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ANNEXATION OF SANTO DOMINGO,
Mr. MORRILL, of Vermont. Mr. Pres- as those employed in the message; but it is ident, let me say in the outset that the message my purpose to touch upon only a few of the from the President, accompanying the report points there and elsewhere so strongly urged. of the commissioners, has my cordial approval. In doing this, however, I shall be frank and If a partisan press bas heretofore assailed his earnest. Less than this would neither be character, that, in the face of the report, will truthful to the State I in part represent nor be no longer possible. The President wisely | respectful to the Senate. remits the question to the voice of the people, The report of the commissioners may speak and stands, as at his inauguration, with no well of the climate because, in five weeks, it policy to enforce against their wishes. This I never hurt them; favorably of the soil because regard as an end of a vexed question ; and I it really produces bananas and pine.apples, should not have trespassed upon the patience never seen in Ohio, New York, or Massachuof the Senate only that I think it just and fair setts; slightingly of the iron, copper, and gold that some of the reasons for regarding the mines, as they had annihilated " distance," annexation of Santo Domingo with disfavor the only thing that “lends enchantment to should be allowed to have utterance at the the view," and the inhabitants may not have same time with the dissemination of a report been aware that they were expected to produce which is likely to attract more or less the anything valuable of this sort; despondingly of attention of the country.
finding coal at Samana, where there is only a Mr. President, differing as I do from the poor show of lignite ; but the report will be President as to his Santo Domingo policy, it is well sprinkled with salt-Syracuse must look only just to say in the outset that I have ever after its saltness—and yet it will be found freely accorded to him the credit of being | neither more exhaustive nor reliable than a actuated by the purest motives in whatever he || large number of works from the hands of im. has done to promote the swift accomplishment || partial travelers who have heretofore visited of annexation. In his methods he may have the island and devoted far more time to the committed errors, but his intentions, I feel investigation of facts. Their report may be confident, will bear the scrutiny of the final || faithful as to what they saw, but it cannot Judge of all men. Let those who have done | supersede authorities of equal character and truer and braver work for their country, if any much larger opportunities, and will be chiefly such there be, assail President Grant, but as valuable for vindicating, what needed no vinfor me I hold no title to give point to any sen- dication, the personal integrity of the Presitence with the purpose of inflicting a stab upon dent and that of the gallant young officer his reputation. All parts of his late annual charged with negotiating the defeated treaty. message were able-most of it exceedingly satisfactory to the country-but there was no part A treaty, or joint resolution, of annexation of it more elaborate than that touching Santo once made and adopted must be fanal and irrev. Domingo. It is a subject deserving serious ocable. However sad and long the train of examination, and I wish an answer might be evils succeeding, there is absolutely no remedy. made in terms as terse and of equal clearness || Divorce is impossible. After the Missouri
ANNEXATION FINAL-DIVORCE FOREVER IMPOSSIBLE.
pours its muddy flood into the Mississippi, the the filibuster Walker; first in Sonora, Lower Father of Waters never again recovers its ori- California, then in Nicaragua, where at last ginal purity, but rolls down its whole course in | he was driven into Rivas, and, taking shelter a foul, discolored, and turbid condition, til, on board the United States sloop-of-war St. through a half dozen wide gaping mouths, it Mary's, was brought to New Orleans, but only disembogues into the great Gulf below. Let to receive sympathy, and not punishment, for this West India stream of annexation but once his. piratical achievements. Mr. Buchanan pour its foul current into the history of the was loud in deprecating such crimes, but could United States, and its polluted track will be find no authority for punishing the criminals. visible for all coming time, or so long as the But when Walker, in 1860, struck at Honduras Union shall be preserved from the great gulf | he was captured and met the fate he had so below.
