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dust was received in this port, and from the “ 2d. That the dynasty of Hapsburg-LorCrescent City arrived at New Orleans, we have raine, whose treachery and perfidy took up a telegraphic despatch announcing that she arms against the Hungarian nation, which has a million of dollars in gold on board also, tried to divide the country, to annihilate the destined for this city. These arrivals will no holy constitution, to produce hatred between doubt give a fresh impetus to emigration to the the different races, and which was even so Pacisc, and this is beginning to be apparent in shameless as to make use of a foreign power the increased number of vessels advertised (Russia,) to butcher a whole nation, which in during the last week. Still we think that far this way has torn in pieces the Pragmatic sancthe greater number of emigrants will proceed tion, which has violated every treaty, this by way of the Isthmus of Panama, now that faithless dynasty of Hapsburg-Lorraine should Diessrs. Howland and Aspinwall's line of be deposed forever as ruler in Hungary and steamers appear to be regularly organized, and all its legal provinces and countries ; should that there will no longer be any apprehension be exiled and banished forever from all the terof a recurrence of the ruinous_delays which ritories of Hungary, and should never be alhave taken place at Panama. The system of lowed the privilege of Hungarian citizenship. sending ships round Cape Horn to San Fran- This banishment should be proclaimed in the cisco, to lie rolling in that harbor without any name of the whole Hungarian nation. chance of their return, cannot be long pursued, “3d. The Hungarian nation being by a holy and it will be months, perhaps years, before a unalienable right self-subsistent, free and indesystem of government can be organized in Calpendent, may proclaim its decided will to keep ifornia which shall effectually prevent the de- peace and friendship with all nations of the sertion of ships' crews on their arrival at San world for so long as its rights are not violated; Francisco. We readily comprehend that from to maintain peace and friendship particularly the enormous rate of freight and passage-money

with those people who were before united with ship-owners have realized, they could easily Hungary, under the same ruler, then with the afford to abandon their vessels at the voyage neighboring Turkish and Italian countries, end, and by so doing have made a profitable and to make treaties and alliances with them, sale of them; but these freights will no longer founded on mutual interests. be attainable ; California must at the moment

“ 4th. The future system of government, we are writing be overstocked with almost with its particularities, shall be deliberated and every description of merchandise, and there decided by the National Assembly. Until the will soon be a dead pause with regard to ship new principles of government are deliberated ments. With corn and the more immediate upon and accepted, a President, with responnecessaries of life, California will, until the sible ministers, should be elected and invested gold-fever is allayed and her population shall with the executive power. turn to agricultural pursuits, always look to

“ 5th. A committee of three members should Chili, the granary of the Pacific.

be authorized to publish a manifest of these

resolutions and their principles.” HUNGARY

The representatives of the people unaniThe affairs of Hungary hare assumed such tor and gave them their sanction, and the

mously adopted the propositions of the Dictavast importance in the politics of Europe, par church resounded with enthusiastic shouts ; ticularly since the armed intervention of Rus- tears of joy gleamed in the eyes of thousands sia in aid of the Austrians, that we think it and thousands. necessary to devote some space to a relation

When the fourth proposition came of the affairs which have taken place in that der discussion, all the representatives, with country. There is full confirmation of the re

unanimous feelings and decision, proclaimed ports lately received of their having obtained Louis Kossuth President, in consequence of a decisive victory over the Russians, and of his unshaken patriotism, and the undivided their having taken the city of Buda, and it confidence of the whole Hungarian nation. appears certain that their gallant exertions have He was then entrusted with the forination of a met with no decided check.

ministry. It appears that on the 14th April last the

On the same day, the (Magnatenbefehl) Representatives of Hungary assembled in the Senate, on the proposition of their President, Protestant church at Debreczin, when the il- Poreny, unanimously and solemnly accepted lustrious Dictator Kossuth, after reporting the the above resolutions of the House of Repreglorious victories obtained by the Hungarian sentatives, without farther discussion. army, submitted the following resolutions : An administration was subsequently formed,

"1st. That Hungary with all its provinces consisting of the following persons : and counties should be proclaimed as a free, Louis Kossuth, President. independent, and self-subsistent State, whose Casimir Battheany, Minister of War. integrity and unity can never be attacked. Szemere, Minister of the Interior.


