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PAGE. DENIONERS. EXORAVERS,
81 Grahain. Whimper.
93 Jules. Sly.
137 Graham. Whimper.
drea Orcayna, with a view of the
143 Standfast. Nugent.
101 B. Sly.
169 Perring. Sears.
177 R. Davis.
190 Jackson. Jackson.
217 Harvey. II. Clarke.
220 C. Graham, Whimper.
236 Thorne. Jackson,
249 B. Sly, llolioway.
202 Thorne, Jacksou.
young St. John for the Disert 273 Harvey. II. Clarke.
277 R. Davis.
200 Wells. Rumuey.
.296 B. Siy.
305 B. Sly.
329 B. Sly.
352 B. si
333 R. Davis.
from his paintings at Venice 477
481 B. Sly.
486 B. Sly.
493 B. Sly.
Brighton, and Croydon Railway 499 Anelay.
(Sir Roger de Coverley and the 'Spectator.') SIR ROGER DE COVERLEY.-No. I. through a line of ladies—and lastly, the arched hands
under which every couple passes. This is Roger de It is pleasant to reflect upon the imperishable quality Coverley, or Roger of CowleyCowley is a pretty vilof many of those things, apparently trifling, which have lage about two miles from Oxford; and here some one the power of contributing to innocent enjoyment. lived in the days of the Tudors who was famous enough The sports of childhood are essentially ancient. The to have his name linked with the pretty dance-tune top and the hoop have outlived many generations. that has once again become fashionable. But he had There is a famous picture by Lionardo da Vinci, in a higher honour. The popularity of the dance in the which a boy is playing with the pretty toy in which a days of Queen Anne gave a name to the most famous number of flat boards are fastened by tapes—at once character in • The Spectator;' and ever afterwards the dissevered and united; and the toy is still sold for a dance itself gathered an accession of dignity even in halfpenny at the corner of every street. To ascend in its name, and plain Roger of Cowley became Sir the scale of enjoyment, the melody which was delight- Roger de Coverley. ful in the days of Queen Elizabeth is forgotten, per- The revival of the dance is propitious to our attempt haps, for two hundred years, and it suddenly springs to revive, for the general reader, those delightful into popularity in the days of Queen Victoria. For a papers of Addison and Steele which are devoted to the quarter of a century country-dances were out of fashion. fictitious character of Sir Roger. Few people now They are reviving; and with them comes back one of read · The Spectator' as a whole. Some of the more the oldest and most beautiful, with its courteous ad celebrated essays, such as The Vision of Mirza,' find vances, from the extremities of a long line, of the lady their place in books of extract. The delicate humour and the gentleman,—their turnings in the centre of the delineation of Sir Roger de Coverley is always their returnings,--the chain figure in which the lady referred to as the highest effort of Addison's peculiar winds through a line of gentlemen, and the gentleman | genius; but not many will take the pains to select No. 691.
thesc sixteen or seventeen papers from the six hundred We hear little of Sir Roger, except an occasional and thirty which form the entire work. These papers opinion, till we reach the 106th number, when Addison have a completeness about them which show how takes up the man of whom he said " we are born for thoroughly they were written upon a settled plan.cach other.” Steele appears to have first conceived the character in • Having often received an invitation from my the second number of The Spectator ;' but Addison friend Sir Roger de Coverley, to pass away a month very soon took it out of his friend's hands, who was with him in the country, I last week accompanied him scarcely able to carry on the portraiture with that re- thither, and am settled with him for some time at his finement which belonged to Addison's conception of country-house, where I intend to form several of my the character. Addison, it is said, killed Sir Roger in ensuing speculations. Sir Roger, who is very well the fear that another hand would spoil him.
