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from the Governor and Senate, or from the Legislature, during the term for which he is elected.

Sec. XX. The Governor shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in the Senate and House of Representatives.

Sec. XXI. The Legislature shall meet on the first Mor day in Jaruary in every year, and at no other period, unless otherwise directed hy law, or provided for in this Constitution.

Sec. XXI. The style of the laws of this State shall be-"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Michigan."

ARTICLE V. Section 1. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a Governor, tho shall hold his othce for two years; and a Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen at the same time and for the same term.

Sec. I. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant Gor. ernor, who shall not have been five years a citizen of the Vuited States, ard a resident of this Siatr two years rext preceding the crecliun.

Sec. III. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be clected by the electors at the times and places of choosing members of the Legislature. The persots har. ing the highest number of votes for Governor ard Lieutenant Governor shall be elected; but in case two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant Governor, the Legislature shall by joini vote choose one of the snid persons, so having an equal and the highest number of votes, for Guvertor or Lieutenant G Wernor.

Sxc. IV. The returns of every election for Governor and Lieutenant Gurernar shall be sealed up a:d transmittid to the seat of goverz meni, by the returning officers, directed 10 the President of the Senate, who shall open ard publish them in the presence of the members of both housrs.

Sec. V. The Guvernor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the militia, and of the ar my and navy of this state.

Sec. VI. He shall transact all exerutive business with the officers of govern. ment, civil and military; and muy require information, in writing, from the officers in the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

Sec. VII. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

Sec. VIII. He shall have power to consene the Legislature on extraordinary occasions. He shall communicate by message to the Legislature, at evrry session, the condition of the State, and recommend such matters to them as he shall deem expedient.

Sec. IX. He shall have power to adjourn the Legislature to such time as he may think proper, in case of a disagreement between the two houses with respect 10 the time of adjourument, but not to a period beyond the nex annual meeting.

Sec. X. He may direct the Legislature to meet at some other place than the seat

of government, if that shall become, after its adjournment, dangerous from u common enemy or a contagious disease.

Sec. XI. He shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons after conviction, except in cases of impeachment.

Sec. XII. When any office, the appointment to which is vested in the Governor and Senate, or in the Legislature, becomes vacant during the recess of the Legisla. ture, the Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the succeeding session of the Legislature.

Sec. XIII. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his removal from office, death, resignation, or absence from the State, the powers and duiies of the of. fice shall devolve upon thc Lieutenant Governor until such disability shall cease, or the vacancy be filled.

Sec. XIV. If, during the vacancy of the office of Governor, the Licuterani Gor: ernor be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or be absent from the State, the President of the Senate, pro tempore, shall act as Goveri.or, vuil the vacancy be filled.

Sec. XV. The Lieutenant Governor shall, by virtue of his office, be President of the Senate ; in committee of the whole, he may debate on all questions; and, when there is an equal division, he shall give the casting voie.

Sec. XVI. No member of Congress, nor any other person holdirg office under the United States, or this State, shall execute the office of Governor.

Sec. XVII. Whenever the office of Governor or Lieutenant Givernor becomes vacant, the person exercising the powers of Gurernor for the time being, shall give notice thereof, and the electors shall, at the next succeeding anrval election for members of the Legislature, choose a person to fill such vacancy.

Sec. XVIII. The Governor shall, at stated times, receive for liis services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor eliminished during the term for which he has been elected.

Sec. XIX. The Lieutenant Governor, except when acting as Gurerror, ard the President of the Senate, pro tenipore, shall each receive the same compensation as shall be allowed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Sec. XX. A great seal for the State shall be provided by the Governor, which shall contain the device and inscriptions represented and described in the papers re. lating thereto, signed by the President of the Convention, and deposited in the office of the Secretary of the Territory. It shall be kept by the Secretory of State ; and all official acts of the Governor, his approbation of the laws excepted, shall be thereby authenticated.

Sec. XXI. All grants and commissions shall be in the name, and by the authority, of the people of the State of Michigan.


Section I. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such other courts as the Legislature may from time to time establish.

Sec. II. The Judges of the Supreme Court shall hold their offices for the term of

seven years ; they shall be nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appointed by the Governor. They shall receive an adequate compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuince in office. But they shall receive no fecs nor perquisites of office, nor hold any other office of profit or trust under the authority of this State, or of the U.sited States.

Sec. III. A Court of Probate shall be established in each of the organized counties.

Sec. IV. Judges of all County Courts, Associate Judges of Circuit Courts, and Judges of Probate slull be elected by the qualitied electors of the county in which they reside, and shall hold their office for four years.