S. Poreny, Minister of Justice.

the rest are named by the king; below the Duscheck, Minister of Finance.

comes is the vicecomes ordinarius, and the viceHeyneck, Minister of Religion and Police. comes substitutus, and two or four judices no

bilium, besides several other officers. These The whole government of Hungary is so administrative councils are also tribunals of little understood in this country, for years past, justice, from which the last appeal is to the there has been so little known of its position septemviral board. Hungary has its own code with regard to Austria, that we shall, we trust, of civil and criminal law. It was finally debe excused for giving a slight outline of the livered from the Turkish yoke about the behistory of that country, the nursery of nations, ginning of the eighteenth century; but though which tried the skill of the most active Ger- united to Austria, it still considers itself as an man Emperors, and more than once made the independent kingdom, having a constitution Imperial city tremble.

which the Hungarians regard with jealous The fundamental laws are, the golden bull attachment, and laws and privileges, the operaof King Andras II., of the year 1222, the mag. tion of which has been and still continues, a na charta of the Magyars; the privileges of source of great trouble and offense to the Austhe nobility as acknowledged by law in 1741 ; | trian court. the treaty of Vienna in 1606, and that of Lintz When the revolution drove away the Empein 1647, by which the free exercise of religion ror Ferdinand from Vienna, the partisans of is guarantied to the Protestants; the act of the monarchy turned to Hungary and sought the Diet at Presburg in 1687, and the inaugu- to find amongst the Magyars a bulwark against ral diplomas of 1790 and 1791. The king has popular fury and outrage. Kossuth was then very extensive powers. He exercises the courted and encouraged, and when the Vienwhole of the executive power; he nominates nese extorted from the Emperor a democratic the. Bishops and Prelates, independent of the constitution, the Magyars were induced to dePope's confirmation, which only regards their clare themselves beyond its control, or to rest spiritual functions; he confers all civil and on the legal basis of the pragmatic sanction. military dignities, except that of the Palatine Thus the Magyars were pitted against the Gerand the two keepers of the crown; he is the mans, in order that, in due time, advantage President of all the tribunals of justice, and might be taken of both. Meanwhile, the third can order the Insurreclio

as it is

lled, or national element in Austria, the Czechish, had general levy of the nation. But in the legis- risen and been put down again at Prague; and lation and taxation the States have an impor- the fourth national element, the Croatian, was tant vote, and laws and taxes can only be im- held in leashes to act as executioner on the posed with the consent of the Diet. The king rest. And when reaction commenced at Vi. must swear to the constitution in the presence enna, and democracy féll to a discount; when of the people in the open air, when he receives Ferdinand had abdicated. and his nephew was from the hand of the primate the crown of St. set up in his place; when all uneasiness on Stephen. The Diet, or comitia regni, is, ac the side of Bohernia ceased; when Germany cording to law, summoned every three years. was taken up with the Danish war and its own Three months after the summons is issued, affairs; when Russia had given assurances of they appear in two chambers; the first con armed support, which have now been fulfilled, sisting of the Magnates and Prelates, under then the mask was thrown off, Kossuth was the Presidency of the Palatine; the second denounced as a traitor, Jellachich (who had consisting of the deputies of the nobility. The narrowly escaped the same fate,) was ordered king appears in person, or is represented by a to advance upon Pesth, and the ancient Huncommissioner. He announces, after the open-garian constitution was declared to be susing of the Diet, his postulala to the States. pended. Thus the present struggle began ; When the king and States have agreed upon a

how it will end is another affair. The Austriposlulatum it becomes a law, or decretum regni. ans have gone upon the principle of “ Divide The king assembles and prorogues the Diet at et Impera." They have succeeded remarkably pleasure. The whole Hungarian constitution well with the “Divide;" with the “ Inpera" is imprinted with the stamp of the middle ages. they have not been quite so successful. The administration of Hungary differs from In Moldavia there are 60,000 Magyar famithat of the other Austrian States. The per- lies who will join heart and hand with their son of the king is represented by the Palatine, Hungarian brethren to relieve them from Auswho is assisted by a Council of State, of which trian oppression. The word Magyar implies the members are named by the king. But the wanderer from the early nonnad tribes of the whole is subordinate to the Hungarian Chan- Hungarians, who wandered from the shores of cery at Vienna, through which the king decides the Adriatic to the Turkish provinces, and back every matter constitutionally depending on his again, as the seasons suited. will. Each comitatus is governed by a special Accounts received by the Cambria, since council, of which the first officer is the comes or the foregoing article was written, repeat the overgespacin, of whom thirteen are hereditary, | assertion that the Magyars have taken Buda