long deserved. His acts, nevertheless, inefThe annual message of the President brought || faceably stained the character of our country. into one golden sheaf the heads of a large num- With Paraguay we had some difficulty, ten ber of arguments in behalfof Santo Domingo an- years ago or more, which caused us to send a nexation, strong enough to stand while closely | formidable naval expedition there with threathuddled together, but doomed to bend and fall | ening demands. Will she ever forget or forone after another when standing alone and give us? examined separately and apart, or when the Our attitude toward Cuba has frequently rhetorical band holding them so snugly together put our relations with Spain in jeopardy. has been once broken. The task of dealing | Sometimes we propose to buy it at a great with the whole of these state-paper suggestions price, and sometimes our private citizens prowould be an inviting one if assertions could be pose to take it by force at their own risk and as_briefly refuted as they can be briefly made. expense. "There is but one God, and Mohammed is his In 1860 we withdrew our minister from Peru prophet'' is quickly and stoutly said; and wbile || in consequence of the seizure of two Ameri. the first branch of the proposition receives uni. can vessels which were illegally loaded with versal assent, the last, though incredible, has guano at an island from which the Peruvian to be refuted by the tedious processes of facts Government did not permit it to be exported and arguments. I shall undertake to grapple to foreign countries. Perụ has paid no dam. with what may be considered the most material ages, and loves us little. arguments in behalf of Dominican annexation, Only recently, while Brazil was at war with as well as a few of those requiring, it may be, Paraguay, the passage of the American gunsome patience to consider, but patience only boat Wasp up the Paraguay to bring away the to refute.
American minister, Mr. Washburn, was reA BULLY AMONG REPUBLICS NOT LOVED. fused, and thereupon General Webb demanded Our reputation among our sister republics in an apology at a fixed time or he would close America is not wholly unblemished, nor is it, his diplomatic relations. The Brazilian Gov. I fear, likely to grow brighter by the history of ernment sullenly complied, but our repeated the Santo Domingo complications. Not that offers thereafter to mediate in the war against we have in our foreign relations always been Paraguay were steadily declined. Such kind in the wrong, but that we seem to have pos- offices, it is humiliating to admit, would be sessed a wonderful aptitude to get embroiled accepted by Brazil or almost any other Amerwith weaker nationalities. All remember the ican Government with more alacrity when tencircumstances of our troubles with Mexico, or dered by European nations than if tendered of her troubles with us. We tore from her side by the United States. the large State of Texas, and when she pouted This unpleasant recital might be continued, about the extravagant boundary claimed we but is not this enough to require a little more declared that war existed by her act, and circumspection on our part, and to see to it, fought bloody battles for three years to make while we submit to nothing wrong, that we ber surrender and sell two or three more large do not carry ourselves like a bully among little States ; but the wounds of poor Mexico have nations? been bleeding ever since, and if we are looked The annexation of Santo Domingo, whether upon with any favor, it is when in comparison of spontaneous origin or nursed by the miliwith the French.
tary, naval, and financial power of the United Then, in 1852, Greytown, the principal port | States, cannot fail to excite the jealousy and of one of the republics of Central America, fear of all the American republics. The Uniwas bombarded and burned by a naval force | ted States will be the great land-shark of the of the United States, on the flimsy charge that continent, whose friendship entices only to its inhabitants had infringed the rights of the devour and whose anger can only be appeased transit company. No reparation on our part by destruction. Our neighborhood, instead has ever been made for this wanton and brutal of being one of cordial sympathy and support, exercise of power.
becomes one of apprehension and danger to Soon after this commenced the career of ll all inferior independent Governments. May
ARE OUR PEOPLE NOW HOMOGENEOUS.
not any official, who can obtain nominal su- lately in rebellion would seem to be to subor. premacy in the government of his people, | dinate the black man, intellectually as well as count on the flag and the Treasury of the politically, and to give him no means of supUnited States as an ally wbenever he is ready port except in accordance with compacts to to betray and sell his country? The American which he is not an equal party. Under a sys. Republic should be the protector, the coun- tem like this millions of freedmen may continue selor, and guide of all her sister, republics, to have their ancient ignorance fostered and and not a ravenous beast of prey.
