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Then came old January, wrapped well
Laus Deo-was the first entry by merchants and tradesmen of our forefathers' days, in beginning their new account-books with the new year. LAUS DEO! then, be the opening of this volume of the Every-Day Book, wherein we take further" note of time," and make VOL. II.-53.
Spenser. entries to the days, and months, and seasons, in "every varied posture, place, and hour."
JANUARY, besides the names already mentioned, was called by the Anglo
In vol. i. p. 2.
Saxons Giuli aftera, signifying the second Giul, or Yule, or, as we should say, the second Christmas.* Of Yule itself much will be observed, when it can be better said.
To this month there is an ode with a verse beautifully descriptive of the Roman symbol of the year:†
"Tis he! the two-fac'd Janus comes in view;
Mr. Luke Howard is the author of a highly useful work, entitled "The Climate of London, deduced from Meteorological Observations, made at different places in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis: London, 1818." 2 vols. 8vo. Out of this magazine of fact it is proposed to extract, from time to time, certain results which may acquaint general readers with useful knowledge concerning the weather of our latitude, and induce the inquisitive to resort to Mr. Howard's book, as a careful guide of high authority in conducting their researches. That gentleman, it is hoped, will not deem this an improper use of his labours it is meant to be, as far as regards himself, a humble tribute to his talents and diligence. With these views, under each month will be given a state of the weather, in Mr. Howard's own words: and thus we begin.
The Sun in the middle of this month continues about 8 h. 20 m. above the hori
The Temperature rises in the day, on an average of twenty years, to 40-28° and falls in the night, in the open country to 31.36°-the difference, 8.92°, representing the mean effect of the sun's rays for the month, may be termed the solar variation of the temperature.
The Mean Temperature of the month, is the observations in this city be included, is 36.34°. But this mean has a range, in ten years, of about 10-25°, which may be termed the lunar variation of the temperature. It holds equally in the decade, beginning with,1797, observed in London, and in that beginning with 1807, in the country. In the former decade, the month was coldest in 1802, and warmest in 1812, and coldest in 1814. I have likewise shown, that there was a tendency in the daily variation of temperature through this month, to proceed, in these respective periods of years, in opposite classes of winds, in the different periods, directions. The prevalence of different is the most obvious cause of these periodical variations of the mean tempera
The Barometer in this month rises, on falls to 28.97 in.: the mean range is therean average of ten years, to 3:40 in, and fore 1.43 in.; but the extreme range in ten years is 2.38 in. The mean height for the month is about 29.79 inches.
west to north. The northerly predomiThe prevailing Winds are the class from nate, by a fourth of their amount, over the southerly winds.
30-50 inches for the year) is 0-832 in., The average Evaporation (on a total of and the mean of De Luc's hydrometer 80.
earth, is 1.959 in.; and the number of The mean Rain, at the surface of the days on which snow or rain falls, in this month, averages 14, 4.
A majority of the Nights in this month have constantly the temperature at or below the foregoing point.
Long ere the lingering dawn of that blythe morn
Howard on Climate.
+ See vol. i. p. 1. The first visitant who enters a house on New-year's day is called the first-foot.
Pronounced with honest warmth. In village, grange,
good, or very bad indeed! And only to propose to be better, is something; if
The Saints of the Roman calendars and nothing else, it is an acknowledgment of
So far as the rev. Alban Butler, in his every-day biography of Roman catholic saints, has written their memoirs, their names have been given, together with notices of some, and especially of those retained in the calendar of the church of England from the Romish calendar. Similar notices of others will be offered in continuation; but, on this high festival in the calendar of nature, particular or further remark on the saints' festivals would interrupt due attention to the season, and therefore we break from them to observe that day which all enjoy in common,
New Year's Day.
Referring for the "New-year's gifts," the "Candlemas-bull," and various observances of our ancestors and ourselves, to the first volume of this work, wherein they are set forth in lively pourtraieture," we stop a moment to peep into the "Mirror of the Months," and inquire "Who can see a new year open upon him, without being better for the prospect-without making sundry wise reflections (for any reflections on this subject must be comparatively wise ones) on the step he is about to take towards the goal of his being? Every first of January that we arrive at, is an imaginary mile-stone on the turnpike track of human life; at once a resting place for thought and meditation, and a starting point for fresh exertion in the performance of our jour ney. The man who does not at least propose to himself to be better this year than he was last, must be either very
our need to be so, which is the first step towards amendment. But, in fact, to propose to oneself to do well, is in some sort to do well, positively; for there is no such thing as a stationary point in human endeavours; he who is not worse to-day than he was yesterday, is better; and he who is not better, is worse."