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by assault, and that the Croatians who formed | self the right to regulate interests which are, its garrison were put to the swo:d. It is also before all, those of the Roman people, and stated that the Magyars have taken possession which extend themselves to the whole of Euof Fiume, the principal Hungarian port on the rope, and to all the Christian world : she has Adriatic.

only considered that, by her position, she was The emperors of Russia and Austria had an particularly called on to interfere to facilitate interview at Warsaw, which lasted twelve the establishment of a regime, equally removed hours, but the determination which they came from the abuses which have been forever deto, has not transpired.

stroyed by the generosity of the illustrious

Pius IX., and from the anarchy of late days. FRANCE AND ROME.

The flag which I have just hoisted on your A singular state of circumstances has arisen shores is that of peace, of order, of conciliabetween these two republics. It having been tion, and of true liberty. Round it rally all represented that the armies of Austria and those who wish to co-operate in the accomNaples were about to enter the Roman terri- plishment of the patriotic and sacred work.

OUDINOT DE REGGIO. tory for the purpose of overthrowing the republic, the French government determined upon sending a large force under General having been apprised of these proclamations,

The members of the government at Rome Oudinot, to prevent these powers from dictating a form of government to the Romans, as

which clearly proved to them that it was the France herself wished to take the initiative in

intention of the French to reinstate the Pope such a measure, and the National Assembly

in his temporal power, convoked the Assembly Foted the supplies necessary for the undertak

on the 26th, when the following decree was ing of the expedition.

adopted : Accordingly a large fleet of war steamers

The Assembly, after seeing the communiwas dispatched from the South of France to

cation made by their committee, confides to the

Triumviri the care of saving the republic ; and convey the expedition, which arrived off Civita Vecchia, and the troops were allowed to land

of repelling force by force.'

On the 27th of March General Oudinot without resistance, when General Oudinot

commenced his march for Rome, after having published the following order of the day:

sent a deputation of three officers to the TriCivita Vecchia, 25th April, 1849. umviri to declare to them that the occupation Soldiers ! the French flag floats on the of Civita Vecchia, by the French forces, had a forts of Civita Vecchia. We had expected double purpose: first, to secure the Roman that we should be compelled to effect a land- States from the invasion of the Austrians, who ing by force, and every measure had been were preparing to enter them, and secondly, adopted to insure its success; but we were to ascertain precisely what were the feelings inspired with the idea of our government, of the population as to the form of governwhich, associated with the generous feelings of ment, and to assist in a reconciliation between Pius IX., wished to avoid, as much as possible, Pope Pius IX. and the Roman people. the effusion of blood. The authorities of As soon as the Romans had resolved to deCivita Vecchia, yielding to the wishes of the fend themselves, they with ardor prepared to inhabitants, opened the gates of the town to prevent the entrance of the French troops into us at the first summons. This reception, the city. Barricades were raised on the roads you will feel, adds to our dnties. It would ag- and in the streets leading to Civita Vecchia, gravate any breach of discipline; it commands and the walls were countermined. To pro us, not only to respect the people, but to keep cure materials for the barricades the subterup the most friendly relations with them. The ranean gallery built by Pope Borgia, and leadfleet will, in a few days, bring us considerable ing from the Vatican to the castle of Saint

| up.

At arms of the navy. It is to their powerful co- General Oudinot, to protest against the invaoperation that we owe our first success. sion, and to warn the commander of the French

OUDINOT DE REGGIO. troops that Rome was prepared to resist, and On the same day he published the following Saint Peter's, which liad already been mined,

that if necessary the Quirinal, the Vatican, and proclamation to the Romans :

would be blown up. The General replied that Inhabitants of the Roman States! In pres- his instructions were imperative, and that he ence of the events which agitate Italy, the would enter Rome by force, should he not be French republic resolved to send a corps received willingly. d'armée on your territory, not to defend the After such a reply there was no receding, present government, which it has not recog- and soon the attack commenced. An eye-witnized, but to avert great misfortunes from your ness gives the following details : country. France does not arrogate to her- “ A company of the first battalion of sharp

shooters was led towards the gates of Rome ; | day the brave soldiers of the sister repubit was received by discharges of musketry, and Jic. retreated in good order. Soon afterwards a The Triumvirs, Carlo ARMELLINI, portion of the division advanced, and without

