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States to hold them, what is to be done with, from the above quoted statistics, that comparathem. whether they be bond or free?
tively but few slaves have ever been emancipaThe "slave" States so called, have the black ted at the North; that as between the New Englines drawn about them. There will soon be no land and the Southern States, the Southern have more Mississippi lands to clear, no more cotton been the principal scene of emancipation; that fields to subdue, and unless some means be devi-notwithstanding the emigration from the South. sed of getting rid of the negro-increase, the time the South has, within the fifty years, between must come, and sooner or later it will come,- 1790 and 1840, doubled the number of her free when there will be an excess in these States, of blacks nearly six times; whereas the New Engblack people. This excess will be brought about land States have not in the same interval, douby the operation of two causes :-natural in- bled theirs once; and that moreover during the crease of the blacks on one hand; and emigra-period of prospective and post-natal emancipation of the whites on the other. The slaves may tion at the North, ten slaves received their freego from one slave State to another, but they can-dom at the South to one at the North.* not go out of the slave territory. Therefore in The decrease of emancipation at the South, the slave territory must they remain obedient between the first and the last decade of the above to the command "increase and multiply." As table-the falling off from 85 to 18 per cent. in their numbers spread, and as their labor becomes the sources both of emancipation and natural less and less valuable,—as in process of time it multiplication taken together,-is decisive as to seems likely to do,-owners will sell or leave their the practical increase at the South of the diffinegroes behind, and emigrate to other parts; culties in the way of setting the slaves free. In thus by their absence increasing the proportion their own mute style these figures proclaim with of blacks to whites. unutterable eloquence, the injury and the wrong which fanatics, styling themselves the friends of the black man, have inflicted upon his race.
The New England States and the Middle States did not emancipate their slaves; they banished them. They passed their post-natal and With a free colored population of 27,983 in 1790, prospective laws of emancipation it is true; but the South in the next ten years, by natural inthey did not command the master to let the slave crease and emancipation, swelled this class by go free before the time came round for the slave to 23,940. The natural increase due the basis of go free, he had, in most cases, been taken off to the 1830 (156,633) is nearly six times that due the South and sold there so that the so called eman-basis of 1790 (27,983.) It ought to be certaincipation at the North, was simply a transfer to the South of the slaves of the North-an act of banishment; nothing more.
ly-yet what do we see in the above figures? Why, that with the large basis of 1830, the de cennial increase is but 27,133—only 3,193 more from 156,000 in 1830, than from 27,000 in 1790!
Why, the free colored race must have fallen off wonderfully in its powers to " increase and multiply," or emancipation must have become much less in vogue among Southern people now than formerly.
Not only do these figures and facts, but the statute books also, show that the practical diffi6 culties of emancipation have been greatly increased at the South. We see that from 1790, the increase of the free colored population at the South has fallen off, from the average annual rate of 8.5 to less than 2 per cent. More properly speaking the ratio in which it has fallen off
Statement from the Census Tables of the free colored persons in the New England and in the
13,156 17,317 19,488 20,756 21,331 22,634 27,983 51,923 91,402 115,373 156,633|183,766 Per Cent. of Increase. 1 3.1 1.2 Besides their natural increase, the free blacks of New England receive large accessions to their numbers from the free colored emigrants and runaway slaves of the South. It is well known that the tide of emigration of the free men of is as 8.5 to 1.8. color, flows North;-there never has been a reflux of it towards the South.
1790. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1840.
* In drawing this comparison, allowance should be made for the emigration of free blacks from New England to Canada, and the N. Western States, and also for the cir
cumstance that after the free laws went into effect in the
Thus, what is taken from the South by emigration, is added to the North, and therefore in a comparison of the free colored statistics between the two sections, the whole amount of emigration from the South appears as a double difference. It is subtractive on one side of the equation, and additive on the other. Bearing these statements in mind, it appears considering the matter rateably.
