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make it clear that the statistics for the third THE EFFECT OF THE WAR ON SOUTH
quarter of 1899 would just about have been reAFRICAN EDUCATION.
ceived at headquarters when war began. In fact,
these statistics were complete enough to provide OW that the war in South Africa is to all the customary supplement to the Government Gazette,
intents and purposes over, and that with which appeared as usual in the middle of Novem
the passing of the martial passion we are ber, 1899. This issue of the Gazette consequently better able to consider things on their merits, it gives precise information as to the number of chilshould prove interesting and instructive to pass in dren under instruction immediately before the war. review some of the effects of the war
The summary of the quarter's statistics congeneral life of the inhabitants of Cape Colony and
tained in this November Gazette shows that at the Natal. It is impossible to estimate even approxi- commencement of the war there were 2,674 schools mately the loss of human energy which war at work, and that 4,505 adult teachers were enentails, but a little thought will reveal how wide- gaged in teaching therein. The number of spread and potent must be its damaging effect on scholars on the rolls of these schools was 147,424, all kinds of industry. In many directions no sort of whom 114,842 were in average attendance. of statistical information is available, and the Judged from the point of view of the Education general public will never realise what war has Office, what were the first effects of the war? We meant to ordinary men-traders and artisans-in cannot do better than quote Dr. Muir. " The the affected areas. But, thanks to the Depart- first indications of change came from the districts ment of Public Instruction, and especially to the adjacent to the western frontier of the Transvaal, Superintendent-General of Education for Cape and probably the first school known to the Office Colony, Dr. Thomas Muir, whose report for 1900 to be closed was one on the very border, the is before us as we write, it is easily possible to teacher of which, having early information of inmake clear how much the education of British vasion, locked his school door and went for safety South Africa has suffered as a direct consequence
into the land of the enemy. The railway and of the war.
Dr. Muir adds to his report to the telegraph lines were, however, soon cut further Colonial Secretary a postscript, which deals en- south, and large groups of schools were isolated in tirely with the effect of the war on education in a moment. One inspector ceased suddenly to his district, and it is to this appendix we are in- send in reports, and it was ascertained some time debted for the following particulars.
later that he was shut up in Kimberley. Then But before proceeding to a detailed inquiry it the north-eastern frontier became affected in the will prevent misapprehension to point out at once same way.
The December examinations were that, from the nature of the country and the cir
approaching, and the usual preliminary arrangecumstances of the war, it was only the districts ments with the candidates should have been probordering the Orange River Colony and the Trans- gressing; but letters and parcels of needlework vaal that were vitally concerned in the question failed to turn up, and one examination centre after under discussion. While the effects of the war in another dropped out of reach. Another inspector, these school circuits was very great, those in other who had stuck doggedly to his work amid exciteparts of the large expanse of country, which Cape
ment and disturbance, ceased to be a Colony and Natal include, are quite inconsiderable. spondent, and was
spondent, and was found to be detained in There has been little more reason why the schools Burghersdorp. A third might have been in of the country in the south towards Capetown Colesberg, but at the time the inspectorship there should be affected than those of our own land- was vacant.” except to a slight degree those schools which, But it was not until the returns for the last farther north, were near the railway and dependent quarter of 1899 were eventually received that the upon the outlying districts for their supply of full extent of the decrease in the number of children, and the attendance of which was natu- children under instruction, the number of schools rally greatly influenced by the dislocation of the closed, and the number of teachers disengaged railway services. The conclusions arrived at in were fully recognised. The completion of the Dr. Muir's report must therefore be considered as statistics for the fourth quarter of 1899 showed entirely caused by the experiences of schools in that two hundred and fifteen schools had, for one the comparatively narrow areas adjoining the cause or another, been closed. Here is the list : enemy's country. If these small districts have
Divison. affected the total number of schools and the total
Mafeking school attendance of the Colony to the extent
14 which the report shows, it is sufficiently clear how
19 Kimberley ...
35 much the education of countries in which hostile
Hay armies are engaged is affected.
7 It appears that statistics are sent in from the
14 various schools throughout the Colony to the Edu
Aliwal North cation Office at Capetown four times a year, viz.,
Barkly East at the end of March, of June, of September, and of
Wodehouse December. The date of the outbreak of war will
Total be sufficiently fresh in the minds of our readers to
Number of schools closed.
