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ficent style, if you will only furnish the cash.- ral journalists, and that many cultivators and He knows the fashions better than you, and is en- amateurs are engaged in this interesting and titled to all the credit of the show, after all.

promising department. The success which has

crowned their exertions affords great encourageBut a nice perception of the fitness of things, ment to perseverance. Witness, for instance, which is good taste—the faculty of producing har- thirty or more varieties of the cherry, by Dr. mony between the occupants of the house and the Kirkland, of Ohio, which appear adapted to our house itself, and between the house and its furni- eastern climate, and some of them of superior ex

cellence. Witness the numerous varieties of the ture and surroundings, this is what you do not

raspberry, by Dr. Brinckle, Ex-President of this buy at the upholsterers, this is beyond price, and society, of which, some have endured, without a matter, madam, in which it is your province to covering, the severities of the last winter in the excel. Let the furniture say, as plainly as things New England States, and which also promise to can speak, this house is for the comfort of those be valuable contributions to American pomology. who live inside of it, and not for mere callers and the apple, the pear, the plum, and the grape

In addition to these, how many new varieties of strangers. This carpet is not too good for the have recently been added to the list of American children to roll on, this arm-chair will not be fruits. How many new and excellent varieties soiled by being occupied, and the bright sunlight of the strawberry have appeared since the intro

duction of Mr. Hovey's Seedlings. may visit the inmates, in the morning, bringing

These are sure indications of the success which health and cheerfulness, without fear that it will will reward future efforts to obtain valuable and fade the brilliant colors of the silk and velvet. native varieties of fruit; and they point to the If when your house is built, and thus furnished, fulfilment of the prediction of the celebrated Van you have money to spare for articles of mere taste Mons, “that the time will come when our best and luxury, the world is full of books and pic- the following sage counsel to his correspondents,

fruits will be derived from seedlings.” He gives tures, and a thousand other things, which will to whom he had sent trees: “Sow your seed afford to a refined and cultivated mind far more and persevere without interruption, and you will rational enjoyment than a whole warehouse of obtain even better fruit than mine.' gilded mahogany.

Among pioneers in this department, I am hap

py to notice a gentleman, (now residing among On the whole, we think the ambition which is us) the pupil and friend of Van Mons, one who 80 common among all classes, to live in large has adopted our country as his future home, and houses, elegantly furnished, is leading us daily who has already transplanted to our soil many into embarrassments and discomforts, which as a

thousands choice seedlings of the pear which thoughtful and rational people, we ought no lon- of that gentleman and the celebrated Esperen.

have come into his possession from the collections ger to suffer.

As to the best method of producing fine vario

ties from seed, the opinions of distinguished poAMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. mologists are not uniform.

Through the polite attention of the President DUHAMEL, among the French, from causes of the Society, the Hon. MARSHALL P. WILDER, which seem to us irreconcilable with nature and we have before us a copy of the proceedings of experience, entertained serious doubts of the the third session held in the city of Boston on the and valuable varieties from seed, especially of

practicability of any method for obtaining new 13th, 14th, and 15th of September, 1854. "We the pear, because he had tried various expericopy below, from the President's Address at the ments without success, for fifty years. opening of the Session, that part of it which re

Dr. Van Mons, of Belgium, instead of saying lates to the production from seed of new varieties of inferior sorts, upon the principle that a kind hav

the seed of the finest varieties, selected those of fruits adapted to particular localites, or to general ing arrived at the highest state of perfection, must cultivation. Other extracts will be given under deteriorate, while an inferior one would improve the head Horticulture, in our next number, to-by successive reproductions. He also held that gether with notices of Reports from different hybridization tended to degeneracy and imperfecStates on the subject of growing and preserving fect variety necessarily deteriorates, and also over

tion. Thus he assumes the doctrine that a perfruits.