New England States, there remained no more slaves to emancipate. But making allowance for all this, and arguing from the supposition that the natural increase of free persons of colour is the same North as South, we shall still be left with the conclusion that the South has emancipated many more slaves than the North ever did,
The South could not, if she would, banish her results of this line of steamers, is the entire supslaves and tell the world that that is emancipa-pression of the African slave trade with Brazil, tion; for she has no place of banishment to send by a substitution therefor, of a slave emigration them to. from the United States. Atleast so it appears to us.
In the spirit of truth and candor, we do not think we venture too far when we assert it as a probability that neither New England nor the Middle States, would have passed, when they did, the emancipation acts which sent their slaves into banishment, if they had not had the South or some other place to send them off to. Now suppose that Maryland and Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri, should wish to pass post-natal free laws, or a law of the socalled emancipation; can it be imagined that the remaining slave States would permit the slaves from those States to be crowded down upon them to be brought there and sold as those of the New England States were, when they were to the anti-slavery tenets of fanaticism, a curse emancipated? the less would have remained upon the country. This subject opens to the imagination a vista:
The negroes from the Middle and the New England States, who, under the emancipation laws of those States, were forced into the markets of Va. and other Southern States, did not thereby become more of slaves than they were before. There was a transfer of the place of servitude; that was all. Not a slave the more was made. But he that was taken from the North to the South, remained in the country. Suppose he had been sent to South America instead of to South Carolina,-it would have still been the same to him, but how different to the country! There would in that case have been a transfer of the place of servitude as before, but according
We know the free States would not permit the liberated slaves to come over, in any consid-in it the valley of the Amazon is seen as the erable numbers, into their borders. The new safety-valve of the South, and this line of steamconstitution of Indiana, so far as she is concern-ers as a strand at least, in the cord which is to ed, is conclusive upon that point. lift that valve whenever the pressure of this in
It is not to be supposed that the States in ques-stitution, be that when it may, shall become too tion will ever emancipate, if the liberated slaves powerful upon the machinery of our great Shipare to stay where they are. Emancipation and of-State. citizenship both, to the slaves of the Southern States, is rather too much to expect from any one of them.
Neither past experience nor future prospects justify the assertion that Liberia and African Colonization can ever be relied on to relieve the country whenever it shall be overpressed with slaves, of those who create the pressure.
As in the breaking away of the storm, a streak of clear sky is welcomed by the mariner whose ship has been endangered by the elements, so this Amazonian vista is to us. It is the first and the only streak of light to our mind's eye, that the future throws upon the final question of slavery in this country.
Every steamship has her safety-valve; but every steamship is not obliged to use it always. It is there in case of necessity. So with the valley of the Amazon: we need not go there ourselves, nor send our slaves there immediately; but it is well to have the ability to go or to send, in case it may become expedient so to do.
This line of steamers by the commercial ties which it will establish, by the business relations which it will beget, by the frequent intercourse which it will bring about between the valley of the Amazon and the Southern States, will accomplish all these great results and more too.
The fact must be obvious to the far-reaching minds of our statesmen, that unless some means of relief be devised, some channel afforded, by which the South can, when the time comes, get rid of the excess of her slave population, that she will be ultimately found with regard to this institution, in the predicament of the man with the wolf by the ears :-too dangerous to hold on any longer, and equally dangerous to let go.
The subject is immense-its magnitude oppresses us. We commend it to the serious con
To our mind, the event is as certain to happen as any event is which depends on the contingencies of the future, viz: that unless means be devised for gradually relieving the slave States from the undue pressure of this class upon them; unless some way be opened by which they may sideration of our merchants and statesmen; and be rid of their surplus black population,-the time in so doing, we venture, though with diffidence, will come—it may not be in the next nor in the to ask the question: will not one or more of the succeeding generation-but sooner or later come States most concerned in the successful issue it will, and come it must-when the two races of the enterprise, give it encouragement? will join in the death struggle for the mastery.
The valley of the Amazon is the way; in this view, it is the safety-valve of the Union. It is slave Calling Middle States,-New York, New Jersey and territory and a wilderness. One among the many Pennsylvania, only.
