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a mixture of almost imperceptible particles of
native silver, with brown oxyde of iron. In
Mexico, on the other hand, the greatest quan-
tity of silver annually brought into circulation,
is derived from those ores which the Saxon
miner calls by the name of dilrre erze * espe-
cially from sulphuret of silver, (or vitreous silver)
from arsenical (fizhlerz), and antimonial grey
copper, (grau or schwarzgiltigerz) from muria-tel
of silver, (lzornerz), from prismatic black silver,
(spriidglaserz), and from red silver (r0llzgillig-
erz). We do not name native silver among
these ores, because it is not found in suflicient
abundance to admit of any very considerable
part of the total produce of the mines of New
Spain being attributed to it.

Sulphuret Qf silver, and black prismatic silver,
are very common in the veins of Guanaxuato
and Zacatecas, as well as in the veta Biscaina
of Real del Monte. The silver extracted from
the ore of Zacatecas, exhibits th'e‘~remarkable
particularity of not containing gold. The richest
grey copper, (fahlerz) is that of Sierra de Pinos,
and the mines of Ramos. In the latter, the

fizhlerz is accompanied with fglaserz, with

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* See the very instructive work of M. Daubuisson, under the title of Description des Mines de Freiberg. I have followed in the course of this chapter, in whatever relates to the art of mining, and the mode of occurring of minerals, the terminology of M. M. Brochant, Daubuisson, and Brongniart; '

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I . 154 POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE [soon 11..

variegated copper ore (bunt lrupfererz), sul. phuret of zinc and vitreous copper (kupfer. glas,) which is only wrought for the extraction of the silver, without applying the copper to any use. The graugiltigerz or antimoniated grey copper described by Mr. Karsten, is found at Tasco, and in the mine of Rayas, south east from Valenciana. The muriate of silver which is so seldom found in the veins of Europe, is very abundant in the mines of Catorce, Fresnillo, and the Cerro San Pedro, near the town of San Luis Potosi. That of Fresnillo is frequently of an olive green, which passes into leek-green. Superb specimens of this colour have been found in the mines of Vallorecas, which belong to the district de los Alamos in the intendancy of Sonora. In the veins of Catorce, the muriate of silver is accompanied with molybdate of lead, (gelb blei-erz) and phosphate of lead (grim bleierz.) From the last analysis of Mr. Klaproth, it appears that the muriate of silver of America ‘*, is a pure mixture of silver and muriatic acid, while that of Europe contains oxid of iron, alumine, and especially a little sulphuric

* The Mineralogists at present distinguish four kinds of muriate of silver, the common, the earthy, the conchoidal,

"-and the radiated. The two last species, which are exceed

ingly beautiful, have been described by Mr. Karsten: they -are among the minerals brought by me from Peru. Karsten, in the Magazine der Berliner Gesellschqft Naturforschender Jreunde, b.,i.§ 156. Klaproth’s Beilriige, b. iv.§ 10.

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acid. The red silver ore constitutes a principal
part of the wealth of Sombrerete, Cosala, and
Zolaga, near Villalta, in the province of Oaxaca.
From this ore more than 700,000 marcs of silver
have been extracted, in the famous mine of la
I/eta Negra "" near Sombrerete, in the space of
from five to six months. It is-aflirmed that the
mine which produced this enormous quantity of
metal, the greatest which was ever yielded by
any vein on the ‘ same point of its mass, was
not thirty metres in length. 1- The true white
silver ore, (weissgiltig-erz) is very rare in
Mexico. Its greyish white variety, very rich in
lead, is found, however, in the intendancy of
Sonora, in the veins of Cosala, where it is ac-
companied with argentiferous galena, red" sil-
ver, brown blende, quartz and sulphate of
barytes. This last substance, which is very un-
common among the gangues of Mexico, is to
be also found at the Real del Doctor, near
Baranca de las Tinajas, and at Sombrerete,
particularly‘ in the mine called Campechana.
Fluor-spar has been only found hitherto in the
veins of Lomo del Toro, near Zimapan, at Bola-
fios and Guadalcazar, near Catorce. It is con-
stantly of a grass green or violet blue colour.

In some parts of New Spain, the operations
of the .-miner are directed _to a mixture of

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minated in particles imperceptible to the naked eye. This ochreous mixture, which they call paco in Peru, and of which we have already had occasion to speak, is the object of ,considerable operations at the mines of Angangueo, in the intendancy of Valladolid, as well as at Yxtepexi, in the province of Oaxaca. The ores of Angangueo, known by the name of ecolorados, have a clayey appearance. Near the surface, the brown oxide of iron is mixed with native silver, with sulphuret of silver, A and black prismatic silver (spriidglaserz), all three in a state of decomposition. At great depths, the vein of Angangueo contains only galena and iron pyrites, yielding but a small quantity of silver. Hence the blackish pacos, of the mine of Aurora d’Yxtepexi, whieh must not be confounded with the negrillos of Peru, owe their richness rather to the glaserz, than -to the imperceptible filaments of native dendritic silver. The vein is very unequal in its produce, sometimes sterile, and sometimes abundant. The colorados of Catorce, particularly those of the mine of Conception, are of a tile-red color, and.mixed with muriate of silver. In general it is observed both in Mexico and Peru, that those oxidated masses of iron which xcontain silver, are peculiar to that part of the veins, nearest to the surface of the earth. The pacos

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cnsv. xr-] KINGDOM OF NEW SPAIN. I57

of Peru present to the eyes of the geologist,
a very striking analogy with the earthy masses
called by the miners in Europe the iron hat
(eiserne kutk) of the veins. '
Native Silver, which is much less abundant
in America than is generally supposed, has
been found" in considerable masses, sometimes
weighing more than Q00 kilogrammes *, in the.
mines of Batopilas in New Biscay. These
mines, which are not very briskly wrought at
present, are among the most northern of New-
Spain. Nature exhibits the same minerals there
that are found in the vein of Kongsberg in
Norway. Those of Batopilas contain filiform,
dentritic and knitted silver, traversing strata
of limestone. Native» silver is constantly ac-
companied by glaserz in the veins of Mexico,‘
as well as in those of the mountains of Europe,
These very minerals are frequently found united
in the rich, mines of Sombrerete, Madroiio,
Ramos, Zacatecas,- Hapujaha and Sierra de
Penos. From time to time small branches, or
cylindrical filaments of native silver, are also
discovered in the ‘celebrated vein of Guanaxuato ;
but these masses have never been so consider-.
able as those which were formerly drawn from-’
the mine del'.Encin0 near Pachuca and Tasco,
Where native silver is sometimes contained. int
* 44411.. avoird. A T

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