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CHAP. Lysippus; of such magnitude, that his thumb was equal to

the waist, his leg to the stature, of a common man ;
chest ample, bis shoulders broad, his limbs strong and mus-
cular, bis hair curled, his aspect commanding. Without his
bow, or quiver, or club, his lion's skin carelessly thrown over
bim, he was seated on an osier basket, his right leg and arm
stretched to the utmost, his left knee bent, and supporting his
elbow, his head reclining on his left hand, his countenance in-
dignant and pensive. 11. A colossal statue of Juno, which
had once adorned her temple of Samos; the enormous head
by four yoke of oxen was laboriously drawn to the palace. 12.
Another colossus, of Pallas or Minerva, thirty feet in height,
and representing with admirable spirit the attributes and cha-
racter of the martial maid. Before we accuse the Latins, it is
just to remark, that this Pallas was destroyed after the first
siege, by the fear and superstition of the Greeks
The other statues of brass which I have enumerated, were
broken and melted by the unfeeling avarice of the crusaders :
the cost and labour were consumed in a moment: the soul of
genius evaporated in smoke; and the remnant of base metal
was coined into money for the payment of the troops. Bronze
is not the most durable of monuments : from the marble forms
of Phidias and Praxiteles, the Latins might turn aside with
stupid contempt ;99 but unless they were crushed by some ac-
cidental injury, those useless stones stood secure on their
pedestals. 100 The most enlightened of the strangers, above the
gross and sensual pursuits of their countrymen, more piously
exercised the right of conquest in the search and seizure of the
relics of the saints. 101 Immense was the supply of heads and
bones, crosses and images, that were scattered by this revolu-
tion over the churches of Europe ; and such was the increase
of pilgrimage and oblation, that no branch, perhaps, of more
lucrative plunder was imported from the East. 102 Of the wri.
tings of antiquity, many that still existed in the twelfth century

statue : in the latter, Hercules had not his club, and his right leg and arm were extended.

97 I transcribe these proportions, which appear to me inconsistent with each other; and may possibly show, that this boasted taste of Nicetas was no more than affectation and vanity.

98 Nicetas in Isaaco Angelo et Alexio, c. 3. p. 359. The Latin editor very properly observes, that the historian, in his bombast style, produces ex pulice elephantem.

99 In two passages of Nicetas (edit. Paris, p. 360. Fabric. p. 408,) the Latins are branded with the lively reproach of os Tu Melno tvegesc Bag brpos, and their avarice of brass is clearly expressed. Yet the Venetians had the merit of removing four bronze horses from Constantinople to the place of St. Mark (Sanuto, Vite del Dogi, in Muratori, Script. Rerum Italicarnm, tom. xxii. p. 534.)

100 Winckelman, Hist. de l'Art, tom. iji. p. 269, 270.

101 See the pious robbery of the abbot Martin, who transferred a rich cargo to his monastery of Paris, diocess of Basil (Gunther, Hist. C. P. c. 19. 23, 24.) Yet in secreting this booty, the saint incurred an excommunication, and perhaps broke his oath.

192 Fleury, Hist. Eccles. tom. xvi. p. 139–145.

are now lost. But the pilgrims were not solicitous to save or transport the volumes of an unknown tongue : the perishable substance of paper or parchment can only be preserved by the multiplicity of copies; the literature of the Greeks had almost centred in the metropolis ; and, without computing the extent of our loss, we may drop a tear over the libraries that have perished in the triple fire of Constantinople.103



the empe

ror Bald

Partition of the Empire by the French and Venetians-Five La

tin Emperors of the House of Flanders and CourtenayTheir Wars against the Bulgarians and Greeks--Weakness and Poverty of the Latin Empire - Recovery of Constantinople by the Greeks-General Consequences of the Crusades.

AFTER the death of the lawful princes, the French and chap. Venetians, contident of justice and victory, agreed to divide and regulate their future possessions.' It was stipulated by treaty, that twelve electors, six of either nation, should be Election of nominated; that a majority should choose the emperor of the East; and that, if the votes were equal, the decision of chance Xin; should ascertain the successful candidate. To him, with all May 9–16. the titles and prerogatives of the Byzantine throne, they assigned the two palaces of Boucoleon and Blachernæ, with a fourth part of the Greek monarchy. It was defined that the tbree remaining portions should be equally shared between the republic of Venice and the barons of France; that each feudatory, with an honourable exception for the doge, should acknowledge and perform the duties of homage and military service to the supreme head of the empire; that the nation which gave an emperor, should resign to their brethren the choice of a patriarch; and that the pilgrims, whatever might be their impatience to visit the Holy Land, should devote an.