M. F. M.
Of Judge Tucker in his private relations, within the charmed circled of his friends and admirers, we should hesitate to speak, for we feel that we can not do justice to the subject, and we would The announcement of the death of BEVERLEY not rudely enter the sanctuary of domestic grief. TUCKER, which afflicting event took place at Win- There are those, who have enjoyed the benefit chester in this State, on the 26th of August last, of his instructions, during many years past, bewas accompanied in all the newspapers in the neath the academic shades of William and Mary; country with the expression of sorrow at so great men, now eminent in their country's councils or a public loss, and a generous recognition of his looked up to as the ornaments of society, who, genius and private virtues. It is proper that such in recalling the associations of alma mater and a tribute to his memory, however brief and un- living over the past, will blend with their tenderest satisfactory, should be rendered by this magazine recollections of boyhood the lines of that beamin which have appeared, from time to time, some ing and benevolent countenance, and feel a pride of the most finished of his prose compositious that BEVERLEY TUCKER was once their "guide, and the most graceful efforts of his muse. philosopher and friend." He never occupied Judge Tucker's mind was eminently versatile. towards us that relation, nor was the privilege of Few men have worked so well in such widely frequently meeting him ever ours. We can not different fields of intellectual labor. The tran- forget, however, the engaging suavity of his mansition with him was easy and rapid, from the cou-ners and the brilliant flow of his conversation, sideration of a disputed point in the science of as we were impressed with them on several ocgovernment to the building of a sonnet, or the casions, and most recently but a few weeks beinvention of a drama. Novels he wrote simply fore his death. The last of a set of men, than by way of relaxation, and collegiate discourses whom a more gifted or remarkable coterie never of the lighter class, either ethical or upon the existed on earth, Randolph-Leigh-Johnsonbelles lettres, were thrown off by him with re- Wirt and the rest of them, Judge Tucker remarkable facility. Those occupations which mained for years the only bright link of connecother men make the serious business of their tion between the old generation and the new, lives, and not unworthily, were pursued by Judge and it may indeed be said, in this sense, at least, Tucker, as it were, pour tuer le temps. And he that he has not "left his like behind." did all these things well. In the lecture-room he was uniformly eloquent and clear in his expositions, and though many may think his peculiar The occurrence of the solar eclipse, some months doctrines were pushed to an unwarrantable ex- since which enabled the great astronomers on both treme, no one can deny that his Lectures are sides of the water,-Arago, Hiud, Maury and among the very best specimens of political com-others-to verify calculations previously made, position that we possess. As a poet, Judge and has thus been of great benefit to science, has Tucker was not indeed "of imagination all com- had the good effect of bringing out from newspact," but his gift was certainly something be- paper oblivion, the following very beautiful alleyond that of mere versification, and the many gory which was written, many years ago, for the little gems of rhythmical excellence he produced, Raleigh Register, by the late H. S. Ellenwood which are scattered along the pages of the Mes- of North Carolina. Had the gifted author been senger, "like orient pearls at random strung," and a native of Massachusetts, his name would be were contributed always anonymously, are wor-as familiar to us as household words-as it is, we thy of being preserved in a more appropriate and doubt if one out of ten of our readers has ever beautiful setting. As a writer of fiction, Judge before seen it. The eclipse described by the Tucker deserves a high rank in the literature of his poet was annular, upon which turns the whole country. Edgar Poe, certainly no bad critic, de-effect of his versesclared that had "George Balcombe" been the work
MARRIAGE OF THE SUN AND MOON.
of any one born north of Mason and Dixon's line,
it would long ago have been recognized as "one Do you know that a wedding has happened on high, of the noblest fictions ever written by an Ameri- And who were the parties invited! can." It remains only to be said that his Ora-Twas the Sun and the Moon! in the halls of the sky, They were joined, and our continent witnessed the tie, tions and Discourses, pronounced on various ocNo continent else was invited. casions, are in no way inferior to those of the finest rhetoricians of the age, and bespeak an entire mastery over the capabilities-the grace, the sweetness, the harmony, the power-of the English language.