GUIZEPPE MAZZINI, much difficulty got within the walls of the

AURELIO SAFFI. city, the streets of which were barricaded ; but Rome, May 7, 1849. there it was received by a well-sustained fire of musketry, and by showers of missiles of General Oudinot, not wishing to be outdone every description hurled from the windows and in generosity, ordered the release of a battalion the roofs of houses. The 20th regiment of the of light troops which had until then been deline, which had opened the march, suffered tained by his order at Civita Vecchia. greatly; one of the light companies was almost It is stated that the French prisoners were entirely destroyed. The General, perceiving treated with the greatest hospitality during their the impossibility of continuing a struggle so stay at Rome. The citizens vied with each fatal to his troops, gave orders for a retreat, other in paying them attention, conducting and the French army took up a strong position them to see the monuments and galleries of at some short distance from the city.”

art of the Eternal City. They were saluted It is said that the French lost 1,200 men, everywhere with cries of Viren les Français, killed and wounded and prisoners. Among and on their release conducted them in triumph the former was M. Harris, an aide-de-camp to the camp at Palo. One account says, that on of General Oudinot, and in the latter Captain the prisoners passing by Saint Peter's they Oudinot, his relation. The General himself rushed into the cathedral and unanimously was surrounded, and would have been taken vowed not again to draw their swords against prisoner but for the gallant exertions of his the inhabitants of Rome. troops.

The government being informed that it was A Neapolitan army, said to consist of from the intention of the French general again to 15,000 to 20,000 troops, had invaded the Roman attack Rome, issued the following proclamaterritory, and was advancing towards the tion, which was placarded on all the walls and capital. Garribaldi, the Roman general, went gates of Rome : out to meet them, and on the 3d of May, in the neighborhood of La Torre di Mezza Via, about Soldiers of the French Republic! For the eight miles from Rome, he met a detachment second time you are forced to appear as of 1,200 of this new enemy, and defeated them, enemies under the walls of Rome, of the retaking one hundred and fifty prisoners, and publican city which was once the cradle of two pieces of cannon. Having received or- liberty and military glory. It is an act of ders from the government to act only for the fratricide, which is imposed upon you; and defense of the city, Garribaldi returned to this fratricide, if ever it could be consummated, Rome on the 8th of May.

would strike a mortal blow against the liberty On the 7th the Triumviri, wishing to give a of France. The two people are bound by convincing proof that there was no feeling of mutual ties. The republic extinguished enmity towards the French nation, issued the amongst us, would be an eternal stain on your following decree, and sent back the prisoners flag, one ally the less for France in Europe, they had made to the camp at Palo:

one step the more on the road to monarchical

restoration, towards which a deceitful and deIn the name of God and the people :

ceived government impels your beautiful and Considering that between the French people great country. and Rome, the state of war does not and can not

Rome, therefore, will combat as she has alexist :

ready combated. She knows that she fights That Rome defends, by right and duty, its

for her own liberty and for yours. Soldiers of own inviolability, but deprecates as an offense the French Republic ! Whilst you are marchagainst the common creed every collision be ing against our tri-colored flag, the Russians, :ween the two republics :

the men of 1815, are marching into Hungary,

At That the Roman people does not hold re

and dreaming of a march into France. sponsible for the acts of a misguided govern

some miles distance from you, a Neapolitan înent the soldiers who obey its orders by fight- banner of despotism and intolerance unfurled.

corps, which we have attacked, holds the ing :

At some leagues from you on your left, a reThe Triumvirate decrees :

publican city, Leghorn, resists at this moment

an Austrian invasion. There is your place. Art. 1. The Frenchmen taken prisoners on Tell your leaders to keep their word. Remind the day of the 30th of April are free, and will them that at Marseilles and at Toulon they be sent to the French camp.

promised you a battle against the Croats. Re Art. 2. The Roman people will salute with mind them that the French soldier holds at the applause and fraternal demonstrations at mid- end of his bayonet the honor and liberty of



France. French soldiers ! Soldiers of liberty!

