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Fortunately the introduction of negroes has not augmented in Mexico in the same proportion as the sugar produce. Although in the intendancy of Puebla, near Guautla de las Amilpas, there are plantations (haciendas dc ezm"a) which yield annually more than from
to 750,000 kilogrammes 1‘) almost all the Mexican sugar is manufactured by Indians, and consequently by free hands. It is easy to foresee that the small West India Islands, notwithstanding their favourable position for trade, will not be long able to sustain a competition with the continental colonies, if the latter continue to give themselves up with the same ardour to the cultivation of sugar, coffee, and cotton. In the physical as well as in the moral world, every thing terminates in a return to the order prescribed by nature ; and if small islands, of which the population was exterminated, have hitherto carried on a more active trade with their productions than the neighbouring continent, it is only because the inhabitants of Cumana, Cara
* This produce is very considerable, and it is only to be found in a single plantation in the Island of Cuba, of the name of Rio Blanco, belonging to the Marquis delidrcos, between Xaruco and Matanzas, which " annually produces 40,000 arrobas of sugar. There are not eight which yield for ten years in succession 35,000.
’r From 1,103,500 to 1,655,250 lb. avoird. Trans.
cas, New Granada, and Mexico began very late
New Spain, besides the advantage of its popu.
I-0 POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE i [B09]; w_
the island of Cuba, the establishment of a great sugar plantation, worked by 300 negroes, and yielding annually 500,000 kilogrammes "* of sugar, requires an advance of two millions of livres tournois Jr, and that it brings in from 300,000 to 350,000i livres of revenue; The Mexican colonist may choose along the coast, and in the valleys of greater or less depth, the most suitable climate for the sugar-cane; and he has less to fear from frost than the colonist of Louisiana. But the extraordinary configuration of the surface of New Spain throws great obstacles in the way of transporting sugar to Vera Cruz. The plantations now in existence are for the most part very remote from the coast opposite to Europe. The country having yet neither canals nor roads fit for carriage, the mule carriage of the sugar to Vera Cruz increases its price a piastre per arroba, or eight sous per kilogramme.§ These obstacles will be much diminished by the roads now making ‘from. Mexico to VeraCruz by Orizaba and by Xalapa, along the eastern slope of the Cordilleras. It is also probable that the progress of colonial agriculture will contribute to people the shores of New Spain,
* 1,103,500 lb. avoird. Trans.
1‘ 83,3401. sterling. Trans.
$ From l2,500l. to 14,5811. sterling. Trans.
which for ages have remained desert and un-
It is observed in Mexico, that the vezou, or
From the most exact calculations that I could make at the island of Cuba, I find that a given hectare of ground yields for mean term 12 cubic metres of vezou, from which is drawn by the processes hitherto in use, in which much sugary matter is decomposed by fire, at most from ten to twelve per cent. or 1500 l\_I_i_l§g‘_1;a_rnmes* of raw sugar. They reckon at
12 POLITICAL ESSAY ON THE [BOOK IV.
the Havannah, and in the warm and fertile
lished during the ministry of M. Chaptal, that the import-
' Sucre léte or sucre de the is that which is taken from the upper part or head of the conical pot or pan (fbrme) used in the making of clayed sugar. (Casaux sur l'Art ck cultivez la Ccfnner, p. 453.) Trans.