Their courtship was tedious, for seldom they met
But ah, why so prolix the courtship? and why
Besides, 'tis reported their friends were all vexed,
Mars and Jupiter never such business could bear,
Only one dim, pale Planet, of Planets the least,
And that seemed like skulking away to the East;
Some Venus a peeping; shame on her!
Earth in silence rejoiced, as a bridegroom and bride
if possible, have his form and features transmitted to posterity in every way, in marble and on canvas, to be seen in our capitols and universities while the Commonwealth shall survive. But this is of inferior moment to the duty of guarding his remains against desecration, for what need has he of monument while stands the perfect constitution of his country, which came from his hands, totus, teres atque rotundus?
While on this subject, it may not be considered frivolous to allude to a small matter of verbal propriety in connection with the country seat of Mr. Madison. The reader may have noticed that we spell the word with two l's. This is upon the authority of Mr. Madison himself and of Mr. Jefferson who was punctilious to the last Henceforth shall these Orbs, to all husbands and wives, degree in matters of orthography. We may add
Shine as patterns of duty respected;
that in nearly all the correspondence of the early part of this century in which Montpellier was mentioned, the word was thus spelt.
Whilst careering through regions of light at his side,
All her splendor and glory from him she derives,
What needs our hero for his honored bones,
Or that his hallow'd reliques should be hid
Dear son of memory, great heir of fame-
A correspondent of the Southern Era, a pleas- We heard a good story, the other day, of ing weekly paper of our city devoted to the Macready, which we think has never been in cause of Temperance, describing a visit to Mont-print, and though we cannot hope to tell it, as pellier-the former seat of President Madison-'twas told to us,' we must yet endeavor to record tells us that there is not even the rudest head-it for the benefit of our readers.
stone to mark the spot where the remains of that It seems that in the good old days of the Park illustrious man are deposited. This intelligence Theatre, the great tragedian was enacting his fills us with surprise. It is indeed a mortifying round of characters there, to very crowded houses fact that one of Virginia's most distinguished of the first society.' It so happened that the sons should be thus neglected in the grave. A second parts were sustained by a most respectafew years and who shall say, in the strange mu- ble Irish actor, whose brogue was particularly tations and vicissitudes of time, that the plough rich; a man very sensitive to reproof and not share may not rudely disturb the ashes of the over tolerant of Macready's rigid stage discip. mighty dead? No lineal descendants were given line. They met one morning at the rehearsal of the great statesman to perpetuate his family and Macbeth, having, over night, been at loggerheads guard the Lares of the homestead. But shall concerning an alleged departure, on the part of not the burial place of Madison be considered our Irish friend, from his proper role. Macready sacrosanct by all Virginians, and should not the was anxious to make a sensation in the finale, exact six feet of earth which his ashes occupy and was therefore most precise in his instructions be marked with some enduring memorial, while to Monsieur Macduff.'"Now," said he, "my those yet live who can point out the spot, beyond good sir," advancing with the aforesaid Macduff the possibility of a doubt? to the foot-lights, and placing the toe of his boot
It may be remarked here as a singular omis- upon a nail which he had driven in for the pursion on the part of the Commonwealth, that nei-pose, "when I come forward-and place mee ther public monument, nor statue, nor painting foot upon this nail-make the lunge-but, mark has ever been erected to Mr. Madison. If we you-neither (pronouncing it nyther) sooner nor mistake not, one of the statues to be executed later-or you'll r-r-r-ruin the piece." (All this was by Crawford for the pedestals around the base of said in that tragic undertone which moistens the the Virginia Washington Monument, is to repre- handkerchiefs of the dress-circle, and curdles sent him as the type of jurisprudence. We would, the blood of the gallery, and with much the same
emphasis that Mrs. Siddons threw into her ques- behind him no imperishable work of genius is tion, which frightened the shopkeeper out of his assuredly true, but we feel a deep conviction, wits, as to the calico-" Will it wash?") "Will that had his life been spared, he would not have you r-r-r-recollect this?" said Mr. Macready. failed to entitle himself to a place in the fore
