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to yield 35 to 40 bushels to the acre, of fine Middlesex, 15 bushels, $9,50, crop ong-third less grain, and this on rocky, shallow soil. It was on account of drought; Worcester, 25 bushels. done by thorough plowing—9 to 12 inches, -and Wheat—Essex, 12 bushels ; Middlesex, 18;liberal application of manure, of home manufac- Worcester, 15; Berkshire, 17; Hampden, 15 ; ture. The crop of straw often yields $10 or $15 Franklin 15. per acre. Of wheat, any man, with good culti- Mr. Far, of Essex, made some interesting revation, can raise 30 to 40 bushels per acre ; this marks in regard to the culture of grain in this had been demonstrated by Mr. Poor, of Andover. country and in England. He thought that the Oats, too, may be cultivated to good advantage ; decline in the production of wheat in this State he had known 50 bushels per acre to be raised. was owing to the system of cultivation which had All these grains can be raised advantageously, been pursued. We began by cutting down the with good cultivation—the ground well pulver- forests and raising wheat without manure, until ized and manured. He did not believe lands those qualities required by it are exhausted ; and could be manured well, except with that made on this system is still being pursued all over the counthe farm.

try. In England and Scotland, where he had Mr. Dodge, of Sutton, said that cereals had travelled extensively, the same system was at not proved a profitable crop in Worcester coun- first pursued, getting large crops at the outset, ty. Ten years ago, 50 or 60 bushels of barley and then rapidly diminishing. To remedy this per acre were obtained, but of late years, no evil, they resorted to underdraining, high cultigrains could compare with grass as regards pro- vation, and rotation of crops, and by this means fit. He would like to know if there was any

their exhausted lands have been made the finest method by which they could secure good grain in England. Lime is there considered an essencrops in that county. He thought the rye crop

tial ingredient, and it has been applied to all might be made profitable to farmers, on account these lands. Our lands can be brought to the of the demand for the straw. He did not think same high state of cultivation, by a proper rotalime could be used in Massachusetts. It is a tion of crops and high manuring, and he was condeadly enemy to the manure heap, dissipating

fident that Massachusetts could grow wheat as well the ammonia which it contained, and if used on as any other State in the Union, when we pursue land in connection with other manures, would the right course in this respect. He knew of no produce the same effect.

better land anywhere for growing wheat than the Col. Newell said that a few years ago, bar- valley of the Merrimack. Drilling is the only ley died out in Essex county, but last year he

mode of planting grain in England, and almost raised 50 bushels to an acre, and he thought it every other crop is planted in the same way, a was coming round again.

machine being used which manures the ground Mr. JENKINS made the same remark in regard

and drops and covers the seed at the same time.

which to barley, and rye, also. He considered rye the The crops are also hoed while growing, most profitable grain crop which can be raised in adds greatly to the yield. The wheat crop in the eastern part of the State. He would like to England and Scotland, is a certainty, on account hear this revivification of crops explained. Was

of systematic cultivation. Mr. Fay thought the it owing to the soils or the atmosphere? He re

great variation in the yield of wheat on the same ferred to the fine wheat crops of Mr. Poor, al

soil in this country, was owing wholly to a varialuded to by Mr. Proctor, and remarked that he tion in its cultivation. It had not failed in had seen them. Other farmers in the place had Egypt for 900 years, and need not here if the equally good crops, but for the last few years,

land is properly cultivated. and since Mr. Poor sold his farm, good crops have

After a few remarks from Mr. Proctor in renot been raised, and the erop seemed to have left gard to manures, the meeting, at a few minutes them. He wished farmers to try experiments on

past 9 o'clock, adjourned. a small scale with lime and other manures, to see if the small cereal grains could not be raised with WIRE FENCES.-CHARLES Cowley, Esq., of a certainty of good crops.

