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Carlist princes to the end, be- thing was done on both sidescause they are the least part of by the Carlists often, by troops their own cause. Of the gentle- now and then, by the Republiman who renounced his cause can volunteers continually. to save his life, who brought Scandal is not to be trusted ; his vassals to die on the field, but it is a fact that in regard and was not man enough to die to these two gentlemen there is with them, nothing need be no evidence on the other side. said. The first Don Carlos may There is a good deal of declamhave been what Ford calls him ation about his Majesty's rights -an honest man. He was also and the fine things he will do, what Ford has elsewhere to but nobody ever hears of anyacknowledge that he was a thing he has done.

—Yet in the narrow-minded bigot. He was last hour he came to Biscay as a mere puppet in the hands of soon as an army was organised, his domestic priests, till he be- and remained there till further

a prisoner to his own stay became manifestly dangergeneral Maroto, who, after pre- During this period he paring the way by shooting his was, for all that appeared to Majesty's confidential advisers, the contrary, with the army as betrayed the cause at Vergara. a baggage-waggon might have As regards the present Don been — to use M‘Clellan's exCarlos, what is certain is that cessive jibe at Grant. As scandal has been very busy much may be said about his with his name. It asserts, for brother, Don Alfonso, who was instance, that he helped to never taken seriously by anysupply Daudet with material body. That this was not mere for · Les Rois en Exil.' It says prejudice

It says prejudice may be concluded also that when he was in Spain from the fact that very during the last war, his atten- different tone was taken in tion was chiefly devoted to the speaking of his wife, Doña cider of the Basque country, Blanca. Even those who spoke and to a certain lady abbess. most evil of her never denied Not dissimilar tales were told her spirit. of his brother, Don Alfonso, Now, it will hardly be diswho appeared (one cannot say puted that this absence of any who commanded) in Catalonia. evidence to the possession of This gentleman was accom- positive merit is very ominous panied by his wife—a lady of for a prince who has to fight the exiled Portuguese house of his way to the throne against Braganza, with whom scandal all the difficulties indicated was also busy. The best it had above. Indeed, we understate to say

of her was that she the case. It is not one throne caused a woman who had used Don Carlos claims but two. disrespectful language concern- As he asserts his right to be ing herself to be whipped in her King of Spain by virtue of the chemise all round one of the “pragmatic sanction” of Philip Catalan towns. We hope the V., so he claims to be King of story is not true. That sort of France and Navarre, as the





representative of the elder line to use the arms of France withof the house of Bourbon. On out the "brisure or difference this ground, at least, he occupies of the younger line. His Highan impregnable position. ness of Orleans has paid no the death of the Comte de attention to the injunction, and, Chambord he is the head of the as the jeunesse Royaliste suphouse by descent, for he comes ports him, it is to be feared that direct from Lewis XIV., whereas the true Legitimists are now but the Duke of Orleans only comes a scattered remnant. from the Grand Monarch's brother. It is true that Philip V. of Spain solemnly renounced all claim to succeed to the French throne for himself and for his descendants; but he never meant to keep his word, and his promise was not worth the paper it was written on. Nothing is more certain in Legitimist law than that no personal renunciation can deprive the descendants of any prince of their divine right. He may abdicate for himself, but not for others. So, the word of honour of Philip V. and the Treaty of Utrecht to the contrary notwithstanding, Don Carlos is King of France if everybody had his rights, and is so considered by those stern and unbending Legitimists who go by the name of the Blancs d'Espagne. If any one does not at once understand the insolence, possible only in a time debauched by the vilest revolutionary poison, which is implied in this name, let him ask any lady of his acquaintance whom he does not suspect of improving her face by the help of art. So, in spite of delusive appearances to the contrary, Don Carlos has abolished the Pyrenees. He has united the crowns of France, Navarre, and Spain, and he was perfectly right when he forbade the Duke of Orleans

His inheritance of the crown of France has also added something to the difficulties which beset Don Carlos. During the last war, when the septennate of Marshal MacMahon was still running its course in France, the Carlists were treated with extreme tenderness all along the frontier. They were allowed to use French territory


a basis of operations, and their uniform was commonly seen at Biarritz. In no case could he rely on the same toleration and assistance again; but since he has become pretender to France as well as to Spain, his case is even worse.

On the whole, one is strongly tempted to advise Don Carlos, since he has inherited the rights of Henri V., to take also the pathetically dignified attitude which that very real gentleman maintained to the end. It is not only the most becoming but the most practical course to follow. The genuine Carlists are not those Spaniards who feel disposed to seek a remedy for the ills of their country in "Home Rule all round." They are the believers in "the pure monarchy

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and the extreme Churchmen. It is not by concessions to Liberalism and to religious toleration that they will ever be brought into the field. If they


are not strong enough to vin- peace, and a great rally of old dicate his right, his cause is Spanish lawlessness was poshopeless. Something may be sible between 1868 and 1874. done by promising to restore Since then there has been a the fueros of Biscay ; but even solution of continuity. The that is doubtful, for the Basques cabecilla race is not extinct. have a lively recollection of the Churchmen can still be found evils brought on them by the who regret the Inquisition. last war.