acquainted with my humour, lets me rise and go to As a representation of manners a century and a half bed when I please, dine at his own table or in my ago, the picture of Sir Roger de Coverley has a re- chamber, as I think fit, sit still and say nothing withmarkable value. The good knight is thoroughly Eng- out bidding me be merry. When the gentlemen of lish ; and in him we see a beautiful specimen of the old- the country come to see him, he shows me at a distance. fashioned gentleman, with a high soul of honour, real be- As I have been walking in his fields I have observed nevolence, acute sense, mixed up with the eccentricities them stealing a sight of me over a hedge, and have which belong to a nation of humourists. The readers heard the knight desiring them not to let me see them, of · The Spectator’are fast diminishing. No one now for that I hated to be stared at. gives his days and nights to the volumes of Addison ;" “I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's family, because but his gentle graceful humour has never been ex- it consists of sober, staid persons; for as the knight is celled, and nowhere is it more conspicuous than in the best master in the world, he seldom changes nis the papers of which Sir Roger de Coverley is the hero. servants; and as he is beloved by all about him, his
The plan of. The Spectator' is founded upon the servants never care for leaving him : by this means fiction of a club that assembles every Tuesday and his domestics are all in years, and grown old with their Thursday to carry on the publication. Sir Roger does not master. You would take his valet-de-chambre for his appear highly qualified for a literary colleague—a col- brother; his butler is grey-headed, his groom is one of laborateur, as the French style it,-but he nevertheless the gravest men that I have ever seen, and his coachis the foremost in · The Spectator's ' “ account of those man has the looks of a privy-councillor. You see the gentlemen who are concerned with me in the work.” goodness of the master even in his old housc-dog, and
" The first of our society is a gentleman of Worces- in a grey pad that is kept in the stable with great care tershire, of an ancient descent, a baronet, bis name Sir and tenderness, out of regard to his past services, Roger de Coverley. His great-grandfather was in though he has been useless for several years. ventor of that famous country-dance which is called “ I could not but observe with a great deal of pleaafter him. All who know that shire are very well | sure the joy that appeared in the countenances of these acquainted with the parts and merits of Sir Roger. ancient domestics upon my friend's arrival at his He is a gentleman that is very singular in his behaviour, country-seat. Some of them could not refrain from but his singularities proceed from his good sense, and tears at the sight of their old master; every one of are contradictions to the manners of the world, only as them pressed forward to do something for him, and he thinks the world is in the wrong. However, this seemed discouraged if they were not employed. At hunour creates hiin no enemies, for he does nothing the same time the good old knight, with a mixture of with sourness or obstinacy, and his being unconfined the father and the master of the family, tempered the to modes and forms makes him but the readier and inquiries after his own affairs with several kind quesmore capable to please and oblige all who know him. tions relating to themselves. This humanity and When he is in town he lives in Soho Square. It is said goodnature engages everybody to him, so that when he keeps himself a bachelor by reason he was crossed he is pleasant upon any of them, all his family are in in love by a perverse beautiful widow of the next good humour, and none so much as the person whom county to him.
Before this disappointment, Sir Roger he diverts himself with : on the contrary, if he coughs, was what you call a fine gentleman, had often supped or betrays any infirmity of old age, it is easy for a with my Lord Rochester and Sir George Etherege, stander-by to observe a secret concern in the looks of fought a duel upon his first coming to town, and all his servants. kicked bully Dawson in a public coffec-house for “My worthy friend has put me under the particular calling him youngster: but being ili used by the above- care of his butler, who is a very prudent man, and, as mentioned widow, he was very serious for a year and well as the rest of his fellow-servants, wonderfully dea half; and though, his temper being naturally jovial, sirous of pleasing me, because they have often heard he at last got over it, he grew careless of himself, and their master talk of me as of his particular friend." never dressed afterward. He continues to wear a coat Such is the general outline of the character and and doublet of the same cut that were in fashion at position of Sir Roger de Coverley. In succeeding the time of his repulse, which, in his merry humours, numbers we shall present his minuter features. he tells us has been in and out twelve times since he first wore it. He is now in his fifty-sixth year, cheer
PORTABLE DIORAMA.-DISSOLVING VIEWS. ful, gay, and hearty ; keeps a good house both in town and country; a great lover of mankind; but there is In a former number we gave an outline of the prinsuch a mirthful cast in his behaviour, that he is rather ciples on which chiefly depend the effects produced at beloved than esteemed.
the Colosseum, the Cosmorama, the Panorama, the “ Ilis tenants grow rich, his servants look satisfied, Diorama, and other similar exhibitions. Since then all the young women profess love to him, and the young we have met with a suggestion by a Mr. Tait of men are glad of bis company. W he comes into Edinburgh, for the construction of a portable Diorama, a house he calls the servants by their names, and talks which seems worthy of a few further observations. all the way up stairs to a visit. I must not omit that Mr. Tait communicated to the Society of Arts of Sir Roger is a justice of the quorum, that he fills the Scotland a description of a small apparatus by which chair at a quarter-session with great abilities, and three the nature and effects of the dioraina could be exmonths ago gained universal applause by explaining hibited in an instructing manner. But to understand a passage in the Game Act."