Lowell, the Agent of the Manufacturers of Wire Mr. Flint, Secretary of the Board of Agricul- Fences, has prepared a lecture or two on the subture, read some statistics collected by him the ject of fences, which he will deliver upon invitapast year, showing the average crop of certain tion. He has drawings to illustrate his subject, grains in different counties of the State the past and will be able to give some startling facts with

Of oats, in Essex, an average of 35 regard to the cost of fences in the State, as well bushels to the acre, at a cost of $11, not including as to suggest how the object of fencing may be

Worcester, 25 bushels, at a cost of effected at a less cost, and with infinitely more $9. Barley—Essex, 28 bushels, at cost of $11, beauty and harmony with the natural scenery of crop one quarter less, on account of drought; the farm.

season.

;

manures.

Swaar. Tolman

Sweeting. Russet. Water......84.75.. ....81.52.......81.35.

82.85 .....18.48.......18.65.,

........17.15 Ash.........0.26

THE VALUE OF APPLES. same amount in a shorter period, than an equal In some of the Eastern States, apples are ex

weight of starch, for this reason, that the two tensively used for feeding and fattening stock in former bodies, although nearly the same in comwinter; and, while we are setting out orchards position with the latter, yet are physically furin the west, it is worthy of consideration whether ther advanced in organization, and hence, probawe may not devote a portion of our farms to this bly, approximate nearer the constitution of fat. express purpose, independent of any idea of

If this view be taken, then the apple may be reselling or eating the fruit ourselves. And this garded equally, if not more rich in fat-producing question acquires a greater importance since we products than the potato. 3. The apple is richer have been deprived of potatoes, and are unable in nitrogenous compounds than the potato. In to find any root-crop which will supply the de

albumen the apple is richer than the potato,

while in casein the reverse is the case. The agficiency. What every farmer needs during winter is some root or fruit, containing a large gregate amount of albumen, casein and gluten, amount of water or juice, with positive nutritive in good varieties of the apple, is more than double qualities, afforded at a low price. Apples, when

that of the same boàies in the potato; hence the the interest. They keep well, with slight trouble, build up and sustain the important portions of once planted, cost nothing but the gathering and apple may be regarded as richest in those sub

stances which form muscle, brain, nerve, &c., and during winter ; properly planted, they are a very the body. The difference between sweet and sour certain crop; the only thing to be decided, therefore, is, are they suficiently nutritive to render apples appears to be, that in the first the fatthem worth growing for the fattening of stock producing, and in the other the muscle-forming Dr. Salisbury, of Ålbany, N. Y., has studied for a fattening or milking animal; the sour apple

compounds abound. A sweet apple is superior them with this very point in view; and we ab- for one that is working. But, practically, the stract the following from his report, which we difference is greater than the analysis would recommend to the careful study of every farmer :

show; the sweet apple not only contains a larger Per centage of water and dry matter in the amount of unformed fat, but the acid of the sour

Roxbury Rhode Island apple tends to destroy or prevent the deposit of

Greening.

fat in an animal ; and, as is well known, sour Dry matter.. 15.25..

apples will dry up a milch cow, while sweet ones

add to the milk. The money value of apples, Mean inorganic analysis of the composition of five compared with potatoes, may be stated somewhat

varieties of apples (without carbonic acid.) as follows: for fattening, 1000 lbs. of sweet apples Silica, (sand)...

are worth about 1050 lbs. of potatoes ; for feedPhosphate of iron..

ing to growing or working stock, 1000 lbs. of Phosphoric acid...

good sour apples are equivalent to 2000 lbs. of Lime, (bones). Magnesia........

potatoes ; and, in practice, should produce the

same effect. So that, in the first case, a farmer Soda, (common salt).

would only be justified in paying 25 cents a bushel Sulphuric acid.

for apples ; in the latter, he might pay 50 cents Organic matter....

without losing. (By the word " Thus the salts of the apple are, chiefly, potash, any that are not positively "sweet.”) soda, bones and plaster-using the common names. According to Dr. Salisbury's analysis, no two Mean analysis of the organic (or feeding matter) ter, the proportions constantly differing. Thus,

varieties are exactly alike in composition or waof the apple, compared with the same in the po- in six kinds, he found the water to vary from 79 tato ; and of 1000 parts of the Tolman Sweet-to 86 per cent. ; or, in other words, a person ing.'

buying 100 lbs. of each, got 7 lbs. more pure fresh sweeting. fresh apple. fresh potato.

water in one lot than another; and, consequently, Cellular Fibre..

