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FACILITIES FOR Piring.There is no prettier hydraulic washing than that at Gold Run. The gravel is very soft, it is deep, water is abundant with a high pressure, the claims are large, and there is no superincumbent layer of barren matter. In proportion to the amount of work done fewer men are employed at Gold Run than at any other camp in the State. At Smartsville much time is spent in blasting; at La Porte, in paddling; at Dutch Flat, in attending to large boulders; but none here. Two men are sufficient here to do all the work in a claim that uses 300 inches of water. As an inch of water is equal to a supply of 145 pounds per minute, or 8,700 pounds per hour, or 102,900 pounds (51 tons) in 12 hours, so it follows that 300 inches supplies 15,000 tons in a day; and as the water carries off at least one-tenth-the ordinary calculation is one-fifth-of its bulk of earthy matter, it follows that two men wash 1,500 tons at Gold Run in 12 hours, or 750 tons each. It is a common saying at Dutch Flat that there three pipes are required to break down as much gravel as the water of one can wash away, but in Gold Run one pipe will break down as much as three can wash away. This is an exaggeration when stated as a general principle, though it has been true in some instances.
CANON CREEK.-Cañon creek runs from Gold Run along the eastern border of the Blue Lead 34 miles down to Indiana Hill, where it empties into the north fork of the American river. This creek furnishes the outlet for many of the claims. The original bed of the creek was in general 350 feet below the surface of the lead, or “gravel range," as it is also called, but the bed has been in some places filled up as much as fifty feet with gravel. :
WATER.- Piping was cominenced at Indiana Hill on a small scale in 1857, with 400 inches, supplied in the late winter and early spring by a ditch from Canon creek. Four years later the Dutch Flat ditch brought to Gold Run 800 inches, which ran for six or seven months, and have since been doabled; and the Bear River ditch brought in 800 more; and in 1864 the South Yuba ditch brought in 2,500 inches. The demand for water has always exceeded the supply, and as the supply increased so did the amount of work and of production. Gold Run produced si 50,000, in 1865; $300,000 in 1866; and the yield for 1867 is estimated at $500,000. The customary price for water is 12 cents per inch for 12 hours, and 20 cents for 24 hours.
SQUIRE'S CAÑON CLAIMS.—On the southern lode of Squire's cañon, in the Gold Run district, are the following claims, commencing at the east :
Frost & Co. began work in 1865, wash through an open cut, use 300 inches of water, and usually run in day-time only, though they have run night and day at times.
W. H. Kinder began work in 1866, uses 300 inches of water, washes through an open cut, and runs in day-time only.
Wentworth & Co. began work in 1866, use 300 inches of water night and day, and wash through an open cut.
A. Bell & Co. are running a bed rock tunnel, and have not commenced washing.
Wolcott & Co. began work in 1867, and the claim was sold in June for $3,500. They use 300 inches of water in daylight only, and wash through an open cut, but intend to cut a tunnel.
The Bailey claim, consisting of 21 claims, each 100 by 200 feet, has not been opened, and no work is being done.
Crader & Co. began in 1867, and use 175 inches day and night.
CAÑON CREEK CLAIM.—The claims which have their outlet into Cañon creek are the following, near the head of Squire's cañon :
The Rock Company opened their claim in 1866, and used 250 inches of water, running day and night. They are not piping now, but are preparing to lay a long pipe so as to have a heavy pressure for 1868.
Hughes & Co. opened their claim in 1866, but are not at work now.
A. S. Benton opened his claim in 1867, and uses 300 inches of water by daylight only.
The Harkness claim has been worked by sluice and pipe for 10 years, is now taking 650 inches of water day and night, and draining through an open cut.
Behind Harkness is the claim of Halsey & Co., 900 feet long by 500 wide, which cannot be worked until an outlet is obtained through the claim in front. A fourth interest was offered for sale in last February for $2,000, but no buyer appeared. It would have found ready sale if there hal been an outlet.
Next to Harkness, on Cañon creek, is the claim of Goding & Co., who have worked off the top of their claim as low as they can go, and are now waiting for a deeper outlet.
The claim of Benton & Co., adjoining, is in a similar condition. The Bay State claim was opened in 1857, and has been worked steadily since whenever water could be had. In 1866 it used 750 inches day and night; this year it used 350. The profit never has been large, though the gross yield has been $150,000, and the yield for 1866 $37,000.