"Yis, sir, oh yis, sir," replied the Irishman. most rank of the literary men of the age. As a Rehearsal over, however, and the Thane of Gla-letter-writer he was particularly happy. Pleasmis gone off in a hack to his hotel, O'Flaherty, ant descriptions of nature, sketches of fireside (for so we shall call him,) comes quietly back to enjoyment in the country, brilliant brevities of the spot where he had received his lesson, and criticism overflowed in a style at once finished producing a hammer, draws out the nail and puts and colloquial, which evidenced equally the it in his pocket. Evening arrives, the Theatre scholar and the gentleman. A compilation from is crammed, the great tragedian was never so his familiar correspondence, if such could be powerful. The first four acts already past,' as made, would give us one of the most delightful Bishop Berkeley says, Mr. Macready cautions" country-books" that could be placed in the O'Flaherty once more, behind the scenes, as to library, and endear his name and memory to the nail and the lunge. He promises obedience. many who now possess too little knowledge of Meanwhile the curtain thickens and the plot his rare and excellent qualities. rises, (our sentence transposes itself in spite of us,) Birnam wood has come to Dunsinane, and the last struggle alone remains. Mr. Macready is really great, and stands in his tin coat of mail, the impersonation of despair. Thus, with wonderful rapidity of utterance, he concludes the
Yet I will try the last. Before my body
I throw my warlike shield. Lay on, Macduff, And damned be him that first cries, Hold, enough! Exeunt fighting, according to the best editions, but they soon return, Mr. Macready looking for the nail. Mr. Macready not seeing it, the dialogue runs as follows
Macbeth. Make the lunge!
Macduff. Put your fut on the nale, Misther Macrady.
Macbeth. (With increasing warmth, and audibly to
the whole house,) D-n you, make the lunge! Macduff. (With great sang froid and as loudly as his antagonist,) Let's see your fut on the nale, Misther Macrady.
A rather singular harmony and conflict of opinion is presented in two articles in this number of our magazine. We refer to "The Ebony Line," and "The Commercial Prospects of the South," on the vexed question of what is to be done with the Free Negroes. The harmony is seen in the recognition by both of the existence and probable increase of an evil in the social system; and the conflict, in the feasibility of African Colonization; the latter article merely expressing its doubts of the success of the scheme which the former endeavors to show is altogether practicable. Both of these papers are well worthy of attentive perusal. The views of Lieut. Maury are marked in a high degree, with the ize everything that comes from his pen. His originality and the lucidus ordo which characterstyle, too, is singularly pure and fresh, and at times becomes really poetical, showing that had he not been one of the first savans, he might have been one of the most distinguished litterateurs of the age.
It was clear that O'Flaherty would not kill him under any circumstances. so that nothing remained but suicide, to which ignoble resort, Mr. Macready was at last compelled. He did not die, however, until he had grappled his non-combatant antagonist in a frenzy of in- most desirable results. We take so deep an indignation and in utter disregard of the unities.terest in the projet, that we have thought it proper Then the hero and the curtain fell together. to embody in our pages the very clear and able One fact in addition may be stated. Mr. Ma- report of Arthur A. Morson, Esq., the Chairman cready never played again with Mr. O'Flaherty. of the Athenæum Committee.
The Richmond Athenæum, which has just been organized by the Common Council of our City, is an institution that promises to achieve
The genial and appreciative notice of our laA late number of the Southern Literary Gamented friend, Philip Pendleton Cooke, in fore-zette informs us that the former associate Editor, going pages of our present number, is from the D. H. JACQUES, Esq., has withdrawn from that pen of Dr. Griswold, the Editor of the Interna- paper and has been succeeded by EDWIN HEtional Magazine. The retired life of a poet- RIOT. Esq. Mr. Heriot is already favorably farmer affords little of incident for biography, and known, in his own State, as the author of some the memoir of Cooke, therefore, might not pos- excellent collegiate addresses, and some striking sess interest for the many. Yet we could wish political pamphlets. He makes his debut very
to see it written by a loving haud. That he left gracefully, and, we doubt not, will render good