perpetuated and the prospect of making them If our natural growth prior to our late war intelligent citizens, enjoying the protection of excited the envy and distrust of the aristocracy of our Government-if they can be said to enjoy of England and France, because, as they said, it-and giving in return a full equivalent there. we were becoming too arrogant and aggressive, il for, will not very speedily be realized. The can we not be content therewith without result is that the master race, embittered by seeking extraordinary accessions to our bulk, || defeat in the recent conflict, studies political and such accessions, too, as will be far more revenge for the future, and the freedman is to likely to contribute to our downfall than to be kept in such poverty and ignorance as to our up-building? The natural growth of a free make him of little value to himself and of country must be respected, be let alone, and still less to his country. will receive the universal admiration of free- These may be unwelcome truths, but if their men, but a forced or artificial growth is not verity is undeniable, prudent statesmanship only often circumvented, but nearly always a requires that we should not be deluded by the positive calamity.
vain idea that the consequences may be avoided
by denial or by silence. The risks of the future It is useless to disguise the fact that the ought not to be multiplied, though all the ragged people of a portion of our present territory
and fugitive kingdoms of the world should seek have not become assimilated with the Ameri.
annexation to us and show an eagerness to can people and American institutions, and the undertake their part of the risk. There are time when they will do so must be computed,
but few of even the brightest spots on earth not by years, but by generations. To say which under any circumstances would be acnothing of our lately acquired Siberia, com: ceptable to us, and none that should be urged monly called Alaska, it must be conceded that by any appliances of the Treasury or Navy. Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and that portion
We desire to retain the prestige of teaching of Texas bordering upon Mexico are yet not nations by our example how to govern themonly essentially un-American, but they have no
selves, rather than to imperil our own existence overwhelming attachment to our form of by attempting to govern the incapables, whether government nor to the Anglo-Saxon race. near or remote, upon fat soils or lean. We Their first love was of a different complexion.
cannot confer freedom upon any foreign peoIf the strong arm of the United States should ple, much less upon a people who have not at any time become weak, it would receive
earned it, nor have the sense and energy to no succor from these localities, (the conspicu- | accept it. Freedom is the reward of merit, ous acquisitions of manifest destiny,) but their and not a subject of commerce or charity. At population would at any time, most likely,
home we may make freemen of slaves or sav. Aock to the banner of any cocked-bat revolu- ages, but they will be so nominally only, retionist. Their civilization is at variance and I quiring the protection of older freemen until not in harmony with our own. Having little
they have been educated up to the point of commerce and almost wholly · destitute of appreciating their new privileges. Meanwhile educational institutions, they are making no
they must be objects of solicitude, to some advances in the arts or sciences, literature or
extent of weakness and of increased expendipolitics, and are neither better nor worse than they were years ago. It is certainly a matter to be regretted that any portion of our Union One of the arguments in behalf of annexashould seem to lag in the rear of the highest tion is that we need the bay of Samana as a type of civilization, but it must be a sorry con- harbor for the protection of our commerce. solation to them or to us to add to the Union Why do we need it? Certainly not for a coalstill darker patches in order to give to the ing station unless we first carry coal there. places indicated the conspicuous advantages Santo Domingo embraces the easternmost part of a contrast.
of the island, far beyond St. Thomas, Cuba, It is also to be apprehended that the late and Jamaica, and almost entirely outside of masters of the emancipated race in the south- the ordinary routes of commerce, with the ern States will make few sacrifices for the en- Atlantic on one side and the Caribbean sea lightenment of that race or do anything which on the other. Even the steamships for Aspinwill elevate the colored people above depend- wall pass west of Hayti, and of course far out
The unflinching policy of all the States of the way of Samana, which is six degrees
BAY OF SAMANA A COSTLY ELEPHANT.
east of New York. The trade of Vera Cruz to be again apprehended and provided for, and the Gulf States passes between the Florida and if it were to be apprehended, future traiKeys and Cuba-being much the shortest dis- tors might be expected to obtain quicker and tance-and, when returning north, of course easier possession of Samana-like another all vessels seek to secure the considerable Norfolk-than of Mobile, Pensacola, Savan. advantage of the Guif stream. The perils of nah, or Charleston. Samana may be safely foreign ownership of the West India islands dismissed with the rebellion, and with it the have not hitherto crippled American shipping, countless millions of expenditure which a great and are not likely to embarrass it in the least oceanic naval station would involve. hereafter. No trade passing to Louisiana, But it is insisted that we want a naval station Texas, or Mexico would for a moment call at in the bay of Samana for the security of our the bay of Samana, lying easterly and far out
The baselessness of this assumpof the way, while the " Windward passage"
tion will be further seen from the fact that we also lies west even of Hayti and east of the have, and can bave, but the merest pittance most easterly part of Cuba. Only the “Mona of commerce which can ever display itself passage " lies east of Santo Domingo, and in that harbor. It all
It all goes and must go furthe commerce taking this route is mainly that ther west or further east. To reach Samana, small amount which goes in the direction of even the trade which now goes nearest must Venezuela.
