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is not the thirtieth part of the smallest department of France.

In grounds capable of being watered, and in which plants with tuberous roots, for example batates and jgnames, have preceded the cultivation of the sugar-cane, the annual produce amounts even to three or four thousand arrobas per. scaballeria, or to 2100 and 2800 kilogrammes of raw sugar ;'per hectare. Now, in estimating an arroba at three piastres, which is the mean price at Vera Cruz, we find from these data, that a hectare of irrigated ground, will yield to the amount of 2500 or 84,00 livres tournois in sugar *', while the same hectare would only yield to the value of 260 livres in wheat, supposing a decuple retum, and estimating 100 kilogrammes of wheat at 1600'1ivres tournois. In drawing a. comparison between these two species of cultivation, we must never forget, that the advantages of the sugar-cane cultivation are very much diminished, by the enormous advances required in the establishment of a sugar plantation.

The greatest part of the sugar produced in New Spain, is consumed in the country. The consumption probably amounts to more than 16 millions of kilogrammes +; for that of the island of Cuba, undoubtedly amounts to from 25 to 30,000 chests h'(ca.z’as) of 16 ar

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robas or 200 kilogrammes. Those who have
not seen with their own eyes the enormous
quantity of sugar consumed in Spanish Ame-
rica, even in the poorest families, will be as-
tonished to hear, that the whole of France
demands for its own wants only three or four
times as much sugar as the island of Cuba, of
which the free population does not exceed the
number of 340,000 inhabitants. I

I have endeavoured to bring together in
one view, the exportation of sugar from New
Spain, and that from the West India Islands.
It was impossible for me to reduce all its
data ‘to the same period. I could not procure
certain information, as to ithe actual produce
of the . English islands, which has prodi-
giously increased. The island of Cuba export-
ed in 1803, from the port of the Havannah,
158,000 cams, and from the port of the Trinity
and Santiago de Cuba, including the contraband
3000 caxas: Hence-— '

Total exportation of Sugar from the Island \ Kilogr.
of Cuba - - — - i 37,600,000
Exportation of Sugar from‘NeW Spain, 500,000
Iarrobas, in 1803 - -< - 6,250,000
Exportation from Jamaica, in 1788 - - 42,000,000
Exportation from the English Virgin Islands and
Antig11a‘,in 1788 - - r 49,610,000
Expottation from St. Domingo, -in 1788 - 182,000,000
' ------— -—-—-— in 1799 - 20,400,000

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I believe we "may -admit, that the whole of the -American islands actually supply Europe

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can. x.] KINGDOM OF NEW SPAIN. I5

with more than 200 millions of kilogrammes
of raw sugar, of which the value even in the
colonies, is 40 millions of piastres, or more
than Q00 millions Qf ,1iyr§§, .2 estimat-
ing tl1e____ca.z'a at 40 double piastres. Three
causes have concurred to prevent the rise of
this colonial commodity, sincibeiithe destructidn
of the plantations of St. Domingo; namely
the introduction of the sugar-cane of Otaheite,
which on the same extent of ground yields
a third more vezou than the common cane;

the progress of agriculture 0 on the coast of

Mexico, Louisiana, Caracas, Dutch Guyana, and
Brazil; and lastly the importation of sugar from
the East Indies into Europe. '

This importation especially ought to fix
the attention of those who reflect on the future
direction of commerce. Ten years ago, the
Bengal sugar was as little known in the great
market of Europe, as the sugar of New Spain,
and now both of them compete with the sugar
of the West India Islands.

The United States have received sugar from

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The great fertility of the soil,’-and the immense population, gives such great advantages to Bengal over every other country of the globe, that the sugar exfiorted fiom Wg, after a passage of 5% eagues, is still lgwer it New York than the Jam 'ca s 0' r Wl1lC comes ~learrues This

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on y o . g .
phenomenon will not appear so astonishing, to
whoever casts his eye over the table given by
me in a former part of the work, of the wages
of labour* in the different countries of the
world, and who reflects that the sugar of Hin_
dostan, which is not however of the greatest
purity, is manufactured by free hands, while in
the West India islands (in the island of Cuba
for example) to produce 250,000 kilogrammes
of raw sugar, requires Q00 negroes, whose pur-
chase amounts to more than 300,000 francs.’r
In the same island the maintenance of a slave

costs more than 20 francs per month.i
According to the curious information given
by M. Bockford in his Indian i Recreatzbns,

* According to Mr. Playfair, (Statistical Breviary l80l, p. 60.) the price of labour in Bengal is as follows: a mere workman gains 12 shillings per month; a porter l5; a mason 18% ; a blacksmith or carpenter 22% ; an Indian soldier 20: all in the environs of Calcutta, reckoning the English shilling at 25 French sous, and the rupee at two shillings and sixpeuce.

1 l2,50ll. sterling. Trans.

i 16s. 8d. Trans.

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printed at Calcutta, the sugar cane is cultivated
in Bengal, principally in the districts of Ped-
dapore, Zemindar, in the Delta of Godavery,
and on the banks of the river Elyseram. The
plantations are watered there, as is also cus-
tomary in several parts of Mexico, and in the
valley of Guines, to the south-east of the Ha-
vannah. To prevent the soil from being ex-
hausted, they cultivate alternately leguminous
plants with the sugar cane, which attains in
general three metres of elevation, and from
three to four centimetres in thickness.* In
Bengal, an acre (of 5368 square metres)‘ yields
2500 kilogrammes of sugar ‘f, amounting to
4650 kilogrammes per hectare :' consequently
the produce of the soil is twice as great as
that of the West Indies, while the price of the
labour of a free Indian, is almost three times
less than that of a negro slave of the Island
of Cuba. In Bengal, six pounds of the juice
oi‘ the cane yield a pound of ‘crystallized sugar,

while in Jamaica ei l1t pounds are requisite
to produc~antity of sugar. Con-
sidering the vezou as a liquid charged with
salt, we find that in Bengal this liquid con-
tains 16, and in Jamaica 12 per cent. of sac-

charine matter. _ Hence the sugar of the East
Indies is so low priced, that the cultivator

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