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I -In five preceding years, the produce amounted ‘to 80 millions; so that ‘we may consirler six millions of piastres -as the mean term for one year, the produce of gold and silver having declined in 1800 and 1801, on account of the maritime war, which impeded the importation of mercury, as well as iron and steel, from Europe. We shall adopt, however, a smaller sum, viz. 3,450 mares ‘of gold, and 570,000 mares of silver, the value of which amounts altogether to 5,800,000 piastres.‘

The places in Peru most celebrated for abounding with precious metals, or the magnitude of the works, are in following the chain of the Andes from north to south. In the province of Caramarca, the Cerro de Gualgayoc, near Micuipampa, Fuentestiana, and Pilancones; in the

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province of Chachapoyas, S. Thomas, Las Playas de Balzas, and the Pampas del Sacramento, between the Rio Guallaga and l’Ucajale; in the province of Guamachuco, the town of Guamachuco, (with the Reales de San Francisco, d’Angasmarca, and de la Mina Hedionda), Sogon, Sanagoran, San Jose, and Santiago de Chucu; in the province of Pataz, the town of Partaz, Vuldivuyo, Tayabamba, Soledad, and Chilia; in the province of Conchucos, the town of Conchucos, Siguas, Tambillo, Pomapamba, Chacas, Guari, Chavin, Guanta, and Ruriquinchay; in the province of Huamalies, Guallanca ; in the province of Camatambo, Chanca, and the town of Caxatambo; in the province of T arma, the Cerro de Yauricocha, (two leagues to the north of Pasco) Chaupimarca, Arenillapata, Santa Cathalina, \Caya grande, Yanacanche, Santa Rosa, and the Cerro de Colquisirca ; in the province of Huarochiri‘, Conchapata; in the province of Huancavelica, San Juan de Lucanas; and lastly, in the confines of the desert of Atacama, Huantajaya. I have followed in this long enumeration the old division of Peru into provinces; but since

"* The mountains of Huarochiri and Canta contain excellent coal; but on account of the high price of carriage, they cannot be used at Lima. Cobalt and antimony have also been discovered at Huarochiri.

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the frontierrof the‘kingdom of Buenos-Ayres has been made to pass to the west of the lake of Chucuito, between the lake and the ‘cityof Cuzco, and since on the one hand the kingdom of Quito and the provinces of Jaen de B1:acamoros and Maynas, and on the other the governments of Paz, Oruro, Plata, and Potosi, have been separated from Peru, this last kingdom is divided into seven intendancies, Truwillo, Tarma, AHuam'eoalica, Lima, Guamanga, Arequissa, and Cuzco, of which each comprehends several departments or partidos.*" We can only arrive at false results when, as has been done in works of the greatest estimation, we compare the produce of the mines of old Peru, with that of the present Peru, which since the year 1778, includes within its limits neither the Cerro del Potosi nor the mines of Oruro and la Paz. The Peruvian. gold partly comes from the provinces of Pataz ‘I’ and Huailas, where it

" The old provinces of Pataz, Guamachuco, and Chachapoyas are now /considered as partidos of the intendancy of Truxillo; and those of Caxatambo, Huailas, Conchucos, and Huamalies, belong to the intendancy of Tarma. The capitals of the seven intendancies are: Lima. with 52,600 inhabitants; 'Guamanga with 26,000; Arequipa. with 24,000; Truxillo with 5800; Huancavelica with 5200; Tarma with 5600; and Cuzco with 32,000. (Guia politiea, ecelesiastica yrmilitar del Vireynato del Peril, para el ano 1793, por Don Jose Hipolitor Unanue). I

-| Among the five mining districts of the partido of

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is extracted rom veins '-of quartz" which" traverse
primitive rocks, and" partly from.stream'wo1'ks
established ontheabanks of the Alto Maranon,
injthe partido of Chachapoyas. , _.
. ;As' in Mexico,’ almost the whole produce is
derived from the mines’of'Guanaxuato, Catorce,
Zacatecas, Real del Monte, and New Biscay,
sq in Peru nearly the whole silver is extracted
from -the great mines of Yauricocha or Lauri-p
cocha, (commonly called mines of Pasco and
the Cerro de Bombon*) and those of Gualgayoc
or.Ckota, and Huantlyaya (pronounced Guan-
ta-ha-ya). . .. .i , ,_ V '
The mines of Pasco, which are the worst
wrought in all Spanish America, were dis-
covered by Huari Capca, an Indian, in 1630;
they annually furnish nearly two millions of
piastres. <To form a just idea .of the enor-
mous mass of silver which nature has deposited
in the bowels of these calcareous mountains, at
an elevation of more than four thousand metres
(13 thousand feet) above the level of the ocean

Pataz which we named above, only that of A Chilia furnishes
si1v.er- v

_ ?" The high table land of the Cordillerasfon which we

find the small lake de los Reyes, to the south of the Cerro
de Yauricocha, is called the Pamba de Bombon. We must
1,\9t_ seekthe position of Pasco on the map,of La Cruz, but
on the map of the Rio I-Iuallaga, drawn up by Father
Sobreviela, and published in 1791 by -the Sociedad de las
Amantes del pair de Lima.

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M2 POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE ' [noox iv.

we must bear in mind that the bed of argenti-
ferous' oxide of iron of Yauricocha has been
wrought without interruption since the begin-
ning of the seventeeth century, and that within
the last twenty years more than five millions
of marcs of silver have been extracted from it,
while the greatest part of the pits are not more
than thirty metres in depth, and none of them
one hundred and twenty metres. The water,
which is very abundant in these mines, is
drawn ofil not by hydraulic wheels or horse
baritels as in Mexico, but by pumps moved
by men, so that, notwithstanding the small
depth of these miserable excavations, which go
by the names of pits and galleries, the drawing
off the water from the mines is excessively
expensive. In the mine of La Luna, the ex-
pence amounted, a few years ago, to more than
a thousand piastres per week. The mines of
Yauricocha would supply the same quantity of
silver as Guanaxuato, if they would but con-
struct hydraulic machines or steam engines, for
which they might make use of the turf of the
lake of Giluacocha. The metalliferous bed
(manta de plata) of Yauricocha appears at the
surface for a length of 41800 metres’ and a
breadth of QQ00 1'. The following table, ex-
tracted from the books of the provincial trea-

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