These numbers, Dr. Muir points out, are, ex- these six months sixty additional new schools had cept in the case of Albert and Wodehouse, practi- been opened elsewhere, so that there were actually cally the numbers of all the schools in these only sixty-one schools less on June 30th, 1900, divisions. But since the publication of the than on the same date of the previous year. statistics it has been found that a few, perhaps Dr. Muir gives it as his opinion that very proten, of the total number of schools tabulated were bably the third quarter of 1900 added the sixtyreally at work almost to the end of December, and one schools to the list of working schools. These, that some of the ten were carried on · in very the report explains, would be either new schools trying circumstances, and much to the credit of or some of the old ones reopened. In any case the the teachers concerned — especially the women. net result comes to this—that the number of schools So speaks the official document, If we try to on September 30th, in the two years 1899 and imagine, however, the actual state of things during 1900, was as nearly as possible the same. these troublous times, we shall have little difficulty The careless reader will probably ejaculate at in picturing to ourselves many a deed of heroism this stage, “ Then why make remarks about the ill in the face of conditions which, in the case of stay- effects of the war, if at the end of a year the numat-home people like most schoolmasters and ber of schools in working order had experienced schoolmistresses in this country, would have been no diminution ? " Such an exclamation is only far more than sufficient to lead to the conclusion possible to those who leave out of consideration that education was under such conditions quite an the normal rate of growth-growth educational, impossibility.
that is-of a colony like the Cape of Good Hope. Even to the unimaginative reader these numbers To take the question of the number of schools of closed schools cannot fail to graphically indi first. During the year preceding that in which cate how vitally the teachers of South Africa were the war broke out, from October ist, 1898, to affected by the outbreak of war; but, when the September 30th, 1899, the increase in the number statistics showing the numbers of the children of schools in British South Africa reached one turned out of school by the progress of the events hundred and thirty-two, and this number was, of the campaign are studied, the impression one Dr. Muir reports, smaller than that of the school receives grows in vividness to a degree which is year 1897-98. In view of these facts, the imporwell nigh painful. On the 30th of September, as tance of the stationary number of schools on has been already stated, the average attendance of September 30th, 1900, assumes a different comchildren at school was 114,842; at the end of the plexion entirely. The number of schools, instead second quarter of the next year, 1900, it had de- of showing the normal rate of increase, remains creased to 110,483; that is to say, some 4,359
stationary. That is to say, as a result of the war, children were no longer at school. The missing there are at the present time something like one children were divided among the different school hundred and fifty schools fewer in the colony than divisions in the following proportions :
there should be, even supposing, though there Division.
seems no reason for doing so, that the normal Maleking ...
annual rate of increase had not been maintained. 161
The same results, though more pronounced, are Gordunia ...
186 Barkly West
shown when one examines the numbers of scholars Kimberley
in average attendance in September of the years Herbert
1899 and 1900. Hay
It has been seen that there were 4,359 children Kenhardt ...
lost to the schools between September, 1899, and Colesberg...
June, 1900. Or, looked at in another way, in order Aliwal North
that the number of children in average attendance Barkly East
on September 30th, 1900, should be the same as Wodehouse
on the same date of the previous year, an increase Total 4,730
of 4,359 children during the three months, July-
September, was necessary. Dr. Muir thinks the But already something has been done to remedy statistics for this quarter, when ready, will show these ill effects. Inspectors and teachers have that the increase was actually accomplished. But both been busily engaged ever since relief came to even so, a whole year's work will have been lost, the affected districts. The schools of Burghers- for another section of the report shows that from dorp were perhaps the first to get to work again, a the third quarter of 1898 to the same time in 1899 result largely due to the extraordinary energy of there was an increase in the average attendance of the Inspector for the district. The greater diffi- 7,261 children. Hence, as there has been an upculties experienced by the British seem to have ward tendency in the annual increase of average delayed the work of resuscitation in the Kimberley attendance up to 1899, there should have been in circuit. Taking the colony as a whole, by the end September, 1900, an increase of about 8,000 chilof the first quarter of 1900 forty.four of the closed dren, instead of the stationary number which the schools had been reopened, and by the end of the optimism of Dr. Muir leads him to adopt. second quarter, fifty more. There were conse. Many other interesting details are to be found quently some hundred and twenty-one schools still in the postscript to Dr. Muir's report. For exto be dealt with on June 30th, 1900. But during | ample, the railway schools, even in the undisturbed
districts, suffered very severely, The two schools at Modder River and the schools at Norval's Pont,
A SCIENCE SYLLABUS FOR A Stromberg and Burghersdorp, were, of course,
SECONDARY SCHOOL. actually closed ; but owing to the presence of mili
By A. Abbott, M.A. tary camps at such places as Naauwpoort and De
Assistant Master in the Intermediate School, Cardiff. Aar, and owing to the derangement of the train service which made it impossible to put down and take N drawing up a syllabus for natural science in up children at stations at times to suit the school a secondary school, it is necessary to conhours, the attendance fell almost in every instance. sider first the various factors which deter
As for the teachers, it would seem that the mine the character and scope of the work to be majority of them moved outside the fighting lines; done. The most important of these are : and, curious to say, in two instances a sufficient 1.–The age and previous training of the boys number of their pupils moved with them to make entering the school. it worth while to continue school work. As has II.-The length of the school life. already been indicated, however, some of them III.-The probable occupation of the boys after stuck to their posts with pleasing heroism, and in leaving school, as indicated by the industries of several instances the public has been indebted to the district. them for very interesting diaries of events. In IV.-The number of lessons that can be devoted not a few cases, unlortunately, especially in the to the subject each week. north-eastern districts, male teachers were impli- One of the most important requirements of any cated in the rebellion, and have not since been syllabus which is to be followed through a whole heard of in their districts.