looks the fact observed by other distinguished The immense loss to American cultivators, from men, that the improvement or deterioration of the importation of foreign varieties, in many in- which he speaks, may result from natural imstances not well adapted to the countries from pregnation by the pollen of other varieties conwhich they come, and often still legs adapted to veyed by the air or insects, and therefore that jur soil and climate, suggests the importance of the seed of a good variey may produce either a aising from seed, native sorts which, in most in- better or a worse, and that of a bad either a stances, possess peculiar advantages. It is now worse or a better. generally conceded that the trees and plants of a Mr. Knight's system of obtaining new and imgiven country, like its aboriginal inhabitants, will proved varieties, depended entirely on hybridizaAourish better at home than in most foreign lo- tion or artificial impregnation so lightly esteemed calities.

by D. Van Mons. This is somewhat difficult to We rejoice. that public attention has been practice on account of natural fertilization by inturned to this subject by some of our horticultu- Isects and the wind; but it has the merit of de

pending on a truly philosophical principle, and a word, whether this doctrine of deterioration is with very particular attention may yet prove as as applicable to the native as to the foreign fruit available for the improvement of our fruits as it of a country? has for the production of fine varieties in the veg- Why may we not expect to obtain natural vaetable and Boral kingdom, or as the correspond- rieties of the apple and other fruit as durable ing principle has in the crossing of the breeds of and far more valuable than those which have domestic animals.

passed their second centennial, as the Endicott The results of Mr. Knight's experience disprove and Stuyvesant Pears? From meteorological or the tendency to degeneracy, inasmuch as many other causes, which we do not at present underof his fruits, obtained by hybridization, are stand, particular varieties may deteriorate in a among the most durable and hardy varieties, as given locality, for a season, and afterwards rethe Eyewood and Dunmore Pears; the Black vive; or, they may show signs of decay in one Eagle and other Cherries.

locality and Hourish well in others not very reMany cultivators, as Esperen, Bivort, Berck-mote, as the White Doyenne, which has been mans, and others, both in this and foreign coun- considered, for many years, by some in this vitries, have sown seeds in variety, and have ob- cinity, on the decline, while it is perfect in sertained some valuable sorts. But I am confirmed eral places in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, in the opinion, that the best means of producing and other States. Fruit-bearing may exhaust new and excellent varieties, suited either to gen- the vital energy of the tree, and hasten decay, eral cultivation or to particular localities, is to but still the variety may remain. We have, plant the most mature and perfect seed of the most among fruit trees, no example of longevity equal hardy, vigorous and valuable sorts ; on the gen- to that ca the new Taxodium, found in Califoreral pathological principle that like produces nia, supposed to be three thousand years old. like, and upon the conviction that immature Our object is not to controvert the opinions of seed, although the embryo may be sufficiently those who believe in the running out of varieties, formed to vegetate, yet not having all its ele- whether their duration be limited to one hunments in perfection, it will not produce a vigor- dred or one thousand years, but to enforce the ous and healthy offspring. Dr. Lindley, com- importance of raising new varieties from seed, menting upon this practice, justly remarks—“All especially adapted to our own location. experience shows that in every kind of created thing, be it man or beast, or bird, the mysterious principle, called life, remains during the NEW HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURAL whole period of existence what it was at first.

SOCIETY If vitality is feeble in the beginning, so it remains. Weak parents produce weak children,

We have received the volume of the Transacand their children's children are weaker still, as tions of the New Hampshire Agriculiural Society, imperial dynasties have sally shown.” With for 1855. This volume is well got up, and filled, him we believe this theory as applicable to the from beginning to end, with interesting facts and vegetable as to the animal kingdom. May not a disregard of this doctrine account for the great

suggestions. The various reports, essays and number of feeble, sickly, early defoliated trees communications which it contains, partake in a often found in our grounds by the side of those very marked degree the character of the people that are vigorous, healthful, and persistent in fo- of the Granite State ; they are eminently pracliage? Is not the theory we advocate as impor- tical. The volume contains copious extracts from tant in the production of fruit trees, as in the raising of cereal grains ? The skilful agricul

the speeches made on the occasion of the annual turist saves the best seed of his various crops, meeting. These speeches were not dull, prosy and selects the best animals from his flocks and affairs-speeches made against timebut they herds for breeders. Why should not this law of exhibit a life and fervor that must have stirred reproduction regulate the practice of the pomo- the souls of those who were fortunate enough to logist as well as of the farmer? Has the Allwise and Infinite enacted several laws where one

hear them. The affairs of the society are eviwould subserve the purpose ?

