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STATE EDUCATION IN THE OLD WORLD.

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came educational centres. Their public schools were of high grade. It is claimed by some that Charles had in mind the building of great universities at these places, after the manner of those at Athens and Alexandria. Howerer, this is merely supposition, although as a result of the schools at these places great universities did spring up; not in the relation of cause and effect, for long centuries of misrule had obliterated Charles' educational foundations and left barely the marks of civic progress. But these marks of progress in the centres of wealth, industry, and historic interest rendered these places desirable points for the congregation of students. “And whether his school at Paris be called a university or not, he laid principles of which a university is a result in that he aimed to educate all classes, and undertook all sub-' jects of teaching." In these municipal centres were formed the early universities by the concourse of students. These universities had a natural development; it is not possible to say they were the product of the church or of the state. Perhaps the greatest organized influence came from the Cathedral and Benedictine schools coupled with Saracenic influences. But there sprung up with these schools of special learning an anti-monastic spirit, and each school drew students according to its specialty, law at Bologna, medicine at Salerno, and philosophy and theology at Paris.

One remarkable fact is that the education of the clergy and the laity, church education and civil education, were both in the hands of the state, that is, in those of the emperor. The first charter of the University of Paris was granted by Philip Augustus in 1199; this exempted its members from the ordinary tribunals and from the tribunals of the church. The University of Bologna, though not older than Paris, was chartered with the same privileges in 1158 by Frederick I (Barbarossa). Frederick II, Emperor of the Romans, founded the University of Naples. The sovereign power called certain masters or doctors to act as professors, to some if not to all of whom he granted salaries. The university was founded by the state solely and under the control of the sovereign, while the professors were freed from taxes and from military service, and had other immunities granted them,

Students prepared in these universities of Italy for high offices in church and in state. "From this time," says Hallam, speaking of the first charters, “ the golden age of universities commenced; and it is hard to say whether they were favored more by their sovereigns than by the see of Rome.” However, this is immaterial as the rules then were, whether civil or ecclesiastical, the state, and the benefactions of popes and kings came from the public treasury, and primarily from the people. Whether the great universities of Paris, and Bologna, Os.ford,

1 Newman, The Office and Work of Universities, 230.
Hallam, Middle Ages, II, 420.
Laurie, Rise and Constitution of Universities, 120.

Pavia, and Prague and others were endowed by kings or princes, bishops or popes, the funds came from the masses of the people.

The great universities of England were patronized by kings, although their modern support has been from private rather than public sources. It is thought that the learned Alfred founded a school at Oxford and made it a centre of learning; but it is known that Oxford was chartered with privileges by King Johnin the thirteenth century. Subsequently the universities secured favors and royal patronage from the Henrys and the Edwards. They have grown to be national in their character, and through their great public influence and modern university extension are rapidly becoming popular institutions in the best sense of the term. Cambridge was founded “for the study of learning and knowledge and for the better service of church and state," while Oxford, London, and others have filled the same office. The incomes of Oxford and Cambridge for the year 1887 were £256,475 and £346,550, respectively. In the year 1874 Great Britian appropriated for her universi. ties £52,027.

The University of Leyden, so often referred to as the product of the self-sacrifice of a noble people, was created and endowed by the Dutch Republic. It was granted as a reward to the people of Leyden for their heroic defence of their city against the crafty Spaniards in the darkest hours of, their national struggle (1575).

The most complete state system of schools of modern times is found in Germany. As early as 1794 the common law of the Prussian states declared schools and universities to be state institutions, and set up a system of laws controlling the whole plan of instruction. In the development of modern Germany the growth of the public school system has kept abreast of every reform, and has been one of the strongest forces for the rebuilding of the nation. Later, when Pfussia was humbled by the cruel tyranny of Napoleon, her army destroyed, industries suppressed, country depopulated by war, and devastated by the ruthless track of the invader, the memorable words of the King, William III, were prophetic of the future of United Germany: "Although we have lost territory, power, and prestige, still we must strive to regain what we have lost by acquiring intellectual and moral power; and, therefore, it is my earnest desire and will to re-establish the nation by devoting a most earnest attention to the education of the masses of the people.