03 I shall conclude this chapter with the notice of a modern history, which illustrates the taking of Constantinople by the Latins; but which has fallen somewbat late into my hands. Paolo Ramusio, the son of the compiler of vog. ages, was directed by the Senate of Venice to write the history of the conquest; and tbis order, which he received in his youth, he executed in a mature age by an elegant Latin work, de Bello Constantinopolitano et Imperatoribus Comnenis per Gallos et Venetos restitutis (Venet. 1635, in folio.) Ramusio, or Rhamnusus, transcribes and translates sequitur ad unguem, a MS. of Villehardouin, which he possessed; but he enriches his narrative with Greek and Latin materials, and we are indebted to hiin for a correct state of the Rect, the names of the fisty Venetian nobles who commanded the galleys of the republic, and the patriot opposition of Pantaleon Barbus to the choice of the doge for emperor.

See the original treaty of partition, in the Venetian Chronicle of Andrew Dandolo, p. 326-330, and the subsequent election in Villehardouin, No. 136– 140, with Ducange in his Observations, and the first book of his Histoire de Constantinople sous l'Empire des François. VOL. VI.


CHAP. other year to the conquest and defence of the Greek provinces. LXI. After the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins, the treaty

was confirmed and executed; and the first and most important step was the creation of an emperor. The six electors of the French nation were all ecclesiastics, the abbot of Loces, the archbishop elect of Acre in Palestine, and the bishops of Troyes, Soissons, Halberstadt, and Bethlehem, the last of whom exercised in the camp the office of pope's legate: their profession and knowledge were respectable ; and as they could not be the objects, they were best qualified to be the authors, of the choice. The six Venetians were the principal servants of the state, and in this list the noble families of Querini and Contarini are still proud to discover their ancestors. The twelve assembled in the chapel of the palace; and after the solemn invocation of the Holy Ghost, they proceeded to deliberate and vote. A just impulse of respect and gratitude, , prompted them to crown the virtues of the doge; bis wisdom had inspired their enterprise ; and the most youthful knights might envy and applaud the exploits of blindness and age. But the patriot Dandolo was devoid of all personal ambition, and fully satisfied that he had been judged worthy to reign. His nomination was overruled by the Venetians ihemselves; his countrymen, and perhaps bis friends, represented, with the eloquence of truth, the mischiefs that might arise to national freedom and the common cause, from the union of two incompatible characters, of the first magistrate of a republic and the Emperor of the East. The exclusion of the doge left room for the more equal merits of Boniface and Baldwin; and at their names all meaner candidates respectfully withdrew. The marquis ot Montferrat was recommended by bis mature age and fair reputation, by the choice of the adventurers and the wishes of the Greeks; nor can I believe, that Venice, the mistress of the sea, could be seriously apprehensive of a petty lord at the foot of the Alps.3 But the count of Flanders was the chief of a wealthy and warlike people; he was valiant, pious, and chaste; in the prime of life, since he was only thirty-two years of age ; a descendant of Charlemagne, a cousin of the king of France, and a compeer of the prelates and barons who had yielded with reluctance to the command of a foreigner. Without the chapel, these barons, with the doge and marquis at their head, expected the decision of the twelve electors. It was announced by the bishop of Soissons, in

2 After mentioning the nomination of the doge by a French elector, his kinsman Andrew Dandolo approves his exelusion, quidam Venetoruin fideiis et nobilis senex, usus oratione satis probabili, &c. which has been embroidered by modern writers from Blondus to Le Beau.

s Nicetas (p. 384,) with the vain ignorance of a Greek, describes the marquis of Moniferrat as a maritime power. Aqu tapdrar de CXST-$u Tuprator, Was he deceived by the Byzantine theme of Lombardy, which extended along the coast of Calabria?

the name of his colleagues : “Ye have sworn to obey the prince chap. whom we should choose; by our unanimous suffrage, Baldwin LXI. count of Flanders and Hainult is now your sovereign, and the emperor of the East.” He was saluted with loud applause, and the proclamation was re-echoed through the city by the joy of the Latins and the trembling adulation of the Greeks. Boniface was the first tokiss the hand of his rival, and to raise him on the buckler; and Baldwin was transported to the cathedral, and solemnly invested with the purple buskins. At the end of three weeks he was crowned by the legate, in the vacancy of a patriarch ; but the Venetian clergy soon filled the chapter of St. Sophia, seated Thomas Morosini on the ecclesiastical throne, and employed every art to perpetuate in their own nation the honours and benefices of the Greek church. Without delay, the successor of Constantine instructed Palestine, France, and Rome, of this memorable revolution. To Palestine be sent, as a trophy, the gates of Constantinople, and the chain of the harbour, and adopted, from the Assize of Jerusalem, the laws or customs best adapted to a French colony and conquest in the East. In his epistles, the natives of France are encouraged to swell that colory, and to secure that conquest, to people a magnificent city and a fertile land, which will reward the labours both of the priest and the soldier. He congratulates the Roman pontiff on the restoration of his authority in the East; invites him to extinguish the Greek schism by his presence in a general council; and implores his blessing and forgiveness for the disobedient pilgrims. Prudence and dignity are blended in the answer of Innocent.6 In the subversion of the Byzantine empire, he arraigns the vices of man, and adores the providence of God: the conquerors will be absolved or condemned by their future conduct; the validity of their treaty depends on the judgment of St. Peter; but he inculcates their most sacred duty of establishing a just subordination of obedience and tribute, from the Greeks to the Latins, from the magistrate to the clergy, and from the clergy to the pope. In the divisions of the Greek provinces, the share of the Division of