dently in the hands of earnest, working menTo the doctrine of Van Mons, and other dis- men who have undertaken the not casy task of tinguished writers, respecting deterioration by making their mark on the hard soil of New age, and after a variety has reached its perfec- Hampshire. When such men rest from their tion, there seem to be some exceptions. From the accounts of oriental travellers, may we not labors, “their works do follow them.” believe that the grapes of Eschol are as perfect now as when the chiefs of Israel plucked their The GRANITE FARMER.—This paper--the only rich clusters three thousand years ago ?-and that the same variety of the fig, the olive, and

agricultural paper, we believe, in New Hampthe pomegranate are as perfect in Syria to-day

shire—is a large and handsome sheet, and pubas in the period of David and Solomon? It is lished weekly at Manchester, at $1,50 per anworthy of inquiry whether the native grapes, on num. It takes earnestly hold of the great work the banks of our rivers, have deteriorated since to be done ; has active and intelligent Editors, and the day when the red men of the forest refreshed

It would themselves with fruit from those vines, and practical, judicious correspondents. whether the orange, the lemon, the bananna, and not only be a matter of profit, but it seems to ug the fruits of southern latitudes, evince any more to be the duty of every farmer in New Hampshire signs of decay than they did centuries ago? In to do something to sustain it by subscription and contributions to its columns; and when they Henry S. Morse, Henry Keyes, Solomon W. Jewhave done this, they will be all the better able to ett. Corresponding Secretary-J. A. Beckwith, take another paper out of their own State. Our

of Middlebury; Recording Secretary-Charles New Hampshire friends are holding some of the

Cummings, of Middlebury. Treasurer-Edward

Seymour, of Vergennes. most useful meetings that are taking place in New England, and we only regret that our space

For the New England Farmer. will not permit us to spread their reports before the reader. Hillsboro' county gives examples

PRODUCTION OF MILK. worthy of imitation by all.






For the New England Farmer.

In the little investigation I have been able THE BRAIN FEVER.

to give this subject,nothing has been more strongOf all fevers to doctors known,

ly impressed on my mind, than that the wisdom of The worst infects the brain ;

the fathers, and of the brothers too, as exempliAnd he who has this dread disease,

fied in theories of agriculture, needs to be very Is seldom well again.

carefully sifted by eviry one, before he makes it Although the patient long may live,

a rule for his own government. And even theoNor he confined to bed;

ries which, in their origin, have a strong foundaYet ever and anon you'll say,

tion in truth, and as applied to the circumstan"There's fever in his head."

ces that gave them birth, are really and indispuSometimes he'll rave for shiny gold,

tahly sensible and valuable, must to a great exFrom Sacramento's breast;

tent be modified to adapt them to the peculiariAnl oit he'll start for Oregon,

ties of our own circumstances. For instance, in To get him farther West.

the matter of milk: Mr. A. may turn his atIn Yankee land, where summer's hot,

tention to the making of milk for the Boston And winter cold and drear,

market. He selects a stock of cows that will This ferer runs in madness on,

give the largest quantity; he gives such fed as Through each successive year.

will cause the milk to flow like water, 1 almost Same spend their silver and their gold

said—at any rate, it flows abundantly, and of To buy Shanghai hens,

such quality as ought to satisfy any city customWhile others choose the Bolton Grey

er, even the most enthusiastic admirer of thin To fill their fancy pens.

milk, without any addition of the fragrant wa

ters of the Cochituate. This man succeeds in his But the worst form this sever takes,

object. His stock, his mode of feed, do what he Among the farmer band, Is purchasing special manure

wants them to do, and he can strongly recommend

them to his friends. Now Mr. B. comes into the To fertilize his land.