..5. 8 lost to that extent. It were an interesting inves Glutinous matter, fattening..3.52.

.... 2 tigation which are actually the cheapest—the Fat and wax,

3 substanccs.. Dextrine...

.........3. 1.. ........1.21 small and hard, or the overgrown and soft apples. Sugar and extract....".....99.05..

........8. 3...........2.64 We suspect that there is as much nourishment in Malic acid.. Albumen, flesh-forming....8.97.

.. three-quarters fof a bushel of " Rhode Island Casein,

.......0.16..........0.45 Greeningg" as in a whole bushel of “ Monstrous Starch, (fattening)......... none...........none..........9. 9

In conclusion, we call upon such western farBy comparing the composition of the apple mers as expect to remain on their farms, to set out with that of the potato, it will be noticed : 1. apples. Select your orchard carefully for your That the former contains about 3 per cent. more own use and for sale ; and then plant all over of water than the latter. 2. That the dextrine your farm, in fence corners and every vacant spot, and sugar in the apple take the place of the good sweet apples; and even put them in your starch, dextrine and sugar in the potato. The fields, at 40 or 50 feet apart, and set four posts above principles are the main bodies in the apple round them to prevent cattle and plows hurting and potato, which go to form fat. In the ag- them. Every tree that yields, on an annual avgregate amount of fat-producing products, the erage, twenty bushels of apples, or forty bushels apple and potato do not materially differ. It each alternate year, is worth $100 invested at would be natural, however, to infer that 50 lbs. five per cent. ; and by planting orchards, you are of dextrine and sugar would, if taken into the leaving a fortune to your posterity, or adding to system, be more likely to make a greater quantity the value of your farm if you wish to sell it.of fat in a given time, or at least to make the Farmers' Companion, Detroit,

Potash..

.......1.637
.....1.593

.13.267
......4.199
...........1.669

.........37.510
........24.799

. 2.169
..........................7.229

........5.828

Chlorine.....do....

sour

we mean

1000 parts

100 lbs.

100 lbs.

........33.90.

...3. 2.. ......0. 2...

....0. 8

... 28.96.

..2.50. ........0. 3..

.........1. 4.. matter........0.89.

.......815.20..........82.66.........

Water..

79.7 Pippins.

.

HAS THE MOON AN ATMOSPHERE ? yeomanry of the United State. His virtues have
The astronomical world has been a long time in whole community; and his name will fill a page

a practical existence, benefiting and ennobling the
doubt whether the moon has an atmosphere or in history that will suffer no detriment by the
not, though the most accredited opinion is that it
has not, at least, none of sufficient density to con-

lapse of years, and which will have its interpreter form to our optical laws and the demands of any taste aud refinement are found.”

on every hillside and in every valley where rural animal life known to us. The New York Courier announces, on the authority of “one of the most We know Col. WILDER well, and have long beeminent mathematicians and astronomers of the lieved that few men “ magnify their office" with world,” that the side of the moon nearest this more untiring fidelity, or with more practical world is sixteen miles higher than the other. If, benefit to the world. His labors, aside from his therefore, we suppose that the moon has an atmosphere such as ours, it would be of such ex- legitimate pursuits, as a horticulturist, and in treme rarity on the only side exposed to our ob- fact every kind of culture of the earth, have been servation, that for optical effect and animal life it constant and earnest, and have promoted the might as well not exist. For mountains upon cause in many ways. We have room at present the earth, none of which

are over five miles above for only a the level of the sea, have been ascended to a height

of the paragraphs of the very in-
at which life could not be supported for any teresting biography.
length of time, and still mountains have stretched "A more familiar acquaintance with lIr.
above the panting traveller. What, then, must Wilder's natural endowments and private habits,
be the atmosphere at four times such an eleva- discloses the manner in which he has been enabled
tion. The conclusion seems inevitable that, al- to make so extensive attainments, and to pursue
though the hither side of the moon is uninhabita-objects so various. Blessed by nature with quick
ble for want of an atmosphere, the remote side perceptive faculties, and unusual versatility of
may be perfectly adapted to animal life. It is mind, he acquires with ease and rapidity, and
at least certain that the mere want of an atmos- readily applies his acquisitions to his numerous
phere perceptible to us is no longer conclusive as and varied employments. Besides, he is a rigid
to the uninhabitableness of the planet that rules economist of time, a close adherent to system.
the night.Phil. Ledger.

