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(6) If it cost £5,818 155. to lay down a tramway 2 miles 3 furs. long, how much will it cost for a line 3 miles 2 furs. 20 poles long?

171 What is the value of 12 cwt. 2 qrs. 8 lbs. of sugar at £8 155. per ton ?

(8) Find the Simple Interest on £4,780 for 4 years at 64 per cent. per annum.

Answers. (1) 30 tons 13 cwt. 3 qrs. 10 lbs. (2) £4,654 is. 2 d. (3) 131.

(4) (i.) 2 ; (ii.) £2 75. 6d. (5) .089. (6) £8,115 125. 6d.' (3) 25 1os. (8) £1,195.

Tho' niggard throats of Manchester may bawl,
What England was shall her true sons forget ?
We are not cotton spinners all.


GENERAL PAPER. (1) What do you understand by the terms:-watershed, lagoon, latitude, peninsula, gulf ?

(2) Name the countries bordering on the Mediterranean Sea, and give two seaports in each.

Describe the situations of :-Calcutta, Pekin, Aden, Goa, Smyrna.

(3) Give an account of the ways in which volcanoes are formed. Where are the chief volcanic regions of the world ?

(4) Whence do we get our principal supplies of :-cotton, sugar, rice, gold, timber? To which of our ports would ships bringing these things come?

(5) In what countries are the following :- Himalayas, Niagara, Blue Alps, Amazon, Hecla ?

(6) Write a short account of the uses of rivers.

English History, 1399-1603.

1399-1509. Not more than five questions to be attempted, of which one must

be Q. 6. (1) Tell the story of any one of the following episodes :(a) The Southampton Conspiracy, (6) Jack Cade's Insurrection, (c) Lambert Simnel's Rising.

(2) Write a short life of either (a) Margaret of Anjou, or (6) Warwick the Kingmaker.

(3) Give an account of the reign of either Henry V. or Richard III.

(4) Mention not more than half-a-dozen members of the Royal Family (i.e., of Edward III.'s descendants) who came to violent ends during this period. State very briefly the circumstances of each death.

(5) Show some acquaintance with Shakespeare's historical plays dealing with the fifteenth century.

(6) Where are the following places, and how do they come into the history of this period ?-Agincourt, Barnet, Blackheath, Bosworth, Orleans, Pequini, St. Albans, Sloke, Towton, Troyes.

English Grammar.

INFLEXION AND PARSING. (1) Parse fully each word in the following passage :

Then rode Geraint, a little spleenful yet,

Across the bridge that spanned the dry ravine. (2) Compare these adjectives :—much, few, lowly, tender. What adjectives cannot be compared ?

(3) Decline :-man, lady, she, who.

(4) What is the difference between a transitive and an intransitive verb? Give examples.

What is meant by the mood of a verb? (5) Name and give examples in sentences of the various kinds of pronouns.

(6) Make sentences to show that the words- will, that, out, round—may belong to different parts of speech.

French. (1) Translate into French:

(a) The 25th of March, 1901.
(6) Have you seen the apples I have bought?
(c) He sings worse than you, because he has a worse voice.

(d) These Scotch cakes are very good. Take some. (2) Give the second person singular of the imperfect subjunctive of avoir, of the imperfect indicative of finir, and of the conditional of pouvoir.

(3) Write the feminine ofl'empereur, épais, malin, le maître, and the singular of-dieux, iravaux, lesquelles and les yeux.

(4) Translate into English the following passages from “Seulette.” (The page references are to Hachette's edition.)

(a) p. 23, 11. 14-23 ; (6) p. 38, 11. 23-30; and (c) p. 44, 11. 21-28. (5) Parse ouverteand fitin 11. 15 and 21 of 4 (a).

Write in the plural "je me sentis de nouveau heureuse,” and give the present infinitive of “ faisait.4 (6).

What peculiarity is there about the word “mangeait”? Illustrate by comparison with another verb of the same person and tense occurring in 4 (c).


The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for the opinions

expressed in letters which appear in these columns. As a rule, a letter criticising any article or review printed in THE SCHOOL WORLD will be submitted to the contributor before publication, so that the criticism and reply may appear together.

The Heuristic Method of Teaching Science. In the recent expression of experience of the Heuristic Method by several science masters in The School WORLD, Mr. H. E. Hadley alone has drawn up any serious indictment against it, and I venture to examine his statement of three sources of difficulty which, in his opinion, the elementary student must face in his application of the method.

