very few exceptions, as many merciless and mercenary Tyrants, the rapacity and unfeeling barbarity of which nothing could have withstood for such a length of time, but a Land enriched by the beautiful hand of Nature to a most extraordinary degree, and a People born and brought up, until of late, in all the intolerance of superstition and ignorance, and accustomed from its earliest infancy to the innumerable, and I may say, almost incredible iinpositions, of both Church and State.
Few Foreigners have, perhaps, had an opportunity of seeing as much of the Kingdom as myself, having travelled on horseback from the Port of Guayınas, on the Gulf of California, to almost every part of Sonora, and afterwards through the Provinces and Superintendencies of New Biscay, New Galicia, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, and Mexico, to this City; a distance at least of 700 Leagues, passing through all the principal Cities, visiting the most celebrated Mines, and conversing familiarly with all Classes of People.
The Provinces of Puebla, Mexico, Mechoacan, San Luis Potosi, and Guanajuato, may be termed the central ones, and of those I have seen, the best watered, most fertile, most productive, and most inhabited: those that border on the Gulf of Mexico are Merida de Yucatan, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, New Santandero, and Texas; the second, from all accounts, beautiful in the extreme, and the third and last
very fertile, but almost entirely uncultivated : those on the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, New Galicia, Sinaloa, and Sonora,