“Elysee National, May 8, 1849. march not against your brethren. Our battles “My dear General— The telegraphic news are yours. Let the two tri-colored flags ally announcing the unforeseen resistance which theinselves, and march together to the libera- you have met under the walls of Rome, has tion of nations and the destruction of tyrants. greatly grieved me. I had hoped that the inGod, France and Italy will bless your arms. habitants of Rome, opening their eyes to eviLong live the French republic! Long live the dence, would receive with eagerness an army Roman republic!

which had arrived to accomplish a friendly and The Triumvirs,

ARMELLINI, disinterested mission. This has not been the

Our soldiers have been received as

MAZZINI. enemies. Our military honor is injured. I Rome, May 10, 1849.

will not suffer it to be assailed, for reinforce

ments shall not be wanting to you. Tell your And the following address to the Romans soldiers I appreciate their bravery, and take was issued by Avezzana :

part in what they endure, and that they may

always rely upon my support and my gratitude. “Romans! With inexpressible joy I have My dear General, receive the assurance of received and published the tin of General my sentiments of high esteem. Garibaldi relative to the brilliant feat of arms

Louis NAPOLEON BONAPARTE." at Palestrina, performed yesterday. Citizens !

This letter has been severely discussed in Modern Rome is like the ancient city, sur the Legislative Assembly; but the ministers rounded with enemies in the infancy of its declared that it was merely a private letter of republican life. But if the first came forth the President's, expressing his regret to the armed and powerful in war from being so often General, and was not in any way official-that assailed, i he second. innocent, pure from blood, they had no participation in it. It has been cleansed from ambition, and aspiring only to highly reprobated, as being an insult upon the the exercise of human rights, will be encour Assembly, promising to send reinforcements aged in her glorious mission by the sanctity of without taking the opinion of the representaher cause, and protected by the justice of God. tives of the nation on the subject. Persevere, therefore, Romans, with all courage. No important event has since occurred in We will overcome our enemies; we will guard | Italy up to the date of the last advices, except. our rights; we will be the corner-stone of the ing that the Spaniards have landed a small rebuilding of Italy.

force, about 4000 men, at Fiunacini, to assist “ The French threaten yet once inore to the Pope. It will be seen that the Romans return to the assault; we will chase them back have altogether acted the most noble part in again in the tracks they have left from the these affairs, and that they are determined to 30th of April. At the first discharge of can resist to the uitermost. The next advices will non, let all the citizens run galiantly to arms, be highly important. With regard to the sudand fly to defend the walls and barricades. den change of opinion which has taken place God is with us. The eternal right of the in France, and which, from a small minority of people shall not perish.

85, las raised the number of Montagnards " JOSEPH Avezzana, the General-in-Chief, and Socialists in the National Assembly to

Minister of War and Marine. 250, or perhaps 300, in the new Legislative "Rome, 10th May, 1849."

Assembly, which is to consist of 750 members,

we cannot do better than give our readers The effect of this reverse was sensibly felt lardet, the former editor, and now the corres

some extracts from the letters of Mr. F. Gailby the Parisians, and throughout France. They were wounded in the tenderest point-in their pondent, of the Courrier des Etats Unis. Mr. military glory, and that too in fields where they of l'Yonne, comprising the whole of the former

Gaillardet was a candidate for the Department had always been accustomed to victory. The adıninistration of Louis Napoleon was dis- province of Burgundy, and which, in the eleccredited; upon it fell the greater share of the

tion of the firet Legislative Assembly, had disgrace incurred. For it had not been shown an almost unanimous distaste for imagined by the French people that their sol

Socialist principles. Mr. Gaillardet obtained diers had been sent to Italy for the sole purpose 27,158 votes, but was defeated by the Socialof reinstating the Pope. They had been told ists, who obtained upwards of 28.000. This Auence, and their mortification and disappoint- Socialist members, out of eight, to represent it was to combat Austrian and Neapolitan in- Department, which was considered the very

incarnation of Bonapartism, has sent three ment were unbounded.

On this intelligence reaching Paris, the them in the Assembly President addressed the following letter to

M. Gaillardet says, in a letter dated 24th General Oudinot, which was immediately pub

Mayliebed in the Moniteur:

“ Now let us trace at what period and from

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