school is that it should be continuous, so that each School buildings suffered to a considerable ex- boy, during his school life, may work through a tent. The Wesleyan Mission School at Mafeking logical sequence of experiments without any was totally destroyed, the fine class-room of the abrupt changes or breaks. This does not imply Kimberley Poor School was seriously damaged by that the same ground should, in no. case, be gone a shell, and of several small rural schools only the a second time; a more or less empirical bare walls remained. Often when the buildings knowledge in the earlier stages may well be added escaped the furniture and fittings were destroyed. to and deepened by further investigations when On the whole, however, the loss in this way is not the mind is more developed. so great as might have been anticipated.
While the whole syllabus is drawn up with a The material damage sustained by the Edu- due regard to continuity, it should be planned in cation Department during the war can be repaired such a way that a boy entering the school in a easily and within a limited time; it remains to be higher form than the lowest should be able, from seen how much can be done to bring back pro- his previous experience, to pick up the thread and sperity to the schools which have been cleared of work with other boys who have entered the school their pupils, and to found new schools in sufficient at an earlier age. This is essential, as a new boy numbers to compensate for the loss of a year's is not, as a rule, placed in a particular form because progress. It is earnestly to be hoped that men of his attainments in science, but is generally of all parties will unite towards attaining an end judged by the standard he reaches in other subso eminently desirable.
jects. This furnishes an additional reason for a certain amount of repetition in the subjects of the
syllabus. It cannot be denied that in many cases TYPICAL SCHOOL TIME-TABLES. the previous training of the new boys does not III.-North LONDON COLLEGIATE SCHOOL FOR
count for very much, as in most secondary schools
the majority of them are drawn from either eleGIRLS.
mentary or private schools. In the former case, E have given two typical time-tables of owing to the size of the classes where science is
large public schools for boys, one a board- taught at all, it is impossible to have any training
ing school, the other a day school. This for younger boys in practical work, a necessary month we print a scheme of work in a large public condition for a successful course of natural science; day-school for girls. We are glad to take this while in the latter case the accommodation for opportunity of thanking Dr. Sophie Bryant, the practical work is often very poor. Exception must headmistress, for permission to do this, and also be made in the case of boys who have previously for the trouble she has taken to present the time- been in a higher-grade or organised science school, table in a form suitable for publication. There as their training has usually been very good. will probably be no difficulty in understanding the The factor which is least important, except to abbreviations, but to prevent any misapprehension boys in their last year or two at school, is the those in which any choice of interpretation seems probable occupation in alter life.
If a boy possible are appended. It should be pointed out receives a thorough grounding in the principles that the lessons are of from forty-five minutes to underlying one branch of science and in accurate an hour in length, with the exception of drill, scientific methods of thought, he will be able to wbich lasts half an hour. The addresses shown apply his knowledge later on to other branches are delivered by the headmistress, and generally without much difficulty. take about twenty minutes.
The most important factor in determining the
NORTH LONDON COLLEGIATE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS.
TIME TABLE.- MIOHAELMAS TERM, 1900.