The claim of A. Beel is in the same condition as that of Goding.
GOOSLING RAVINE CLAIMS.—Goosling & Co. have been at work since 1854. A ravine runs down through the middle of the claim, and they are piping on each side, using 300 inches day and night on one side, and 300 inchies in daytime only on the other. Goosling ravine is in this claim.
Prindle & Co. opened their claim in 1864, and used 275 inches of water day and night. Work has been closed for this season because the pipe has advanced to within 50 feet of a ditch, the proprietors of which have warned the claim owners that they will be held responsible for any damage to the ditch. Four ditches cross this claim. The outlet is through Goosling's ravine.
The Uncle Abe claim, behind Goosling, is irregular in shape, but is about 1,000 feet long by 850 feet wide. It was opened in 1867, and in April, May, and June, yielded $12,000. It was sold in May for $6,000. The consumption of water is 275 inches day and night.
LowER CAÑON CREEK CLAIMS.—The claim of Winters & Co. has been worked three
years, and is in the same condition as Goding's. The Bay State No. 2 is unopened. An offer of $3,000 for the claim was refused.
The Hall claim was worked for two years, but is idle this season for want of an outlet.
The claim of Taylor, Moore & Co. is about 1,000 feet square, was worked on a small scale from 1853 till 1865, and for the last two years has been piping on a large scale. It was sold this year for $11,000. The yield in “ a run of 22 days," as a run of 11 days day and night is termed, is usually between $4,000 and $5,000.
The Church claim was opened in 1860, and the yield in 1866 was $27,000. Three-fifths of the claim were sold in 1865 for $7,000. Of water, 275 inches are used in the day-time only.
The Golden Gate claim began work in 1858, uses 300 inches of water in daytime only, pays well, and is the last claim that tails immediately into Cañon creek.
Gold Run Cañon.— The Gold Run claim began work in 1859, uses 300 inches of water in the day-time only, has paid well, and tails into Golden Run cañon, which is on the southern side of the claim. An offer of $10,000 for the elaim has been refused.
The Fitzpatrick claim, fronting on Gold Run cañon, has lately been sold for $2,100, and is now preparing to work with 300 inches of water.
On the south side of Gold Run cañon, and opposite to the Fitzpatrick claim, is the Sheldon claim, owned by the Dutch Flat Water Company. It has been worked several
but is idle now.
The Iluyck and Hubbard claim, fronting on Gold Run cañon, has a slnice tunnel, but is waiting for cheaper water, and doing nothing.
The Home Ticket has been worked four years, and uses 350 inches in daytime. The gross yield in May and June, 1867, was about $100 per day.
The Newark was opened in 1863, uses 300 inches in the day-time, and yielded about $75 gross in June, 1867.
POTATO RAVIXE.—The following companies tail into Potato ravine, a tributary of Cañon creek :
Baldwin and Bailey have been at work three years, using 275 inches of water in the day-time, and obtaining about $70 gross per day.
The Harris claim is large and unopened.
The Fitzpatrick claim yields about $75 gross per day, was opened in 1866, and consumes 330 inches of water in day-time.
The Cedar Company have 900 by 800 feet, began work in 1861, run 300 inches day and night, and obtain about $250 in 24 hours. The yield in 1866 was $35,000, one-half of it profit.
Stewart and Kinder have 500 feet square, fronting on both Cañon creek and Potato ravine, but are not at work. Along Canon creek there is a rim rock, so they will tail into Potato ravine. They refused an offer of $1,500 for the claim.
'I'he Judd and Griffin claim, 1,000 feet square, has been worked since 1854, and was sold in 1866 for $3,500. The yield is about $75 per day, with 270 inches running twelve hours ont of the twenty-four. To get drainage an open cut was made 600 or 700 feet long in the rim-rock, and in one place 40 feet deep.
Huyck and Judd have one of the most profitable claims of the district on the eastern side of Indiana Hill cañon, which empties into the north fork of the American river. They have been at work since 1854, use 275 inches of water in the day-time, and cleared $7,000 in 1866.
The Hoskin claim adjoining is open, but is not worked.