sail two hundred and forty miles out of the The fact that the Tennessee, sent out on a way
to reach this out of the way station, and national mission, with five hundred men and then sail back again two hundred and forty nine alert newspaper reporters on board, was miles-making in all a voyage of four hundred as much lost to the world for the long period | and eighty miles-to no purpose; for when of thirty-three days as though she bad been Samana is thus reacbed the only business is, navigating in the open Polar sea, exhibits in and would be, to get away, as tbe bay is as the strongest light the absence of trade and empty as that part of the Lake Gennesaret, ships in the route to Samana, and also its where Simon Peter and his partners, James useless remoteness as a harbor for us or any and John, toiled all night taking nothing. other nation. The bay, too shallow for ships | Besides, if a harbor were needed, unless we even of the second class, like the Tennessee, were at war with Hayti, there are other har. to approach within three miles of the shores to bors far more convenient near at hand-Goreceive coal, and proverbially unhealthy, offers naives, St. Marc, Port au Prince, and, if not at no protection whatever to American shipping war with Great Britain, tbere is a fine harbor interests. Whenever those interests may need directly in the route of commerce, at Kingston, protection, it will be only in time of war, and Jaipaica. It is not likely we shall be at war none but active cruisers, ships of war not afraid with ei her of the countries named, certainly to venture forth out of harbors, would there be not with both, unless we should ourselves in. of any service. A navy cooped up in the bay spire the cause by an act of petty larveny, and of Samana and defended by powerful shore be caught with Santo Domingo in our pockets. batteries, might be out of the reach of an If we merely want harbors for peaceful coinenemy, but it would be of no value to any merce they are to be had for nothing, ever exposed commerce. Vessels of war go forth
Vessels of war go forth | gratuitously open to our use. to fight, not to seek shelter.
Before we can possibly need a naval station If we need a naval station in the West at Samana we must build up commerce there, Indies, do we not need one much more in and then create a naval feet to be placed the Mediterranean? Really we need nothing | there for its protection; a course not unlike of the sort anywhere. Tbe Algerine and other that of the boy who buys a dear purse before pirates on the coast of Africa have seen some- he has anything to put in it. We have no comthing of the American Navy, and will not be merce now in Santo Domingo; but it is assumed likely to forget it. Commerce is as safe there that if we only provide for its protection, as in Chesapeake bay. In the China seas or though it would need no such protection if we Japan there is far more reason for a naval had it, that it would spring forth as miracustation than here at home, where we have on lously as the gushing water from the rock our own shores any number of good and safe touched by the rod of Moses. Our greatest harbors, and which are more formidable to a foreign commerce is with Liverpool, and yet foreign enemy than Samana could be made by that port is three thousand miles away from an expenditure of millions. The acquisition any naval station of the United States. It is of Samana bay was originally based upon a quite apparent, if we are strong at home, that supposed necessity discovered by Secretary our flag alone will protect us anywhere abroad. Seward, and which really temporarily existed Respect is inspired by the banner which repduring a time when all of our southern har- resents power in reserve, rather than by a few bors were held by rebels; but no sane man guns floating in distant seas, and which could can suppose such a condition of affairs is not float whenever a larger number of hostile guns appeared. National plunderers, as well Hayti, possesses. Now is the most propitious tina as private corsairs of the ocean, have disap || for negotiation.