(1) “The time at the student's disposal is so limited.” Mr. Hadley implies that but little ground can therefore be traversed. May I refer to the letter of “A. H. F.” in the October issue, which admirably points out that on theoretical grounds this is no objection, since even a little genuine heuristic work has been proved to give “a power of seeing things, an alertness and adaptability in turning to fresh matter, which makes the great gaps in methodic knowledge of comparatively little importance.” As Professor Miall has said, the method is a live one.

At the same time, I admit that certain examination syllabuses do make this, on practical grounds, a real objection in

Poems of England.

(XI.-XVI., XXV.-XXVIII., XXXII.-end. (1) Describe in your own words (a) Sir Richard Greville's last battle; (6) the Charge of the Heavy Brigade; (c) the Relief of Lucknow.

(2) In what respect can a superior claim for heroism be assigned to "a drunken private of the Buffs," or the men of the Birkenhead, rather than to the “ Six Hundred ?"

(3) What answer could you have given if you had been “Old Kaspar ?"

(4) What do you know of : Lochiel, Roncesvalles, "Bohemia's plume," Skiddaw, Assaye, “Gaunt's embattled pile," Boadicea, Kempenfelt? (5) Explain fully in your own words :-

Regions Cæsar never knew

Thy posterity shall sway.
A people's voice ! we are a people yet,
Tho' all men else their nobler dreains forget,
Consused by trainless mobs and lawless Powers;
Thank Him who isled us here, and roughly set
His Britain in blown seas and storming showers,
We have a voice, with which to pay the debt
Of boundless love and reverence and regret
To those great men who fought, and kept it ours.

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the way of the application of the method by some science masters; these syllabuses and the examiners who man them do form the last line of entrenchments which reformers need to assault and carry.

(2) “His accuracy of work is nearly always too uncertain to allow the experimental results to be taken as a convincing proof of scientific laws." When Mr. Hadley penned these words, I fancy he wrote rather as a physicist than as a chemist. Much of the work of the young chemist is not directed towards establishing “laws.” He is, for instance, occupied with the study of combustion, and is unexpectedly led to the discovery that account must be taken of the air, and he finds that the air is not a simple substance--a very important fact, but not a law. Experience has established again and again that the accuracy of work of the average boy is quite sufficient to enable him to work out such a problem. Or he may be occupied with the composition of water, or the change of chalk into lime. Again and again have average boys achieved success in such problems, and acquired habits of enquiry which we may well believe will persist throughout life.

But law, as well as fact, can be established or verified by boys. Take the Law of the Conservation of Mass. I have seen a class of boys, working in pairs, carry out Scheele's experiment on the combustion of phosphorus in air enclosed in a round-bottomed Alask, an experiment which I have heard described as entirely unsuitable for boys. The change in weight and the volume of air which had disappeared were determined. When the boys had all completed the necessary measurements, they were gathered together, and their results written upon the blackboard as follows, and discussed, and the mean result calculated :19'9 cc.

+01 gram. 20*7



+ '00

+ ΟΙ 19:5

+'03 182

+'oo 20-3


And here it may be added that the Heuristic Method includes the aid of working hypotheses. For instance, when boys innocent of chemistry first study the phenomenon of combustion, and consider, for example, what occurs when a strip of magnesium ribbon is burnt, those who can offer any suggestion will generally take a phlogistic view, and their theory of the escape of something from the burning metal and also from other combustible substances will serve as a valuable working hypothesis. I recall a class of twenty-eight boys, not one of whom suggested that the air had any part in the combustion of magnesium, and they were greatly surprised to find subsequently a gain in weight after the metal had been burnt. (It is perhaps worth remarking that in asking for explanations or suggestions it is usually advisable to ask boys to wrile these down on slips of paper. Older boys are less ready to appear foolish, it may be, before their comrades, and, moreover, some minds work more slowly than others, and require time and quiet to frame an intelligible answer.)