INDIANA CEMENT MILL-Vallory, Gaylord & Co. are working with an cightstamp cement mill, driven by a hurdygurdy wheel. Their claim is the only one in the district in which the bed-rock has been reached. Their mode of getting out dirt is to cut a tunnel 60 or 70 feet on the bed-rock, let off a blast of 200 kegs of powder, sluice off the top dirt, and run the cement through the mill.
INDIANA CANON CLAIMS.—The following claims tail into Indiana Hill cañon.
The Hawkins claim was opened this year, uses 350 inches night and day, and yiclas $200 in 24 hours.
The Brink claim was opened in 1864, but is not worked now on account of disturbance of the telegraph or flume from which the pipe is fed. The yield was about $75 per day, and the quantity of water 30 inches. Work will be resumed next year.
Stewart and Prindle opened their claim in 1867, use 200 inches day and night, and take out about $100 per day.
Moody's Tail SLUICE.—In Cañon creek Moody & Co. have a double tail sluice 2,000 feet long, consisting of two flumes, each eight feet wide and about four feet deep. This sluice cost $25,000. The lower part was carried away in 1862, and the upper part was buried and had to be replaced. The yield was $10,000 in 1865, $7,000 in 1866, and $3,000 in the first half of 1867. An offer of $11,000 for a third interest was refused. The estimated receipts for 1867 are $10,000. Most of the cleaning up is done in September and October, when there is not much water for piping.
KINDER'S TAIL SLUICE.-Kinder and White have a tail sluice in Cañon creek, and claim the creek for a mile and a half below Moody & Co. In the upper part of their claim they have two sluices eight feet wide and 700 feet long. Half of the sluice was sold in 1865 for $3,000, but since then it has become more valuable. The grade is three inches to 12 feet. This sluice was carried away in 1865.
300 330 300 275 300 300
The following companies tail into the two tam sluices in Cañon creek: Companies.
Companies. Rock Creek.
Golden Gate Benton & Co..
350 Home Ticket Harkness
600 Newark... Bay State..
330 Bailey & Brother. Beil...
300 Fitzpatrick... German...
600 Brogan Uncle Abe..
275 Taylor & Co.. 400 Total.
5, 250 Church
275 The Gold Run tail sluice, in Gold Run cañon, is 1,500 feet long, six feet wide, and yields $6,000 or 87,000 a year. It tails into Cañon creek.
Goosling & Co. have a tail sluice 3,000 feet long in Goosling ravine, and four companies tail into it. Two tail sluices are buried 20 or 30 sect deep in this mine.
Huyck and Judd have 1,000 feet of tail sluice in Indiana Ilill cañon. Hoskins TAIL SLUICE.—The IIoskins tail sluice is in Indiana Hill ravine, which is so steep that the sluice is in short sections, the longest 24 feet, and between the sections the water pitches down over steep rocks. There are in all fifteen boxes of main tail sluice, six or eight feet wide and two or two and a half feet deep, with a grade of eight inches to 12 feet.
Besides the main sluice boxes there are a number of undercurrent boxes, from six to nine feet wide, 14 inches deep, with a grade of 12 or 13 inches to 12 feet. Not more than one-fifth of the matter in the main sluice gets into the undercurrent, passing through a cast grating of white iron, with openings an inch wide, eight inches and a half long, separated by bars an inch and a half thick on top. There are usually from 600 to 1,200 inches of water running in the main sluice and 120 in the undercurrent, which latter catches tlirce times as much gold as the former, because the current is slower and shallower.
There are second undercurrents, or secondaries, as they are usually called. Their grade is 14 or 15 inches to the box, their width 30 inches, and their depth 12. They tako one-fifteenth of the water of the undercurrent, and catch oneeighth as much gold. They are especially serviceable for catching quicksilver. The spaces in the grating are five inches long and three-cighths of an inch wide. There are three boxes of 12 feet to each undercurrent, and two to cachi secondary. The undercurrents always pay where the gold is fine, and the secondaries are especially serviceable in steep cañons.
DUTCH FLAT.-Dutch Flat, on the north side of the divide between Bear river and tho north fork of the American river, and within half a mile of the lino of the Central Pacific railroad, has for 12 years been one of the leading hydraulic camps of the State. It is pleasantly situated, and is one of the most prosperous towns in the mines, although the monthly gold yield was thrice as great in 1858 as it is now. There are many comfortable homes, most of tho people consider thiemselves permanent residents, and there is a steady increase in the number of families. Dutch Flat, probably alone of all the mining towns, bas never been burned down, and only one house has been burned. • The shipment of gold in January, 1867, was $31,600; in Febrnary, $33,000; in March, $13,000; in April, $74,000'; in Jay, 66,000; and in June, $60,000. These shipments included much from Gok Run.