neighborhood, intending to turn his attention to For he can buy Guano cheap,

the making of butter. IIe has read of Mr. SomeIf purchased in the fall ; And as for farm-yard, wet manure,

body who obtains a pound of butter from 4 quarts

of milk. He thinks to himself, “What man has It will not pay to haul.

done, man may do.” He becomes acquainted with No compost heaps are round his barn,

the great flow of milk from Mr. A.'s stock, and No muck spread in his yard ;

proceeds at once to get some of the sama breed, No wonder then that oft he thinks

and feeds in the same way. The milk comes, is The farmer's lot is hard.

daily put away in pans of the newest style, in a I laid me down and took a nap,

milk room built after the most approved pattern. Xor woke for ten long years ;

But the cream is thin; and as to the butter, diThe former sat with drooping heart,

viding the number of quarts of milk by 4 does not Ilis wife was bathed in tears ;

give the number of pounds correctly. This man A poor old cow, with stinted calf,

does not succeed. His stock, his system of feedWas watching round the barn;

ing, are not adapted to accomplish his intentions, A pig was squealing in the pen

and they are not profitable to him. To get one ear of corn.

But the question of chief importance to us is, His house did sadly need repair

by what means available to common farmers, can The panes were stuffed with rags;

the quantity of milk be increased, or its quality His barn-yard shed was covered o'er

improved, so as to make its production more proWith old Guano bags !

fitable. I shall not meddle with the question, The farmer's fever now has turned,

which is the best breed of cows? Where the A ruined man is he;

doctors disagree so widely, I may be excused from For if he should survive, he'll show

offering an opinion. But I have no hesitatijn in Signs of insanity,

saying, get the best cows you can, of whatever Westford, Ct., Jan., 1865.

breed, even if you are obliged to pay a good round

price for them. A cow that will give an averVERMONI State AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.–At age of seven or eight quarts a day for the whole the annual meeting held at Middlebury, on the year, on feed that costs $60, is better worth $75, 11th inst., the following gentlemen were elected than one that gives but 4 quarts a day for the officers :-President—Fred'k Holbrook, of Brat- year is worth $25, though it may not cost more tleboro'. Vice Presidents — Edwin Hammond, than $40 to keep the latter. It must be evident,


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however, that the market cannot be supplied from lieve that turnips and beets of the different varicows of the first class only; and it behooves us to eties are preferable; to improve the quality, I inquire what sort of feed given to such cows as would give carrots and parsnips. But in this, I we can get, will most economically produce milk. do not desire to be understood as speaking with From the best guesses I can make, I believe a cow any great degree of authority, as one who knows. will eat about two tons of English hay during the It seems to me highly desirable that a series of winter. At present prices, this is worth nearly thorough and carefully conducted experiments $40. The expense might be considerably re- should be tried by some competent person, who duced by feeding for a portion of the time with would not be hampered by any previous theofodder of less market value, in the case of cows ries of his own or of others, to ascertain as accugoing dry. It might not be profitable, on the rately as possible, whole, to reduce the quality of their feed very 1st. How much good English hay will it take much ; and if we allow them one ton of English to keep a cow, giving milk for the six winter and one ton of meadow hay, and thus bring the months ? winter feed to a cost of about $30, perhaps we 2. Is it more expensive to feed partly on grain, make it as low as a wise economy will permit. cob-meal, shorts or oil meal? If so, is the inThen add the summer feed, and the annual cost crease of milk sufficient to pay the increased exof keeping a cow on hay and grass will not come pense ? much short of $40.' Possibly it might slightly 3d. Can either, or a variety of the root crops exceed that sum. An average of 4 quarts of milk carrots, parsnips, beets, turnips, be raised and a day for the whole year, or 1460 quarts, at 3 profitably used for a feed to milch cows ? cents a quart, will pay $13,80. This would allow 4th. Which of these roots, in proportion to but $3,80, for interest on the value of the cow, its cost of production, will produce most milk? and for depreciation,-and the manure is sup- 5th. Which will produce the richest milk? posed to pay for the care of the animal. So, to 6th. The comparative economy of different make the business profitable, we must either re- feeds. ceive a higher price for the milk, or charge our- In regard to the summer feed of cows, it seems selves with a lower price for the hay. For a win- to be highly desirable for those whose pastures ter cow, I presume the increased price of milk are not to be relied on for the whole season, that