Mr. Hadley also takes objection to the young student using such “obsolete terms Inflammable Air” and “Fire Air." My own experience leads me to an exactly opposite opinion. The words oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen are technical terms which suggest no ideas to those who do not know the grounds on which they were introduced a hundred years ago, and owing to a certain similarity between them, one name is apt to be confused with and interchanged for another. Ask a few educated ladies, who have no special knowledge of chemistry, to write down the chief gases in the atmosphere, and the odds are half of them will instance hydrogen. I tested on this point a Form of thirtytwo boys (average age 13t), who had attended one or two lectures on respiration, and possessed some odds and ends of chemical knowledge ; seven of them included hydrogen, while three omitted oxygen, and twelve left out nitrogen. In another Junior Form five boys out of twenty-seven instanced “carbolic acid ” in place of carbonic acid. On theoretical grounds also strong objection can be taken to the term oxygen, and the genius of Davy and others was, as a matter of history, needed to combat the errors which it introduced. In my opinion, it is to be regretted that Fire Air is not to-day the popular name of






the gas.

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upon zinc

Mean 20'01 cc.

+ '006 gram. This comparison and discussion of results is of the utmost importance, and it is here that experience of the master in higher work, preferably in original research, is of great value. Instead of each boy repeating the experiment a number of times, as the researcher will do, he compares his own result with those obtained by his comrades, and the mean result is generally surprisingly near its theoretical value, just as it was in the above experiment, when the boys satisfied themselves that only one-fifth of the air disappeared, and that there was no annihilation of material in the change. In my experience there is rarely need to affirm that "results ought to have been so and so.

(3) “Sooner or later it is found that a deduction can only be arrived at by assuming some fact which the student has not yet proved.” Mr. Hadley here overlooks the fact that the scientific method includes deductive methods as well as induclive. This has already been admirably stated by Dr. E. Howard Tripp in The School World for October. It is true that John Dalton refused to accept the results of others; but this was to his loss. Lavoisier, on the other hand, was quick to avail himself of the work of Priestley, and the modern investigator is bound to assume many facts which he has not proved. From the historical standpoint there is every reason that the student should, within limits, assume some of the results of others, and compare his own results with those obtained by his fellows engaged upon the same problem.

A. H. F.” (loc. cit.) has rightly emphasised the need of attention to style in science work. And, further, difficulties must be faced and not slurred over, or much of the value of the heuristic work as discipline will vanish. Is there not an instance of just this in Mr. C. M. Stuart's “Study of Common Salt,” in the December issue of The SchooL WORLD, when, after trying the action of a solution of “salt gas and the discovery of the liberation of hydrogen, it is triumphantly exclaimed, “We have therefore learnt that salt gas contains hydrogen.” The mere observation of the escape of hydrogen of course proves nothing of the kind ; nor is it easily proved that chlorine does not contain oxygen (cf. Davy's researches).

Let the words of Lessing be remembered which have been quoted' by Prof. H. E. Armstrong: “If the Almighiy were in one hand to offer me truth and in the other the search after truth, I would humbly but firmly choose the search after truth.”

BEVAN LEAX. Ackworth School, near Pontefract.

Examination Answers in English History.

The following paragraphs put into narrative form a series of answers received in a recent public examination to a question asking for a list of the dominions William and Mary were de

1 Before a Conference at the Health Eabibition, 1884.

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sired to administer in 1688. It is unnecessary to comment upon in the employment of the London School Atlas Company, and such replies.

were without any authority from me, or, so far as I can gather, "On the Continent of Europe, we owned the Netherlands, from Mr. Arnold. Forster, who was in South Africa at the time. otherwise known as the kingdoms of Holland and Belgium, in On reading the published version I immediately wrote to Mr. virtue of the well-known law that whatever countries may be Arnold-Forster protesting against the liberties which had been under the rule of a person who is called to the British crown taken with my final proof, and I am very glad that Dr. Mill, instantly became the property of their insular subjects. Be- by calling attention to the matter, has given me the opportunity sides, we had already acquired those territories, as well as of repeating my protest publicly and repudiating any responsiSweden, by forming with them the Triple Alliance of 1668.” bility for perpetrating a common error. “France was ours by ancient prescription, and if evidence

A. J. HerberTSON.

Oxford, were wanting for this fact, we might refer to the titles borne

February 7th.
universally at that time by our sovereigns. In special, we had
possessed, since Plantagenet times, Normandy, Anjou, Maine,

The Social Position of Assistant-Masters.
Touraine, and Aquitaine. Some have alleged that we had lost
Calais in the reign of Mary Tudor, but it appears that it was

I SHOULD be much obliged if you could grant me a little restored to us shortly after for a sum of money. Spain and

space for a growl on a topic which should interest a vast Portugal had also devolved upon the British crown by virtue of

number of your readers. I refer to the social position of the two marriages, those, namely, of Henry VIII. with Catherine

average assistant.master, who is a university man.