Every hour has its appropriate business, which is
attended to in its appointed season.

In the even

ing and at early dawn, he is in his well-selected HON. MARSHALL P. WILDER. and valuable library, either investigating subjects Under the head of “ Mercantile Biography," which the labors and scenes of the past day have Hunt's Merchants' Magazine for January contains

suggested, or planning the business of the ap

proaching day a rapid sketch of the life and various pursuits of “ In 1840, he was elected President of the the gentleman named above, together with a most Massachusetts Horticultural Society, an office life-like portrait. In the Courier we find a con- which he filled with honor to himself and that densed notice from the article in the Magazine association for eight years. During his adminiswhich we subjoin.

tration, it greatly increased in the number of its

members, in its resources, usefulness and respect“MR. Wilder has been a successful merchant ability. It erected its beautiful hall in School in Boston, for thirty years, and is now of the re- Street, at the laying of the corner-stone, and the spectable and well-known firm of Parker, Wilder dedication of which he delivered appropriate & Co., 5 Pearl Street. Mr. Wilder is a Director speeches. It held two triennial festivals in Fanin the Hamilton Bank, the National Insurance euil Hall, occasions which congregated the elite Company, the New England Life Insurance Com- of city and country, and which will long be repany, and other like institutions—in the first two membered for their luxurious entertainments, and of which he has held office for more than twenty for their soul-stirring, speeches from Webster, years. Although trade has been his chief busi- Everett, and other chief masters of eloquence. ness, and to which he has made all other pursuits When he retired from the office, the society, acsubordinate, yet by a rigid economy of time, and companied its resolutions of thanks with a silver a strict adherence to system, he has been enabled service, as a substantial testimonial of its gratito contribute extensively for the promotion of the tude for his valuable labors. agriculture and horticulture of our country. At “In 1851, Mr. Wilder, with others, called a the present time he holds the offices of President convention of delegates from local agricultural of the United States Agricultural Society, of the in the State to meet them in the State House, in American Pomological Society, and of the Norfolk Boston, and of that body he was chosen presiAgricultural Society. He is also a member of the dent. This, with the preceding action, led to the State Board of Agriculture, and was eight years creation of a perinanent Board of Agriculture by President of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- the Legislature, sustaining a similar relation to ciety. He has filled other important offices, both this industrial art as the Board of Education does civil and military; has been President of the to the system of common instruction-having its Senate, and member of the Executive Council. own laws and secretary, and constituting a co-orFew men have done so much for the cause of rural dinate branch of State government. Of this improvement, and to elevate the profession of the Board, Mr. Wilder has been a member from the farmer. Well does his biographer remark : “ His beginning, and has taken a prominent part in all valuable services in the cause of agriculture and its deliberations and actions. It has a departof horticulture have made him extensively known ment in the capitol, with a secretary who superon both sides of the Atlantic, especially to the intends the farm connected with the State Reform

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School in Westborough, exerts a salutary and 2000 ducks, and paid £50 at a time for barley powerful influence upon the agriculture of the meal." Commonwealth, and promises to do still more for its advancement."

EXTRACTS AND REPLIES.

A FINE APPLE.

THE BARLEY CROP.

C. S., South Hawley, Franklin County, urges

I send you a sample of sweet apples raised by me, for a name. Our pomologists do not know the fruit, and I think it is too good to be name- upon the farmer the importance of giving more less. It resembles in a good degree, Downing's attention to the barley crop; says that barley "Ladies' Sweeting," but is not identical. It has

long been a desideratum with us to obtain a first-flour makes good bread, and that it may take the rate winter sweeting, and this is the best we place of wheat flour with advantage to health as have found. It is a great bearer and keeps well. well as the purse, when the latter is selling at Yours truly, GEO. A. CHAMBERLAIN. $12 per barrel. Worcester, Dec., 1854.