the Greek

erapire. 4 They exacted an oath from Thomas Morosini to appoint no canons of St. Sophia, the lawful electors, except Venetians who had lived ten years at Venice, &c. But the foreign clergy was envious, the pope disapproved this na. tional monopoly, and of the six Latin patriarchs of Constantinople, only the first and the last were Venetians.

5 Nicetas, p. 383. 6 The Episties of Innocent III. are a rich fund for the ecclesiastical and civil institution of the Latin empire of Constantinople ; and the most important of these epistles (of which the collection in 2 vols. in folio, is published by Stephen Baluze) are inserted in his Gesta, in Muratori, Script. Rerum Italicarum, tom. iii. p. i. c. 94–105.

* In the treaty of partition, most of the names are corrupted by the scribes : they might be restored, and a good map suited to the last age of the Byzantine empire, would be an improvement of geography. But, alas! d'Anville is no more!

CHAP. Venetians was more ample than that of the Latin emperor.

LXI. No more than one-fourth was appropriated to his domain ; a w clear moiety of the remainder was reserved for Venice; and

the other moiety was distributed among the adventurers of France and Lombardy. The venerable Dandolo was proclaimed despot of Romania, and invested after the Greek fashion with the purple buskins. He ended at Constantinople his long and glorious life ; and if the prerogative was personal, the title was used by his successors till the middle of the fourteenth century, with the singular, though true, addition of lords of one-fourth and a half of the Roman empire. The doge, a slave of state, was seldom permitted to depart from the helm of the republic ; but his place was supplied by the bail or regent, who exercised a supreme jurisdiction over the colony of Venetians; they possessed three of the eight quarters of the city; and his independent tribunal was composed of six judges, four counsellors, two chamberlains, two fiscal advocates, and a constable. Their long experience of the Eastern trade enabled them to select their portion with discernment: they had rashly accepted the dominion and deience of Adrianople; but it was the more reasonable aim of their policy to form a chain of factories, and cities, and islands, along the maritime coast, from the neighbourhood of Ragusa to the Hellespont and the Bosphorus. The labour and cost of such extensive conquests exhausted their treasury: they abandoned their maxinis of government, adopted a feudal system, and contented themselves with the homage of their nobles, for the possessions which these private vassals undertook to reduce and inaintain. And thus it was that the family of Sanut acquired the dutchy of Naxos, wbich involved the greatest part of the Archipelago. For the price of ten thousand marks, the republic purchased of the marquis of Montserrat the fertile island of Crete or Candia with the ruins of a hundred cities;10 but its improvement was stinted by the proud and narrow spirit of an aristocracy;" and the wisest senators would confess, that the sea, not the land, was the treasury of St. Mark. In the moiety of the adventurers, the marquis Boniface might claim the most liberal reward ; and, besides the isle of Crete,

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8 Their style was dominus quartæ partis et dimidiæ imperii Romani, till Giovanni Dolfino, who was elected doge in the year 1356 (Sanuto, p. 530. 641.) For the government of Constantinople, see Ducange, Histoire de C. P. i. 37.

9 Ducange (Hist. de C, P. ii. 6,) has marked the conquests made by the state or nobles of Venice of the islands of Candia, Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Naxos, Paros, Melos, Andros, Mycone, Scyro, Cea, and Lemnos.

1" Boniface sold the isle of Candia, August 12, A. D. 1204. See the act in Sanuto, p. 533 ; but I cannot understand how it could be his mother's portion, or how she could be the daughter of an emperor Alexius.

11 In the year 1212, the doge Peter Zani sent a colony to Candia, drawn from every quarter of Venice. But in their savage manners and frequent rehellions, the Candiots may be compared to the Corsicans under the yoke of Genoa ; and when I compare the accounts of Belon and Tournefort, I cannot discern much difference between the Venetian and the Turkish island.

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