Salnave must have money, and a gift of a wornpeared before the march of modern civiliza
out monitor or two would hasten matters. tion, and treaties of amity and commerce now "While my short stay in the island will not permit guard the trade of the world.
me to speak with authority, it is my individual
opinion that if the United States should annex Can it be pretended that we need Samana
Hayti on the representation of a party it would be for the purpose of national defense, when we found an elephant both costly in money and lives." have nothing there, unless we first place it I have no doubt that nine tenths of our offi. there, to defend? Who is to attack us? Who
cers, both military and naval, if called upon, threatens in the background? Nobody! If would testify that, even with an expenditure Great Britain may rely upon the security that of millions, the bay of Samana would be a the "streak of silver sea" affords, we know source of weakness to the United States. that for the United States the broad Atlantic It should also be noted when we have got is a much more impassable bulwark. But in our naval vessels into the torrid zone--and all order to make Samana a defensive point we of Santo Domingo is within that zone-that by have first to go two thousand miles to fortify | the regulations of the Navy our men cease it, and then go there to be defended. We leave from labor and are permitted to hire natives places of safety to find shelter where weaker to attend to the ship, a privilege not likely to nations are our equals, where many naval | remain a dead letter among "old salts." Let Powers are our superiors, and where the cli
me quote from the regulations of the United mate gives the black man very little quarter, States Navy for 1870 to officers commanding and the white inan none at all.
vessels : The plea that we want the harbor of Samana 222. In cruising in the torrid zone he may engage for any purpose is only a link in the evidence the natives to attend the ship and carry provisions that Hayti, not Santo Domingo, is really cov.
and water, if it should be advisable to do so in order
to preserve the health of the crew." eted and sought, for the harbors of Hayti only could furnish any real accommodation, being
Would it not be more advisable to preserve far better and less remote. The air in the bay
the health of the crew, and our own moral is stagnant, and not even freshened by the trade and political health as well, by letting Santo winds, as the bay is so land-locked that they do | Domingo, severely alone? If the Navy must not penetrate beyond its mouth. On shore be permitted to employ natives to do even the land front has been gobbled up by the per
ordinary work on shipboard, who will our petual leases obtained by such diligent seekers | agriculturists, miners, and mechanics, who of thrift as Fabens, O'Sullivan, and Cazneau.
may be seduced to go there, find it advisable We are asked to buy the site, next to im
to employ to do the extraordinary work of prove and fortify it, and then to occupy it supporting ten millions of people in luxury,': with a naval fleet, with the vain idea that we
which the President has intimated can be done? might thus fire the languid brains and torpid muscles of the Dominicans to make sugar, grow
Although I have never had any filibustering coffee, and hack down the mahogany trees in
ideas as to the manifest destiny or miraculous such incredible quantities as to glut the world | growth of our country, I yet have an abiding with their exports. We are asked to launch faith in the prospective character and greatone expenditure which drags after it numerous ness of the people of America, however terri. others of greater and constantly increasing || torially bounded. It is true that territorial magnitude, and all for the desperate purpose expansions have some undefinable fascinations of establishing a permanent commerce and for the Anglo-Saxon race, and they are not to American institutions where nothing has been be wholly proscribed as wicked, for they are permanent but failures and revolutions, or for sometimes innocent; but the merest tyro canthe even more desperate purpose of finding not blink out of sight the fact that gross bulk, security for our Republic by making fast to or geographical extent, is not the only nor the a tropical island, whose foundations have most vital element which figures in the estimate been often shaken by earthquakes, and which of a great and enlightened nation. The intelis scarred all over with the political as well as ligence and the virtue, the industry and the atmospherical hurricanes of previous cen- courage, the intellect and the stamina of the turies.
people, not the sum total of their property in The frank-spoken sailor, Commander Self- || dirt, form the grander part of the basis upon ridge, in one of his letters to the Secretary of
which rest the claims of all nations to rank the Navy, July 14, 1869, starts most unpleas- | among their contemporaries or in the history ant suggestions. He writes :
that survives their end. * If it is the desire of the Government to possess a
If the question now were barely the acquiport in the island of Hayti either by purchase or sition of more land, unincumbered by populaIcase, I know of no port in the West Indies in con- tion-although we have land enough and to venience of approach, facility of defense, salubrity of position, or of strategic situation, that the port of spare, homesteads even to giveaway-it would Nicola Mole, on the northwestern extremity of have an aspect somewhat less objectionable.
LAND ENOUGH ALREADY.