this, it is necessary to advert to Daguerre's account of thie mode of painting dioramic pictures, as divulged by | partially closed, or both partially closed, numerous variahim to the French government. A dioramic picture tions of light and shade and tint in the picture are obis painted on both sides. It is a large piece of lawn served. Passing gleams of sunshine, day melting into or calico, if possible without a seam, or at least with night, and this into moonlight-and all similar changes, seams as little perceptible as may be necessary. The may be imitated with some approach to completeness. colours laid on the front of the picture are viewed by The inside of the eye-tube, and everything which reflected light coming from a point above and between could distract the eye from the picture, is painted the spectator and the picture; while those laid on the black; while the inner surfaces of the covers which back of the picture are viewed by transmitted light, may aid in reflecting light upon the picture are emanating from a window behind. In painting the painted white. Screens of fine tissue-paper, Persian front, the lights,' or white tints, are left out, so as to silk, or some other thin substance, are placed across admit the passage of light through the picture from the openings when the covers are raised, if a subdued behind : and even in the dark parts no body-colours light be required; and remarkable modifications of are used ; for though they would show well by reflected the effect may be produced by having these media light, they would appear as mere black irregular masses coloured. The pictures may be viewed by the naked by transmitted light. While painting the front, the eye through the tube, or a lens might be employed to painter works by reflected light; but while painting alter the effect. the back, by transmitted light; because the effects It is not difficult to see that such a contrivance is an intended to be produced can only thus be tested. exact copy of the large diorama, in all its essential
Generally speaking, when a dioramic scene is repre- features. The construction of the box is a matter sented by day, and then by evening or moonlight, the involving no great mechanical difficulties. The paintday effect is painted on the front of the picture, and ing of the pictures is the feature which calls for most the night effect on the back; and the admission of talent; for here attention must be paid to the different light is regulated according as the picture is to be character or tone which reflected light and transmitted viewed by reflected or transmitted light; in other light throw over a picture, to the degree of opacity or words, according as it is to be a picture or a trans- transparency which different pigments will present, parency. But in other cases a subject more or less to the hues which natural scenery exhibits at different different from the first is represented on the back, by hours of the day, and to the character of the shadows which many of those startling effects have been pro- produced by objects. The more carefully these matduced which are so familiar to the visitors at the ex- ters are attended to, the better will be the miniature hibition in the Regent's Park. The exhibition-room, diorama. be it large or small, is provided with shutters, by There has been, within the last year or two, a kind which the amount of light to be admitted can always of pictorial exhibition in London, called “Dissolving be regulated, from broad daylight to total exclusion. Views. These views are examples of a superior kind of If fog is to be represented, as it has been in many ex- phantasmagoric exhibition, or magic-lantern,' in hibited dioramas, the picture is placed at a greater or which striking effects are produced by simple but very less distance behind a transparent screen ; the greater ingenious means. the distance, the more dim and foggy will the scene The phenomenon of a dissolving" view consists necessarily appear.
in the adjustment of two views, or two lantern slides, All these arrangements, in order to produce the in such a manner that one shall gradually disappear desired effect to the eye of a spectator, must be so while the other comes in sight, the images of both inanaged that the picture may be at a distance from occupying the same spot on the screen or wall. It the eye, in a kind of room or recess; and it is probable is said that a German named Philipsthal, who intruthat ihis circumstance led Mr. Tait to the suggestion duced the phantasmagoria about sixty years ago, also of a portable diorama. The machine may be a small gave the first rough idea of the “dissolving" views. oblong box, of any dimensions, to be viewed at one He was in the habit of representing, among other subend. Small stretching-frames are prepared, over which jects, the raising of the ghost of Samuel by the Witch pieces of transparent paper or linen are stretched to of Endor, in which he inade the phantom appear to form the pictures. Any one of these, when painted rise from the ground; but he conceived that it he einand about to be used, is inserted in a groove in the ployed two lanterns and slides, making the wick of one interior of the box, at a distance equal to two-thirds of rise while he lowered that of the other, and directing the length of the box from the end at which the eye both images to one spot, a more aërial and supernatuis applied. The eye-hole is not simply a circular or ral effect might be produced. This method succeeded, square hole cut in the end of the box, but is a small and Philipsthal was led to the adoption of similar artube two or three inches in length, placed opposite rangements for representing landscape scenery: the point of sight' in the picture. The tube projects The improvements which have been made within the a little from the box, in order to assist the adjustment | last few years have brought this plan to a point of of the eye; and the inner end is expanded sufficiently great excellence. Two sliders or painted glasses are to expose to view the whole of the picture in the box. used, illuminated by one intense jet, having their de
As a means of adınitting light to act upon both sides vices represented on a screen, the focalization to one of the picture at pleasure, two hinged covers are used, spot being effected by optical means. While one picone at the top of the box, and the other at the end ture is being exhibited, the other is hidden by a cover remote from the eye. Each cover, by a small pulley or shutter; and the effect of " dissolving,” which is and balance weight, or any similar contrivance, is very remarkable, is produced by the gradual and simade to remain stationary in any required position. multaneous closing of one picture and opening of When the top cover closed and the end one open, another. If, while one picture is being exhibited, the light falls on the back, but not on the front the other is being changed for a third, and if while this picture, and a person applying his cye at the tube third picture is under exhibition the second be ex would see the picture only by transmitted light. When changed for a fourth, and so on, an extensive series the top cover is open and the ends are closed, the may be exhibited, each one apparently melting or reverse of that occurs, and a spectaior views the dissolving into the succeeding one. This, like many picture by reflected light. When any medium.ar- other contrivances, appears simple enough when rangement is adopted, such as one cover being open known; but the simplicity does not detract from the and the other partially closed, one closed and the other | merit of the artists who contrived the arrangement.