IVa. IV. IVh. Lr. IVa. Lr. IVh. Up. IIIa. Up. III. Gk Hist Eng Hist Scrip Algb Lat or Ger Math Lat or Ger Lat or Ger Drill Algb Drill
Fr Algb Boty Arith Geog
Gk - Greek ; Ger-German; Hydros - Hydrostatics ; FrFrench; Lit-Literature; Physiog - Physiography; Mech - Mechanics
Physiol Physiology; Adrs - Address; Boty > Botany,
scope and character of a science syllabus is that secondary school of 200 boys, where 10 is the of the time that can be spent on the various entrance age, and 17 the maximum leaving age. subjects. In organised schools of science very The number of lessons allotted to the subject each often as many as six hours a week are allotted to week is three, except in the case of a few boys in their study, but in other schools where science is the highest form who intend to take up engineeronly regarded as one of many subjects, not more ing or some kindred occupation, and naturally than three bours can be spent on it, except by spend a great deal more time in the study of boys in the higher forms who have begun to physical science. It is found that very few boys specialise. Two results follow from this: (1) enter the school at ten years of age, the lowest that only one branch of science can be taken up class having an average age of about ten and a during the school year, it being obviously im- half. This class is merely preparatory for the possible to attempt more; (2) that the science next higher, and there are therefore five school master must endeavour to call in the services years to be devoted to science before specialisation of his colleagues by correlating his work with is begun. theirs, his chief collaborateurs being the teachers of drawing, mathematics, and geography.
First YEAR. Average Age uit. The correlation with drawing may be main- Nature Study.--Boys of this age are unable to tained through the lower forms, but it is inad
undertake the systematic study of either physics or visable that it should be continued in the middle chemistry, and nature study seems to be best fitted forms, as it could then consist merely of outline
to train them in observation, and in such abstract drawings of apparatus. It seems better to limit reasoning as they are capable of. They are natuit to the representation of the various objects rally attracted much more by animate than by inexamined during the earlier period when the animate nature. The great difficulty in this subject youngest boys are engaged in nature study.' is the untrustworthiness of the weather, as the At the beginning of the study of physical science study must be, to a very great extent, undertaken and mathematics the correlation between the out of doors. It is very disappointing to the teaching of the two subjects is very close, but teacher, when he has prepared a lesson on climbat a later period the points of actual contact ing plants, for instance, to find that the weather become fewer, mathematics being regarded rather is unfit for work out of doors. Another diffi. as instrument than as a cognate subject. culty is the length of time taken by the experiUntil a boy begins to specialise in some one ments. If a small boy plants seeds and has to subject, an acquaintance with elementary algebra | wait for the shoots to appear above the ground, be and arithmetic will carry him through a great is inclined to forget all about them in the interval, deal of his physical science, always supposing during which many other things have been occupy. that this is studied experimentally with a view to ing his attention. acquiring a knowledge of principles rather than a The discipline is not a very serious matter, as facility for working out numerical examples. To
the boys, for work in the garden, are divided into justify this assertion, which, it must be remem- batches of five, each one presided over by a monibered, only applies to boys in the middle forms
tor, who is usually keen enough in exercising his under the age of 15, it is necessary to consider privileges. With regard to practical work in the subjects taken up. In physics, measurements school, it is obviously not so easy to arrange of length, area, and volume, elementary mechanics,
matters in this way, as the boys need individual hydrostatics, and heat are generally regarded as attention and are very young.
The difficulty can, the most suitable for beginners. A knowledge of
in some measure, be obviated by allowing the boys the four rules and of proportion in arithmetic, with to work in pairs, care being taken in the choice of algebra up to simple equations, is necessary for
partners, and by seeing that plenty of work is prothis. For the subject of chemistry an acquain-vided for them. It still, however, remains, to a tance with proportion, including percentages, is certain extent, and it is difficult to see any way in enough. The subjects of light, electricity, mag. which it can, with a limited staff, be got over, as
, netism, and sound are better reserved for sub
a class, which is not too large for any other subject sequent study, though in each subject important in the curriculum, cannot be divided in the one laws can be discovered without the aid of any
subject of natural science. but elementary mathematics. That correlation It is inadvisable to draw up a syllabus in nature is possible between experimental science and study, to which the teacher rigidly adheres, owing physical geography is obvious, seeing that such
to the variable character of our climate, but the processes as distillation, solution, decantation, and
following gives an idea of what is done: crystallisation, which are carried out in the
The School and its Surroundings.- Examination of wood and laboratory on a small scale, are continually going
Of soil and gravel. Comparison of soil of garden with on in nature on a very much larger scale.
gravel of playground. Time needed for water to disappear The following syllabus has been drawn up for a
from each under varying conditions. Difference between soil
on surface and that underneath. Difference between ordinary 1 See “Nature Study in Elementary Schools" (Wilson). And “Nature
soil and soil which has been heated. Study in Schools": an address by Professor Wilbur S. Jackman (Journal Connection between Vegetable life and soil.- Food of plants. of Education, February, 1900).
Loosening of soil. Digging. Worms. Frost. Food taken up See, for instance, the Syllabus of Elementary Science adopted by the Headmasters' Association.
in liquid state. Plant grown from seed, food being supplied.