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Gnu. xi.] IUNGDGM OF NEW sPAiN. 453 rise, which was not felt rm the middle of the '16th, century, /took place suddenly Between 1570 and 1595, when the silver of Potosi, Porco, Tasco, Zacatecas, and Pachuca, began to flow throughout all parts of Europe. But, on the other hand, between that memorable period in the history of commerce, till 1636, the discovery of the mines of America produced its whole effect on thewredugtignhgfwthe value of money. The price of ҤFZ.in has not in reality

-I'lS€l'l to the present day; and if the contrary

has been advanced by several authors, it is from their having confounded the nominal value of

coin, with the true proportion between money and commodities.

Whatever opinion may be adopted as to the future effects of the accumulation of the representative signs, if we consider the people of New Spain under the relation of their commercial connections with Europe, it cannot be denied that, in the present state of things, the abundance of the precious metals has a powerful influence on the national prosperity. It is from this abundance, that America is enabled to pay in specie, the produce of foreign industry, and to share in the enjoyments of the most civilized nations of the Old (Continent. Notwithstanding this real advantage, it is to be sincerely wished, that the Mexicans, enlightened as to their true interest, may re

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454- POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE [BOOK rv.

collect that the onlg gapital of which the value
increases with timekgonsists in the _produce
- *7 I .1 "7
of a riculture and that nominal wealth be-
comes ifisory, whenever a nation does not
possess those raw materials, which serve for
the subsistence of man, or as em loyment for

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Manqfacturing Industry - Cotton Cloth-— Woollen — Cegars
—- Soda and Soap—-Po'wder— Coin -—E.1:change of Pro-
ductions - Internal Commerce— Roads — Foreign Com-
merce by Vera Cruz and Acapulco— Obstacles to that
Commerce — Yellow Fever.

. IF we consider the small progress of ma-
nufactures in Spain, notwithstanding the nu-
merous encouragements which they have re-
ceived, since the ministry of the Marquis de
la Ensenada, we hall not be surprised that
whatever relates to manufactures and manu-
facturing industry is still less advanced in
Mexico. The restless and suspicious policy
of the nations of Europe, the legislation and
colonial policy of the moderns, which bear
very little resemblance to those of the Phe-
nicians and Greeks, have thrown insurmount-
able obstacles in the way of such settlements
~ G G 41

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456 POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE [noon v.

as might secure to these distant possessions, a great degree of prosperity, and an existence independent of the mother country. Such principles as prescribe the rooting up the vine and the olive, are not calculated to favour manufactures. A colony has for ages been only considered as useful to the parent state, in so far as it supplied a great number of raw materials, and consumed a number of the commodities carried there by the ships of the mother country. _

It was easy for different commercial nations to adapt their colonial system to islands of small extent, or factories established on the coast of a continent. The inhabitants

of Barbadoes, St. Thomas, or Jamaica, are not sutliciently numerous to possess a great number of hands for the manufacture of cotton cloth; and the position of these islands at all times facilitates the exchange of their agricultural produce, for the manufactures of Europe.

It is not so with the continental possessions of Spain in the two Americas. Mexico, beyond the 98° of north latitude, contains a breadthof 350 leagues. The table land of New Grenada communicates with the ‘port of ,Carthagena by means of a great river, ditli/cult to ascend. Industry is awakened,-when towns

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of fifty and sixty thousand inhabitants are si-
tuated on the ridge of mountains at a great
distance from the coast; when a population
of several millions can only receive European

goods, by transporting them on the backs of

mules for the space of five or six months,
through forests and deserts. The new colonies
were not established among people altogether
barbarians. Before the arrival of the Spa-
niards, the Indians were already clothed in
the Cordilleras of Mexico, Peru, and Quito.
Men who knew the process of weaving cotton,
or spinning the wool of the Llamas and Vicunas,
were easily taught to manufacture cloth; and
this manufacture was established at Cuzco in
Peru, and Texcuco in Mexico, a few years after
the conquest of those countries, on the introduc-
tion of European sh‘eep into America.

The kings of Spain, by taking the title of

kings of the Indies, have considered these dis

tant possessions rather las integral parts of

their monarchy, as provinces dependent on
the crown of -Castille, than as colonies in the
sense attached to this word since the sixteenth
century, by the commercial nations of Europe.
They early perceived that these vast countries,
of which the coast is less inhabited than the
interior, could not be governed like islands
scattered in the Atlantic -Ocean; and from
these circumstances the court of Madrid was

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