"The Agricultural Society of Clermont, in the department of the Oise, has recommended the use of that agricultural nuisance, couch-grass, as a substitute for malt in the making of beer."

CONCRETE HOUSES.

REMARKS. This apple, like the Ladies' Sweeting, has a pleasant perfume, and fine, sprightly We have already referred, at considerable flavor. The skin is a beautiful red, but has not length, to the work on Concrete Houses. the yellowish-gray dots of the former. We submitted the specimens sent, to two or three good judges, who could not recognize it, and while MR. EDITOR-I wish the writer on cheap looking at them a gentleman on his way to the fence would be more explicit; state how long the Horticultural Rooms brought in a basket of ap- prepared in a certain quantity of the preparastakes must be soaked, and how many can be ples for our examination, which proved identical with yours. They were then presented at the Rooms, but could not be named.

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The apple is not only attractive in its appearance, but is of fine texture and flavor, and with the other good qualities given it by Mr. Chamberlain, will prove a valuable variety.

――

CHEAP FENCES.

tion.

ALPHEUS FLETCHER.

Shelburn, 1855.

COWS GNAWING BONES.

I have a cow, the moment she is turned out is in search of a bone, and if she finds one, will stand and chew it for hours; a year or two ago, I read something about it, but I have forgotten what it was. Will you or some of your correspondents please inform me. WM. DURANT.

YOUNG CATTLE'S HORNS.

I would inquire of you, or some of the numer-
ous readers of the New England Farmer, if the
shape of steers, or any young cattle's horns, can
be altered, and the best time and process of doing
it.
S. F. ALGER.

Winchendon, Jan. 8, 1855.
REMARKS.-Will some of our experienced friends

reply.

From N. P. M., Somerville.-The apple you sent in, if now in its season, would be hardly worthy of cultivation among the excellent vari

Leominster, 1855. REMARKS.-By reference to former volumes of eties we already possess. The flesh is soft and the Monthly Farmer, you will find the cause of dry, and though not remarkably acid; yet with this pretty fully discussed. Pound a few bones a vinegar tinge, that is not agreeable. The Jewas finely as possible, and feed to your cow; or ett's Fine Red are very handsome. purchase a bag of bone-dust, and feed a little of that to her, and when she is turned to pasture THE SKILFUL HOUSEWIFE'S BOOK.-This 18 anshe will give her attention to the grass rather other of SAXTON's books, containing 659 Receipts, than to the "old bone." Bone-dust is sold at the pertaining to Household Duties, the Care of agricultural warehouses, in bags, for 75 cents Health, Gardening, Flowers, Birds, Education of for about 25 lbs. of the dust. Every farmer Children, &c. The work was compiled by Mrs. should have it. L. G. ABELL, and as the Publisher's preface says, "is the production of a highly-gifted and disciDEAR SIR-The information contained in the items below, is so curious, that I cut the slips plined mind," and "teaches in the broadest sense, from an English newspaper, given to me to read the Science of Life." It will be found exceedingly to-day, by an Englishman who works on my convenient to every housewife who does not know farm, and send them to you, supposing you may everything herself, if there is any such. like to put them in a corner of your paper. Wishing you a happy new year, your friend,

Washington, D. C., 1855.

T. B.

MEXICAN GUANO.-The reader is referred to an

"Around Aylesbury the annual return for advertisement in another column relating to ducks is £40,000. One man has had 1000 to "Mexican Phosphatic Guano."

HINTS FOR TEACHERS. the bit of string, he went into the water, and the The main and almost undivided attention of dog pulled him across. After playing about on teachers should be given to the business of giving the other side some time, they returned, as they instruction while they are engaged in the em- came; but when Charlie looked for his clothes, ployment. They cannot do a day's work, nor he could find nothing but his shoes. The wind half a day's work in some manual labor or mer- had blown all the rest into the water. The dog cantile affairs, and do a day's work in the school- saw what had happened, and making his little room at the same time. They may work a little master let go the string, by making believe to when out of school for exercise, and to allow the bite him, he dashed into the river, and brought mind to unbend, after the mental labor and per- out first his coat and then all the rest in succesplexities of the day are over. One-half and per- sion. Charlie dressed and went home in his wet haps two-thirds of the teachers need to spend sev-clothes, and told his mother what fun he and the eral hours when out of school, in looking over dog had had. His mother told him that he did the lessons that are next to come up in lhe class- very wrong, in going across the river as he had es, that they may have everything familiar, and done, and that he should thank God for making bring up questions not in the books, that will the dog take him over and back again safely; for unfold the various principles of the sciences.