And they — indeed Given another military revoluthey as much as any Spaniards tion, another outbreak of Re-have been affected by the publican folly, another collapse Zeitgeist. Four - and - twenty of Government, and the “men years of peace, during which of the mountains”

may again French capital has poured in fly to arms to protect themto make railways and English selves. They will hardly“ take to develop mines, have wrought to the Sierra again, out of a great change. There has .

mere enthusiasm for a claimant been a break in the tradition to the throne who has even which made the old Carlist given up pretending that he wars possible. First came Na- will restore the absolutism and poleon's invasion, which cov- the authority of the Church, ered Spain with guerrilleros. which were once loved as a The revolutionary Cortes at protection against hated innoCadiz offended and frightened vations. As for mere promises the mass of the people. The of better government, the antroubles of Ferdinand's reign swer to them is like to be in kept the organisation of civil the words of our friend the war alive, and it was ready to priest, Estamos muy cansado fight for the first Don Carlos de todo,”—We are sick of all Isabel's reign brought no settled that, having heard it too often.


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In the December number of history as it is a tribute to the • Blackwood’ there appeared a memory of one who, like Henry brilliant article from the pen of Lawrence, was essentially a Sir Henry Brackenbury, him- man who “ tried to do his self soldier of mean duty.” Writing as I do, as eminence, setting forth the a naval officer and not as soldierly virtues and heroic professional critic, I cannot deeds of Stonewall Jackson. undertake to lay down the The book that was the subject law as to whether Captain of Sir Henry's review was not Eardley-Wilmot's book is a litonly the biography of a soldier, erary success; but this I would but was written by a colonel in say to all those who are inthe army, who is at the same terested in the sea-power of our time a Professor of Military empire, read the book, and you Art and History at the Staff will get a clearer idea of the College. In such matters the kind of men upon whom under army is far ahead of the navy. God the wealth, peace, and It is not so much that there are safety of

empire does numbers of men in the army mainly depend.

For it has who can wield the pen with been well said that amidst the grace and facility that few extraordinary changes which naval men possess; but the fighting


and their navy itself scarcely recognises weapons have undergone withyet that there is such a thing in the last half-century, it is as naval history, or that the art a most remarkable fact that of naval war needs close and the men remain in all essentials earnest study by those who much what they were. It is hope to shine in their country's true that the modern seaman service. But in these last days knows more about hydraulic a change is becoming apparent. buffers, and the latest dodge in Not only has that brilliant cam - levers, than he does of luminary Captain Mahan light- reefing a topsail or furling a ened the darkness with his clear topgallant sail in a breeze; and terse writings, which even but at bottom he is much the the man in the street reads with

—more self-controlled interest, and enters into the certainly, but the same cheerspirit of; but many others are ful, tireless, intrepid, resourceful following in his footsteps, and Jack Tar that he was of old. the book now before me is quite Before opening the book I as much a contribution to naval have a word to say to Captain

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1 Life of Vice-Admiral Edmund, Lord Lyons, G.C.B., &c., with an Account of Naval Operations in the Black Sea and Sea of Azoff, 1854-56. By Captain S. Eardley-Wilmot, R.N. London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Co.


Eardley - Wilmot or his pub- his first start in the Service, lisher. Why make the book and had him entered in his so heavy? It surely is not cousin's ship, the Maidstone necessary that every

that every naval frigate, at eleven years of age, book should come up to the just after the peace of Amiens weight of a 3-pounder shell! was signed. The Maidstone I know that there is good, or lay at Portsmouth for three shall I say weighty, precedent months getting her crew on for this procedure; am I not board, and we gain a little myself the happy possessor of insight into the kind of traina volume of Colomb’s ‘Naval ing that turned out the gallant Warfare,' which was considered and talented officer and accomby its purchaser too ponderous plished diplomatist that Lyons for a sea-going bookshelf? But afterwards became. Captain surely it should be possible to Moubray, besides being captain cut down the displacement of of a frigate, was also practian interesting book like this, cally the head - master of a so that it can be read with school for young officers, his comfort when resting in an under-masters being the gunarm - chair during the watch ner, the carpenter, besides the below. Captain Eardley - Wil- clerk, who, young Lyons writes, mot does not profess to find “teaches us to read, write, sum, anything of the genius or of and spell.” The boy's letters the hero in Lord Lyons; his are naïve : book is rather the plain nar

Captain Moubray intends taking rative of the life of a man who

me and some more of the younkers was born in stirring times, and in his cabin to teach us arithmetic who lived to be Naval Com- till he gets a schoolmaster. There mander-in-Chief in the Medi

were four more men hung on board

some of the ships here yesterday." terranean in time of war, and though never called upon for The “four more great deeds, showed readiness gling at the yard-arm, and this and capacity in all that he at home in time of peace, was undertook.

a stern object - lesson for the Lyons was born in 1790, of younker, demonstrating forca good stock; his father owned ibly that discipline must be property both in Antigua and maintained. Before starting in Hampshire, and had lived for the Mediterranean the little in both places. It was at the boy of eleven writes, “I beg home in England that Lyons you will send me some money, was born. Being the fifth of as I have a great many things sixteen children, he had to push to buy.” How far his bear

way without much leader the gunner, with whom help from home : he was, how- he was as happy as a king,” ever, the fortunate possessor of helped him in these purchases a childless godfather in Admiral we are not told.

He has, too, - then Captain-Sir Richard to exercise discrimination as to Bickerton, who gave the lad his messmates, for in those days

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