All of us of Aragon, and of Charles II. with Catherine of Braganza

who are graduates are, at all events nominally, gentlemen ; Italy, too, and Austria owned our sway, while parts, if not the

most of us, too, are gentlemen by birth as well as by education. whole of Germany obeyed the commands of the English sove

Yet how are we received in society? Your readers all know reign. Hanover and the Palatinate, at least, were ours by the

what sort of position we occupy, and how, being after all marriage of James I.'s daughter Elizabeth and of her daughter gregarious animals, we are pushed down the social scale and Sophia. Many of these possessions, of course, had needed con

have to choose between associating with our social inferiors or quest to enforce, and even the North Foreland was ours only by

leading a solitary existence cut off from the society of our right of conquest from the Dutch.”

fellow-men, and-worse still—from the humanising influence of “In Asia our dominion was owing simply to conquest. In

ladies' society. I speak feelingly and with knowledge. this way we owned India and the Malay Peninsula, China and

For many years I have been a master in various private and Japan. Australia, too, was already ours. Tasmania, New Zea

grammar schools, and I have never made the acquaintance of land, and the great Pacific Archipelago were British colonies,

any single person, unless it chanced that I had personal intro

ductions from outside sources. Of course I could have got into having been acquired mainly by Sir Francis Drake in his famous voyage round the world in Elizabeth's reign.

several sets, sets in which my colleagues have been content (?) "Africa was already under our control. Not to mention the

But many of them too, I feel sure, have only

socially sunk from the necessities of the case. Why should western coast, which we had exploited for slaves, Cape Colony

this be so ? For this state of things must have a very bad effect had already been acquired from the Dutch in consequence of

on the younger members of the profession, especially in the our desire for the welfare of the aborigines, and the Transvaal,

matter of feminine companionship. I have known many cases the Congo territories, Madagascar and Egypt had been con

in which assistant-masters have taken to drink or bad company quered. All that remained for the eighteenth and nineteenth

om she disgust. Surely this state of things might be centuries to do was to develop the resources of these vast acquisitions."

remedied? And any alteration must come from the parents of “As the Eastern World had been acquired for us by the

the pupils. They should make it their duty to call on those discoveries of Vasco da Gama, so Columbus had equally dis

masters who are most intimately associated with their sons. covered the New World for our benefit. North, Central, and

Were I a parent, I should certainly like to make the acquaint.

ance of the class-master to whose care the education of my son South America were ours, in spite of Spain and the Pope.

was entrusted. From the Arctic circle, where Davis and Frobisher Straits

But this is putting the matter on a somewhat different ground were British colonies, to the straits of Magellan, all were in our

from what I had in mind when I started this letter ; it is possession, and either actually colonised or under our control.”

puiting it on the ground of expediency on the part of the EXAMINER.

parents. What I originally meant to contend for was our right

to be considered as members of the society of the professional Mercator's Projection and the Central Cylindrical classes, such society as that in which doctors, solicitors and clergyProjection.

Personally, I think I have a right to a social equality

with the average curate. Like him, I am a 'Varsity man, and IN a review of the “ London School Atlas” in the February my income, though small enough, is better than the majority of number of The School World, Dr. H. R. Mill remarks curates command. Yet when a fresh clergyman comes to a that I seem to “confuse the Central Cylindrical Projection with parish everyone calls. But a schoolmaster can be two years in the arbitrary system of Mercator.” In justice to myself will a town without a solitary soul-even the clergyman of the you allow me to offer the following explanation ?

church he may attend-calling on him. It is easy enough for The Central Cylindrical and Mercator's Projections are so people to drop him if he prove an undesirable acquaintance, often confused in English books that in my introductory but surely he should be given the chance. Of all classes of chapter to the London School Atlas I took special pains to professional men, it is, perhaps, the schoolmaster who requires distinguish them, and this distinction was clearly drawn in the the relaxation of congenial society in his free hours. Doomed final proof as I passed it for the press. On receiving the Atlas to the study of books and boys all day, his chief recreation lies I was much concerned to find that in several instances in the social circle, and I think that if parents would only unauthorised changes and re-arrangements had been made, and realise how the efficiency of masters depends on their general that, in particular, the foot note on page 9 was so worded as to happiness, they would endeavour to do their part in enlivening confuse Mercator's Projection with the Central Cylindrical. their existence. The changes in question were presumably made by some person


men move.