if the dog had made him let go in the river he It is not consistent for teachers to spend their would most likely have been drowned. Little evenings with loafers at shops and in bar-rooms. Charlie said, 'Shall I thank God now, mamma ?' We have known a few to do so, and even to take and then he kneeled at his mother's knee and a glass of liquor. In the same connection it may thanked God; then, getting up again, he threw be said that while social visits may be made and his arm round his dog's neck, saying, "I thank with parties that make them, yet those that are you, too, dear doggie, for not letting me go.' for mere amusement should be avoided, if they Little Charlie is now Admiral Sir Charles Nawould maintain proper dignity. Allusion is here pier.” made to those in whieh there are what are called “plays," and also the amusement of dancing.

Milk In BREAD.-I have more objections than of this last we do not think well at any time, one to milk in bread, but the most serious is, that but

especially it should be avoided while teaching persons of advanced age, who are in the daily use or attending school. An evening spent in the of milk-made bread, will be expected to suffer dancing hall, with the heat and fatigue of the from an over supply of osseous or bony matter, mind, renders one altogether unfit for much ef- and particularly if their kidneys be affected. fort with books the ensuing day. And if teach- Bread should always be made with water, and ers dance with their pupils, they let themselves when so made it is suitable for the aged and the down so as to lose the respect of the wise and dis- young, the sick and the well. And as for sour creet.

milk, a microscopic view would, I presume, preSome who attend school may carry things with sent additional arguments against its use. — Water them that do not belong there. Among these Cure Journal. may be named pocket-knives for the

purpose of swapping with their companions. Newspapers Springfield Republican states that Captain Samuel

WHAT A MOWING-MACHINE CAN - The and pamphlets of light reading. Books that are tales of fiction. A gun to hunt in the woods at into his barns, sixty-two loads of hay during the

Parsons, of Northampton, cut, made, and put noon or after school in the afternoon ; a pack of first week

in July, commencing on the 3d, besides cards for gambling. When these or anything of the kind are brought to the school-house, teachers mowing for others to the amount of $40 in the should see that they are removed at once. If

same time. The whole was accomplished with those that have them show the least obstinacy for thirty-eight days. He mowed in one day, and

what would be equivalent to the labor of one man they must be disciplined, and if necessary the su- in less than nine hours, eleven acres, producing perintending committee must be called on to re- from two to two and a half tons per acre. move them from the school.

The proper business of the school is important. There is a prize to be gained more valuable than THAXTER'S ROTARY CALENDAR. A neat, cona mine of silver or gold. There is a treasure to be venient and useful article for the libr y-table or secured that may be of infinite worth here and store-desk, has recently appeared for sale at the hereafter. Let nothing be brought in the way of attaining the prize and the treasure.-Exeter stationers in this city, which combines a waferNews-Letter.

stand, pen-rack and rotary calendar, which gives

the month and the date of each day of the week. BEAUTIFUL INCIDENT.

They are neatly japanned and bronzed, and make [A correspondent of the Preston (England) a tasteful ornament. They are manufactureland Chronicle gives the following anecdote :) sold at No. 78 Commercial Street. We would

“A good while ago a boy named Charlie had a recommend them to our literary and mercantile large dog which was very fond of the water, and friends as one of the most useful inventions of the in hot weather he used to swim across the river times. near which the boy lived. One day the thought struck him that it would be fine fun to make the F Readers will please notice the advertisedog carry him across the river, so he tied a string ment of Hiram Blackmer, in this number. Mato the dog's collar, and ran down with him to the comber's Hay-cutter possesses qualities which are water's edge, where he took off all his clothes ; claimed by no other machine, and purchasers and, then, holding hard by the dog's neck and will do well to examine it.

DO.

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