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sells it at 41% roupees the quintal, or at 26 centimes the kilogramme, which is nearly the third of the value of that commodity in the Havannah market. Although the cultivation of the sugar cane is spreading with astonishing rapidity in Bengal, the total produce is still much less than that of Mexico. Mr. Bockford supposes the produce of Jamaica to be the quadruple of that of Bengal.

Cotton is one of those plants of which, the cultivation was as antient among the Aztec tribes, as that of the pite, the maize, and the quinoa. There is some of the finest quality on the western coast, from Acapulco to Colima, and at the port of Guautlan, particularly to the south of the Volcan de Jorullo, between the villages of Petatlan, Teipa, and Atoyaque. As they are yet unacquainted with machines for separating the cotton from -the seed, the price of carriage is a great obstacle in the way of this branch of Mexican agriculture. An arroba of cotton (Algodon con peppa) which sells for 8 francs at Teipa, costs 15 at Valladolid, on account of the mule carriage. That part of the eastern coast extending from the mouths of the rivers Guasacualco and d’Alvarado, to Panuco, might supply the commerce of Vera Cruz with an enormous quantity of cotton; but the coast is almost uninhabited, and the want of hands occasions a dearth of -provisions,

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unfavourable to every agricultural establishment.

New Spain supplies Europe annually with '
only 25l%.3firr! ggs, or 312,000 kilogrammes * +
of cotton. IS quantity though in itself very '
inconsiderable, is however six times greater

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than that exported by the United States, of

their own growth in 1791, according to the

information which I owe to the kindness of

M. Gallatin, Finance Minister at Washington.
But the rapidity of the increase of industry,

among a free people wisely governed, is so ' great, that according to a note furnished me by the same statesman, the United States ex

ported, -
Home Cotton. Foreign Cotton.
In 1797 - 2,500,000lib. - - l,200,000lib.
- 1800 - 3,660,000 ~ - - 14,120,000
1802 - 3,400,000 - - - 24,100,000
1803 - 3,493,544 - - -37,712,079

From these data of M. Gallatin, it follows that the produce of cotton has become 877 times

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greater in twelve years. When we consider the
physical positions of the United States and
Mexico, we can hardly entertain a doubt that
these two countries will one day be enabled
to produce all the cotton employed in the
manufactures of Europe.‘ The enlightened

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20 POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE [soon iv.

printed a few years ago, that the total impor-
tation of cotton into Europe, amounts to. 30
millions of kilogrammes.* I, amwigqlined to
believe that this estimate is much below the
truth; for the United States alone have expor-
ted annually, more than 22 millions of kilo.
grammes of cotton 1‘, amounting in value to

~or nearly 40 millions of livres

.tourn01s. .

. /Flaw and hemp may be advantageously
cultivated wherever the climate does -not admit
of the cultivation of cotton, as in the provincias
intemas, and even in the equinoctial region or
table land, where the mean temperature is under
l4< degrees of the centigrade thermometer. 1
The Abbe Clavigero advances that flax is to be
found wild in the intendancy of Valladolid and in
New Mexico, but I very much question, whether
the assertion is founded on the accurate obser-

vation of any botanical traveller. However it

is certain that neither flax nor hemp have to
this day been cultivated in Mexico. Spain has
had a few enlightened ministers who Wished to

favour these two branches of colonial industry;
but their favour was nothing more than tem-
porary. The council of the Indies, whose influ-
ience is durable like that of every bodyin which

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the same principles are perpetuated, have ever
wished the mother country to opposethe cultiva-
tion of flax, the vine, the olive, and the mulberry.
Unenlightened as to-its true interests, the govern-
ment has always preferred seeing-,th‘e Mexican
people clothed with cotton purchased at Manilla
and Canton, or imported at Cadiz by English
vessels, to the production of the 'manuf'actures of
New Spain. It is to be hoped that the moun-
tainous part of Sonora, the intendancy of
Durango and New_Mexico, will one day rival
Galicialand the Asturias in the production of
flax. As to hemp, it would be of importance
not to introduce into Mexico the. European
species, but that which is cultivated in China

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(cannabis indica), I of

the height of five or six metres.‘ We have
every reason to presume, however, that the
cultivation of flax and hemp -will’ spread with
great difliculty in that region of Mexico abound-
ingwith cotton. The steeping requires more
care and labour than the separation of cotton
from the seed; and in a country where there
are few hands, and much laziness, the preference
is naturally given to a cultivation of which
the produce is much more promptly and easily
managed. - ,
The cultivation of coffee in the Island of Cuba

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and the Spanish colonies on the continent, com-
menced only since the destruction of the plan-'
tations of Saint Domingo.* In 1804 the Island
of Cuba produced already 12,000, and the pro-
vince of Caracas nearly 5,000 quintals. New
Spain possesses sugar plantations in greater
number, and more considerable than Terra F irma
possesses ; but the production of coffee amounts
yet to nothing, though it can hardly be doubted
that this species of cultivation would succeed
perfectly well in the temperate regions, par-
ticularly at the elevation of the towns of Xalapa
and Chilpansingo. The use of coffee is still so
rare in Mexico, that the whole country does not
consume annually more than four or five hundred

where the population 1S scarcely five tunes

* The French part of St Domingo produced in 1783 only 445,734 guintfls gf coffee; but five years afterwards it produced 762,865. And yet the price in 1783 was 50 francs the uintal, and 94 francs in 1788; which proves how much the use of coffee has been spreading in Europe notwithstanding the advanced price. Yemen furnishes annually according to Raynal 130,000, and according to Mr. Page 150,000 quintals, which are almost all exported to Turkey, Persia, and India. The Isles of France and Bourbon yield 45,000 quintals. It appears to me, from what information I have been able to procure, that all Europeactually consumes annually, nearly 53 millions of kilogrammes of coffee (ll6,97l,000 lbs. avoird. Trans.) The coifee-tree

~hile the consumption of France,
Z21-~
yields in a good soil‘ one kilogramme of coffee, 060 of

them may be planted on a hectare of ground.
~'

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