(8) General conclusion. Is it likely that an age with such a spirit has degenerated in the essentials of politeness ? Certainly not.

A KNIGHT OF THE ROAD (Boys under 15). (1) Lead up to the particular incident you are going to relate by making some general remarks on the dangers and incon. veniences of English travelling in the 18th century.

(2) The scene and the time :-a wild moor on a winter's night.

(3) Describe the highwayman waiting, masked, on horseback. Make him as interesting as you can, and suggest a motive for his intended crime.

(4) The travellers. These may be passengers in a public coach, people in a private carriage, farmers on horseback, or what you like.

(5) The encounter. Try to bring out the courage and cowardice of individuals.

(6) Deseat or victory of the highwayman. Let there be a dramatic end to the encounter.

(7) Solitude again—the moor and the darkness.

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PRIZE COMPETITION. No. 13.-English Essays written to Skeleton Provided.

We offer four prizes, one each for the best essay in each class, on the lines shown below. The competitor's age must correspond with the restriction mentioned after the title of the subject. The prize in each division will be books to the published value of half-a-guinea, which must be chosen from the cata. logues of Messrs. Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

The rules for the competition are as follows :

(i.) Every packet of essays sent by the teacher of a Form, or separate essay sent by a private student, must be accompanied by a coupon (p. 6.)

(ii.) No essay received after Saturday, March 16th, 1901, will be examined. (iii.) The decision of the Editors, which will be published, if possible, in the April, 1901, number, to be final.

(iv.) The competitor's age must be stated on every essay, which must also be endorsed by the teacher or other responsible person, certifying it to be the unaided work of the competitor.

(v.) Replies should be addressed to the Editors, THE SCHOOL World, St. Martin's Street, London, W.C.

(vi.) The following are the skeletons upon which the essays should be prepared :

DANGEROUS OCCUPATIONS (Boys over 15). (1) Mention some dangerous occupations, say what the dangers are, and give a sympathetic account of the sufferings of the workpeople.

(2) Divide these occupations into two groups-(a) where remedies are possible, (6) where remedies are not possible.

(3) What is, or what should be, the attitude of the Govern. ment, of employers, of work people, and of the public towards the occupations in both groups ?

(4) Consider the chief obstacles to a better state of things.

(5) What about wages, pensions to widows and children, compensation for injuries ?

(6) Conclude with a hopeful outlook for the better protection of the work people, and the gradual diminution of such occupations.

Modern Manners (Girls over 15). (1) Contrast the manners of modern men and women with the manners of their ancestors at the beginning of the 19th century, and manage the contrast in such a way as to lead the conclusion that the older type of manners is preferable.

(2) Question, however, if this is really a sound conclusion.

(3) We may admit that a certain amount of ceremony has disappeared, and perhaps it will be profitable to enquire into the causes of this disappearance.

(4) Among these causes will be (a) advanced education of woman and her competition with man; (6) abolition of duelling ; (c) increased intelligence and prosperity of the working classes. Show how these things have diminished ceremony.

(5) But these things are in themselves good ; and, since we have them, ought we to regret the loss of some ceremony in manners?

(6) Again, enquire what is the chief characteristic of the period (19th century) during which our manners are said to have deteriorated. Is it not a desire to be just to all and kind to the weak?

(7) Collect evidence to show the existence of the spirit of justice and kindness-(a) legislation concerning slavery, corn laws, labour, franchise, capital punishment, education, cruelty to animals; (6) charitable institutions ; (c) questions still un. settled-old-age pensions, suffrage, and university degrees for women. This part of the essay must be made as strong as possible in view of the general conclusion.

In writing this essay you may manage the encounter between the travellers and the highwayman as you please, making either the one or the other triumphant. You may give the narrative a humorous or a serious tone.

A CHRISTMAS PARTY (Girls under 15). (1) The invitation received. (2) Anticipation and preparation. (3) Our arrival. (4) General appearance of house, with lights and decorations. (5) Our hosts. (6) Some of the guests. (7) How we amused ourselves. (8) The supper. (9) More amusements-the last and the best. (10) Home again.


This essay should be written in a free style, like that of a private letter. Avoid too many details; otherwise you will

a feeling of confusion in the reader. Thus, don't enumerate all the guests, but choose a few who strike you as worthy of notice. In the same way, give a general view of the decorations, with a mention of the most attractive only. In regard to the amusements, describe as racily as you can those which you enjoyed. Take care to leave some telling incident for the end of the essay.



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