The state must regain in mental force what it has lost in physical force. 6

*

1 C. K. Adams, Washington and the Higher education. H. B. Adams, The State and Higher Education. Address Department of Superintendence of the National Educational Association, Washington, March 8, 1889,

Laurie, 120.
3 Edward II founded Oriel College, Oxford, in 1326,
* Whitaker's Almanac, 1889.
Public Instruction in Prussia, Barnard, Secondary Schools.
• Proclamation of Frederick William III, 1807.

STATE EDUCATION IN THE OLD WORLD.

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Behind this sentiment were strong men and philosophers who saw on what hung the destiny of Germany. Fichte proclaimed that “ Education is the only means by which we can be rescued from our helpless condition."

“I hope to convince Germans that nothing but education can rescue us from the miseries that overwhelm us." "Education as hitherto conducted by the church has aimed only at securing for men happiness in another life; but this was not enough, for men need to be taught how to bear themselves in the present life so as to do their duty to the state, to others, and themselves." Fichte touched the vulnerable point of the mediæral education. There soon came into being a great university, situated at the seat of the government of the kingdom. Berlin has the greatest direct power of all the universities in Europe. It brings together yearly more than five thousand students from the empire. In 1874 the government of Prussia appropriated $242,054.80 for the support of the University of Berlin. Of the entire income of the Prussian universities in 1883–84, amounting to 8,103,000 marks, 613,000 were contributed by the state. It is true that the University of Berlin, though differing from all others in some particulars, was a part of a great system of which the University of Prague was the first in Germany; and, indeed, it was the first formally-founded university in Europe, if we except Naples and Palencia.3

Prague was founded by Charles IV, in 1348, and embraced a studium generale of all the faculties. It was not founded like Berlin in response to a national demand, but after the idea of Charles IV who, having been educated at Paris, returned to set up a university in his own realm, after obtaining a bull from the pope. Indeed, the whole course of mediæval universities shows the pope to be the universal arbiter on questions of difficulty, whether he had founded the univer. sities or not. Charles IV appointed the Archbishop of Prague chancellor, and called from different parts of the educated world learned professors in the several departments, giving endowments for their support. Other universities followed, endowed by the state or the church, until now no less than twenty-one, patterned more or less after the original design of the first, are distributed over Germany, calling to their halls many of the brightest students of the empire and of other countries.

In this brief review of state education in the Old World, we may learn that the present forms of education as we have known them in the United States are not new creations, but have had their prototypes in Old World institutions. The mediæval college was not destroyed by the rising of universities, but was incorporated in their more general organization and handed down to us at the present, modified to suit the growth of knowledge. The modern academy, the primary school, the parish school, or county school, the college and the university are but evolutions in the United States, suited more or less to our express needs.

1C. K. Adams' Address.

2 Roscher Finanzwissenschaft, p. 502 (Ed. 1886). In 1885-86 Prussia expended $14,329,298 for education ; in the following year the sum of $15,186,133. In the same yệars France expended for higher education $2,317,947 and $2,290,454, respectively.

3 Laurie, 256; the university at Palencia, Spain, was founded in 1212 by Alonzo VIII, with privileges and benefactions.

* From this time to the Reformation every university founded had two charters, one. from the pope and the other from the king or emperor.

We have seen that at times schools were wholly independent of either ecclesiastical or political patronage; at other times they were controlled and supported by the church or state, separately or conjointly ; and, again, the church has controlled the education of both clergy and laity; or this comprehensive duty has fallen upon the State. Our modern college has sprung from the mediæval college through the “great schools” of England. One type of our universities, such as that of Virginia, has some resemblance to the University of Paris, wbile Harvard and Yale are following in the paths of Cambridge and Oxford.

The influence of the German universities has been more perceptible during recent years. The University of Michigan was planned after German or rather Prussian models. There was a magnificent scheme for a central university, colleges, and high schools, all controlled by one central authority. This idea has had more or less influence in the formation of the systems of education in the new States of the West. The chief German influence is felt in methods of study and discipline, and new features of school curricula ; this is more to be observed in the lowest grade, the kindergarten, and in the highest grade, the university, than in other departments. Have we universities in America? Yes, American universities, not like some in the Old World, but universities that are developing with the country and the nation. While there is much to learn and great room for improvement, let it be remembered by those who disparage the American universities in comparison with foundations of seven hundred years' standing, that but one attempt was ever made to import a European university into America, and that failed.