CURIOSITIES OF BRITISH NATURAL the surface as they play over pools and streams. They HISTORY.
love to frequent waters, not only for the sake of drink
ing, but also on account of the insects, which are found BATS.
over them in the greatest plenty." Often during a It may surprise some of our readers to be informed warm summer evening have we seen numbers, perthat sixteen or seventeen distinct species of bats are haps several scores, of the common bat (V. Pipistrellus) natives of the British Islands. Of these, however, seve- Aitting over pools, in chase of gnats and similar insects, ral arc extremely rare, and restricted to certain locali- or gambolling with each other in a mazy dance, ever ties; but some, as the Pipistrelle, or common bat, and and anon uttering sharp shrill cries of exultation and the long-eared bat (Vespertilio auritus), are everywhere delight; an interesting spectacle to such as love to abundant; nor is the great bat (V. Noctula) of unfre. “trace the woods and lawns and living stream at eve.” quent occurrence.
The bat is a twilight and nocturnal rambler: it Of all the mammalia the bats alone emulate in their passes the day in its retreat suspended head downwards, aërial endowments the feathered tenants of the sky; clinging to any roughness or projection by the claws they are essentially flying insectivora. In the air they of its hinder feet. In this position it hybernates in a pass the active periods of their existence, and revel in state of lethargy; numbers congregating together. ihe exercise of their faculties. Their organs of flight, Church steeples, hollow trees, old barns, caverns, and admirably adapted for their destined purpose, do not similar retreats are its lurking-places; and vast numconsist, as in the bird, of stiff feathers based upon the bers are often found crowded closely together and formbones of the fore-arm, but of a membranous expansion ing a compact mass. Pennant states that on one occastretched over and between the limbs, and to which the sion, as he was informed by the Rev. Dr. Backhouse, bones of the limbs, especially those of the elongated one hundred and eighty-five were taken from under fingers, serve the same purpose as the strips of whale- the caves of Queen's College, Cambridge, and on the bone in an umbrella. This apparatus can be folded next night sixty-three more; all in a torpid condition. up, and the limbs employed in progression on the They were all of one species, viz., the Noctule, or ground; on a level surface, however, the bat shuffles great bat (V. Noctula), the largest of our British bats, awkwardly but quickly along. In the hollows of de- measuring fourteen or fifteen inches in the extent of cayed trees, in the crevices of mouldering masonry, the wings. The great horse-shoe bat haunts the or in rough chinks and fissures, it can crawl and climb deepest recesses of caverns, where no rays of light can about with tolerable rapidity, as also about the wire- enter. It is found in the caverns at Clifton, and in work of a cage, a circumstance we have often witnessed. Kent's Hole near Torquay, a dark and gloomy cavern, It is a smooth and level surface that most embarrasses where the lesser horse-shoe bat also takes up its abode. the bat, but even then it can easily take wing. In the It has been suspected that some of our British bats air the bat is all alertness,-it is here that these singu- may possibly nigrate, and pass the winter, like the lar creatures pursue their insect prey-uttering their swallow, in some genial region where their insect prey short sharp cry as they wheel in circling flights, or is abundant. For this supposition there is not the perform their abrupt and zigzag evolutions. Bats, says slightest foundation : all our bats hybernate; but the White, “ drink on the wing like swallows, by sipping period at which they become torpid in their retreats,