Most of the soft gravel that covered the Blue lead, and that could be washed down readily with the pipo, has been washed away, and the blue cement, which is too bard for the pipe, and perhaps not rich cnough for the stamp, has been reached; and most of the claims are now lying idle in the hope that some other mode will be devised of working them.
The principal claims at Dutch Flat, commencing on Bear river, at the northeastern corner of the district, are the following:
PHENIX AND AMERICAN.—The Phænix, 900 feet long by 300 wide, was
opened in 1857 and was worked until 1865, with an average yield of $150 and an expense of $60
per day. All the soft gravel has been washed and the hard cement remains. The depth to the bed rock is not known.
The American, 900 feet long by 400 feet wide, was opened in 1857, and was worked for six years as a hydraulic claim, yielding $150 per day. It will not pay now for piping, and Chinamen are sluicing in it.
BUCKEYE. — The Buckeye was opened as a sluicing claim in 1854, and it was piped from 1857 till 1867, and may be regarded as worked out for the hydraulic process. It has used 250 inches of water and employed from four to six men. An incline was sunk 250 feet below the level of the present workings to the bed rock, and the cement taken out in going down yielded $8 to the car-load, and not more than one-third of the gold was washed out. If this statement be correct, and if the cement found in the incline was a fair average of all in the claim, the Buckeye is an extremely valuable piece of property.
Dutch FLAT AND QUEEN CITY.—The Dutch Flat, 1,800 by 900 feet, was opened in 1857, and is still at work with 12 men. The yield is from $200 to $400 per day. The soft gravel will last another season. The company commenced work in 1854, cutting a tunnel for drainage, but after going 450 feet and spending $46,000 on it, they gave it up. Some of the rock was so hard that they paid $85 50 per lineal foot.
T'he Queen City, 900 by 250 feet, began piping in 1858, and will exhaust its soft gravel this year. Four men are employed; the yield is $130 to $150 per day, and 200 or 250 inches of water are used.
BEAR RIVER AND TEAFF.— The Bear River claim, 900 by 400, was opened in 1856, and will be exhausted, so far as the soft gravel is concerned, this year. Four men are employed, 250 inches of water are used, and the yield is $150 per day.
Teaff's claim, 900 by 310 feet on one side of the hill, and 1,500 by 900 on the other side, was opened as a pipe claim in 1855, and the soft gravel will be worked out next year. From 1857 to 1860 125 inches of water were used, and the average yield was $100 per day. About 80 feet have been washed away from nearly the entire area of the claim. The amount of water used is 250 inches, at an expense of $30 per day; four men are employed at $3 each ; the total expenses are about $50 per day, and the yield $150. The head of water for piping is 120 feet.
FROM BOSTON TO YANKEE.—The Boston claim, 900 by 450 feet, was opened as a hydraulic claim in 1855, and the soft gravel will all be washed away this year. Four men are employed, 250 inches of water are purchased, and the yield is $150 per day.
The Gray Eagle, 900 by 300 feet, was piped from 1858 till this year, and now the soft gravel has all disappeared. The yield was $150 per day, and 250 or 300 inches were used per day..
The North Star was worked as a drift claim for a long time, and then piped. The soft gravel is all gone, and the claim is lying idle.
The Union is working, and paying good wages to two men. The Yankee, at the junction of Dutch Flat ravine with Bear river, has worked off nearly all the soft gravel. In 1858 and 1859 it was worked as a drift claim by 16 men, and it yielded 250 ounces (about $4,500) per month.
DRIFT ČLÁIMS.—The Blue Cut struck pay in 1856 as a drift claim, and paid very high for a time, and now pays $400 per month. Four men are employed, and the claim is still worked by drifting.
The Potosi, a drift-claim, pays 200 ounces per month to 12 men drifting day and night.
The Whynot Company is worked as a drifting claim; yield not ascertained.
The Badger has 22 feet of drifting dirt, and has been very rich, but is working now on a small scale. In four years it paid $192,000 of dividends