1 Jefferson's scheme to import the faculty of Geneva. See H. B. Adams' William and Mary College, and his Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia.

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TABLE I.—Statistics relating to State Colleges and Universities, showing State Endowments,

Appropriations, etc.

[Columns one, two, and three mostly compiled from the Report of the Commissioner of Education,

1886–87.)

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Alabama
Arkansas
California

13312

, 701

Colorado.
Connecticut
North Dakota
South Dakota
Delaware
Florida
Georgia..
Illinois
Indiana.
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine
Maryland..
Massachusetts.
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina..
Tennessee
Texas
Vermont.
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin

$605, 000 $553, 500 $45, 080

$279, 750 $214, 925, 869 1, 262, 505 .300,000 130, 000 10, 400

257, 894 126, 826, 394 802, 525 750,000

$50,000 and $128, 645 22, 468, 231 1,012, 135, 832
i mill tax.

864, 694
171, 512 62, 000
7,700 mill tax..

891, 398 130,000,000 194, 327 1135,000

288, 676 348, 774, 879 622, 700

143, 096 157, 084, 366 135, 177 50,000

83, 000 4, 780 50,000

116, 000 154, 000

(?) 9, 2271

146, 608

30, 750 288, 000

76, 611, 409 269, 493 455, 202

43, 564 545, 000

983, 181 329, 489, 505 1,542, 180 450,000 26, 314 550, 000

531, 000

797, 773, 0023, 077, 871 590, 000 30, 000 23,000! 23,000 1, 453, 000 793, 526, 079 1,978, 301 760, 000 815, 037 62, 905

20,000

20,000 1, 454, 098 501, 379, 744 1, 624, 615 720, 588 674, 786 41, 253

922, 606 200,000

310, 871, 546 996, 096 165, 000 9, 900 28 mill tax 24, 000 192, 000 517, 214, 301 1, 648, 690 318, 313 13, 244

794, 590
165, 000
230, 300 11, 500

212, 725, 464 939, 946 100,000

313, 718 265, 978, 716 648, 936 112, 086

6, 431 964, 890

716, 997 485, 839, 772 934, 943 652, 575 34, 431

1, 764, 368 1, 847, 531, 422 1,783, 085 1, 355, 854 979, 720

59, 502 1,000,000

2, 195, 968 945, 450,000 1,636, 937 750,000

40,000 40, 000 40,000 * 403, 402

583.000 469, 831, 464 780,773 756, 211

43, 251 125,000

1,714, 372 122, 736, 838 1, 131, 597 72, 000 3, 600

725, 775, 259 2, 168, 380

(8) 250,000

60,000,000 39, 159 & mill tax.. 110, 179 25, 000

2666, 145 160, 506, 266 452, 402 135, 471

135, 471 180,000

34, 936, 210 62, 266 1116, 000

106, 934 231, 659, 265 346, 991

0 16,000,000

573, 256, 3041, 131, 116 288, 500

890, 241 3, 224, 682, 3435, 082, 871 130,000 7, 800

20, OCO 20,000 850,000 537, 841 32, 270

355, 580 202, 752, 6221, 399, 750 477, 000 4210, 009 49, 000 10 mill tax..

261, 534 1,688, 676, 1683, 198, 062 450,000

70, 500 500, 000 30,000

77, 188, 694 174, 768

1,088, 9473, 166, 016, 915 4, 282, 891 60,000

0
409, 000
695, 750

328, 50, 559 276, 531
65, 750
300, 000 21, 500

2, 829, 999

149, 973, 365 995, 577 859, 000 59, 280

256, 456, 761 1, 542, 359 1122, 626

382, 487| 562, 103, 223 1, 591, 749

90, 500 157, 192, 262 771, 912 43, 395

332, 286 2, 135, 675

375, 0+3, 2381, 512, 565

(?) 107, 000

50, 212, 581 6,300

75, 116 1,000,000

278, 962 173, 993, 762 218, 618 12, 050 3 mill tax..

618, 457 1, 203, 377

581, 264, 7491, 315, 497

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1 Land scrip fund. 2 Approximate.

*State Agricultural College not reported. 880-No.1--22

3 Alcorn Agricultural College not reported. 5 Claflin University not reported.

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