Sec. V. The Supreme Court shall appoint their Clerk or Clerks; and the electors of each county shall elect a Clerk, to be denominated a County Clerk, who shall hold his office for the term of iwo years, and shall perform the duties of Clerk to all the Courts of Record to be held in each county, except the Supreme Court and Court of l'robate.

Sec. VI. Each township may elect four Justices of the Peace, who shall hold their offices for four years; and whose powers and duties shall be defined and regu. lated by law. At their first election they shall be classed and divided by lot into numbers one, iwo, three, and four, to be determined in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, so that one Justice shall be annually elected in each township there. after. A removal of any Justice from the township in which he was elected shall vacate his office. In all incorporated towns, or cities, it shall be competent for the Legislature to increase the number of Justices.

Sxc. VII. The style of all process shall be "In the name of the People of the State of Michigan;" and all indictments shall conclude "against the peace and dig. nity of the sume.”


Section I. There shall be a Secretary of State, who shall hold his office for two years, and who shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senete. He shall keep a fuir record of the official acts of the Legisla. tive and executive departments of the government ; and shall, when required, lay the same, and all matters relative thereto, before either branch of the Legislature ; and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned hiin by law.

Sec. II. A State Treasurer shall be appointed by a joint vote of the two houses of the Legislature, and shall hold his office for the term of two years.

Sec. Ill. There shall be an Auditor General and an Attorney General for the State, and a Prosecuting Attorney for each of the respective counties, who shall hold their offices for two years, and who shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and whose powers and duties shall be prescribed l y law.

Sec. IV. There shall be a Sheriff, a County Treasurer, and one or more Coroners, a Register of Deeds, a County Surveyor, chosen by the electors in each of the

several counties once in every two years, and as often as vacancies shall happen. The Sheriff' shall hold no other office, and shall not be capable of holding the office of Sheriff longer than four in any term of six years; he may be required by law to renew his security from time to time, and in default of giving such security, his office shall be deemed vacant; but the county shall never be made responsible for the acts of the Sheriff.


Section I. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching all civil officers of the State, for corrupt conduct in office, or for crimes and misdemeanors; but a majority of all the members elected shall be necessary to direct an impeachment.

Sec. II. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant Governor shall be tried, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. Before the trial of an impeachment, the members of the court shall take an oath or affirmation truly and impartially to try and determine the charge in question according to the evidence; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office; but the party convicted shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law.

SEC. III. For any reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for the impeachment of the Judges of any of the courts, the Governor shall remove any of them on the address of two-thirds of each branch of the Legislature; but the cause or causes for which such removal may be required shall be stated at length in the address.

Sec. IV. The Legislature shall provide by law for the removal of Justices of the Peace, and other county and township officers, in such manner and for such cause as to them shall seem just and proper.


Section I. The Legislature shall provide by law for organizing and disciplining the militia, in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the Constitution and laws of the United States.

Sec. II. The Legislature shall provide for the efficient discipline of the officers, commissioned and non-commissioned, and musicians, and may provide by law for the organization and discipline of volunteer companies.

Sec. III. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed in such manner as the Legislature shall from time to time direct, and shall be commissioned by the Governor.

Sec. IV. The Governor shall have power to call forth the militia, to execute ilie laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, and repel invasions,

ARTICLE X SECTION I. The Governor shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Legislature in joint vote, shall appoint a Superintendent of Public Instruction, who shall hold his office for two years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. II. The Legislature shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientifical and agricultural improvements. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this Staie, for the support of schools, which shall hereafter be sold or disposed of, shall be and renain a perpetual fund; the interest of which, together with the rents of all such unsold lands, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of schools throughout the State.

Sec. III. The Legislature shall provide for a system of common schools, log which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school district, at least three months in every year; and any school district neglecting to keep up and support such a school, may be deprived of its equal proportion of the interest of the public fund.

Sec. IV. As soon as the circumstances of the State will permit, the Legislature shall provide for the establishment of libraries; one at least in each township; and the money which shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds of all fineg assessed in the several countics for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied to the support of said libieries.

Sec. V. The Legislature shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been or may hereafter be reserved or granted by the United States to this State for the support of a university; and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source for the purpose aforesaid, shall be and remain a permanent fund for the surrort of said university, with such branches as the public convenience may hereafter domard for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, and as may be authorized ly the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as mey be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said university.

ARTICLE XI. SECTION I. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever be introduced into this Stale, except for the punishment of crimes of which the party shall have been duly convicted.


Section I. Members of the Legislature, and all officers, executive and judicial except such inferior officers as may by law be exempted, shall, before they enter on

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