It is written, " Improve your time," in the text-hand set of copies put before us when we were better taught to write than to understand what we wrote. How often these three words recurred at that period without their meaning being discovered! How often and how serviceably they have recurred since to some who have obeyed the injunction! How painful has refleetion been to others, who recollecting it, preferred to suffer rather than to do!
The author of the paragraph quoted above, expresses forcible remembrance of his youthful pleasures on the coming in of the new year." Hail! to thee, JANUARY!-all hail! cold and wintry as thou art, if it be but in virtue of thy first day. THE DAY, as the French call it, pur excellence, Le jour de l'an.' Come about me, all ye little schoolboys that have escaped from the unnatural thraldom of your taskwork-come crowding about me, with your untamed hearts shouting in your unmodulated voices, and your happy spirits dancing an untaught measure in your eyes! Come, and help me to speak the praises of new-year's day !— your day-one of the three which have, of late, become yours almost exclusively, and which have bettered you, and have been bettered themselves, by the change.
Christmay-day, which was; New-year's day, which is; and Twelfth-day, which is to be; let us compel them all three into our presence-with a whisk of our imaginative wand convert them into one, as the conjurer does his three glittering balls-and then enjoy them all together, with their dressings, and coachings, and visitings, and greetings, and gifts, and "many happy returns"-with their plumpuddings, and mince-pies, and twelfthcakes, and neguses-with their forfeits, and fortune-tellings, and blindman's-buffs, and sittings up to supper-with their pantomimes, and panoramas, and new penknives, and pastrycooks' shops-in
short, with their endless round of eve new nothings, the absence of a relish fo which is but ill supplied, in after life, by that feverish lingering and thirsting after excitement, which usurp without filling its place. Oh! that I might enjoy those nothings once again in fact, as I can in fancy! But I fear the wish is worse than an idle one; for it not only may not be, but it ought not to be. "We cannot bave our cake and eat it too," as the vulgar somewhat vulgarly, but not less shrewdly, express it. And this is as it should be; for if we could, it would neither be worth the eating nor the having."
For the Antiquarian Repertory. In the parish of Berlen, near Snodland, in the county of Kent, are the vestiges of a very old mansion, known by the name of Groves. Being on the spot before the workmen began to pull down the front, I had the curiosity to examine its interior remains, when, amongst other things well worth observation, appeared in the large oak beam that supported the chimneypiece, a curious piece of carved work, of which the preceding is an exact copy. Its singularity induced me to set about an investigation, which, to my satisfaction, was not long without success. The large bowl in the middle is the figure of the old wassell-bowl, so much the delight of our hardy ancestors, who, on the vigil of the new year, never failed (says my author) to assemble round the glowing Ruste hire and sitte hire adoune and glad dronke hire heil And that was tho in this land the verst was-hail
hearth with their cheerful neighbours, and then in the spicy wassell-bowl (which testifies the goodness of their hearts) drowned every former animosity-an example worthy modern imitation. Wassell, was the word; Wassell, every guest returned as he took the circling goblet from his friend, whilst song and civil mirth brought in the infant year. This annual custom, says Geoffrey of Monmouth, had its rise from Rouix, or Rowen, or as some will have it, Rowena, daughter of the Saxon Hengist; she, at the command of her father, who had invited the British king Voltigern to a banquet, came in the presence with a bowl of wine, and welcomed him in these words, Louerd king wass-heil; he in return, by the help of an interpreter, answered, Drinc heile; and, if we may credit Robert of Gloster,
As in language of Saroyne that we might evere iwite
with such sort of work before the four-
The two birds upon the bowl did for some time put me to a stand, till meeting with a communicative person at Hobarrow, he assured me they were two hawks, as I soon plainly perceived by their bills and beaks, and were a rebus of the builder's name. There was a string from the neck of one bird to the other, which, it is reasonable to conjecture, was to note that they must be joined together to show their signification; admitting this, they were to be red hawks. Upon inquiry, I found a Mr. Henry Hawks, the owner of a farm adjoining to Groves; he assured me, his father kept Grove farm about forty years since, and that it was built by one of their name, and had been in his family upwards of four hundred years, as appeared by an old lease in his possession.
The apple branches on each side of the bowl, I think, means no more than that they drank good cider at their Wassells. Saxon words at the extremities of the beam are already explained; and the mask carved brackets beneath correspond
The following pleasant old song, inserted by Mr. Brand, from Ritson's collection of " Antient Songs," was met with by the Editor of the Every-day Book, in 1819, at the printing-office of Mr. Rann, at Dudley, printed by him for the Wassailers of Staffordshire and Warwickshire. It went formerly to the tune of
"Gallants come away.
A CARROLL FOR A WASSELL-BOWL.
A jolly Wassel-Bowl,
A Wassel of good ale,
With our Wassel.
Our Wassel we do fill
With apples and with spice,
If any maidens be
Here dwelling in this house,
To take a full carouse