I will pay the necessary increase of cost for feed, preparation should be made by some cultivated so as to bring the profit or loss to about the same crop to furnish an ample supply of green food figure. If you can get cows that will give more during the season, which is so likely to cut short milk, then of course you may make a more de- the feed on our upland pastures. For this purcided profit; but I believe more cows come under pose, on account of its great productiveness and this estimate than over it.

ease of culture, I know of nothing superior to In the economical manufacture of milk, it is the Southern flat corn. Perhaps oats, barley, a matter of great importance to have a warm clover, of equal weight, would give more milk; barn. My own is not of this character; and I but so much larger crops of the corn can be obconsider my milk-pail a pretty good thermometer. tained, that it seems to be entitled to a decided A sudden change to severe cold weather, very per- preference. But I would for summer as well as ceptibly diminishes the yield of milk; and a for winter, have as great a variety as possible ; change back to mild, increases it again. for cows as well as men, dislike to be confined for

I have no doubt that a liberal supply of the a long time to one article of diet, however palroots, carrots, parsnips, the different varieties of atable it may be at first. In sowing corn for beets and turnips, would be a means of economy this purpose, judging from my own limited and in feeding cows. With these, not only will less imperfect experience, I am inclined to believe that hay be eaten, but cows will have an appetite for too much seed is often used. Where the plants hay of a poorer quality than they would othe: - are very much crowded, the stems lack that rich wise willingly accept. Though some of these sweetness which we find in them when they have roots are undoubtedly more nutritious than oth- more room, and a freer exposure to the sun and ers, I believe it better to have a variety, and not air ; and my own cows more readily eat the sweet confine the animal to any one kind. It was wise- coarse stems that have had room enough, than ly said of old, “Man shall not live by bread alone;" the smaller but insipid stems of the more crowdand the spirit of the remark may be as applica-ed, shaded plants. ble to the physical well-being of cattle, as to the Concord, Feb., 1855. spiritual well-being of man. For the production of milk, I have not much faith in carrots ; but there seems to be strong testimony in favor of

For the New England Farmer. parsnips, beets and turnips. A hundred bushels HOW TO MAKE GOOD BUTTER IN FALL for each cow would save much hay, besides adding largely to the quantity of milk We often

AND WINTER. hear that turnips will make themselves remem- Scald the milk when strained, and keep it from bered in the milk; but I have fed them freely freezing as little as possible until the cream is this winter-a half bushel a day—and have not taken off. When churned, warm the cream as perceived any turnip flavor either in the milk or warm as new milk, and grate one middling-sized butter. Years ago, I was told that if turnips orange carrot, for one gallon of cream, into one were fed to the cow immediately after milking, pint of new milk, and strain into the churn with the flavor would pass away before the next milk- the cream through a cloth; when churned, the ing. But I have given them at different hours, butter will be nearly as good as when made in and the same absence of flavor has resulted. When warm weather.

0. s. quantity of milk is desired, I am disposed to be- Woodstock, V., Jan., 1855.


For the New England Farmer. enumerating some signs, and producing statistics LUNAR INFLUENCE--No. 1.

to disprove their validity.


Bloomfield, C.W., 1855. FRIEND BROWN :-I have for a long time been desirous to see the influence of the moon upon ter

EXTRACTS AND REPLIES. restrial objects, written out and explained for the benefit of those who are ignorant of it. Failing, The following letter is from a little boy only however, to see an article upon that subject, and ten years of age, in Waukesha, Wisconsin, and thinking instruction in a branch of knowledge so intimately connected with vegetation, and with we give it just as he wrote it, with the exception many of the manipulations of husbandry, as this of adding the heading, and a single letter in one is said to be, should be circulated as widely as of the words. This boy, and the sister he speaks possible amongst farmers, I have undertaken to of, are under the right training, to become useful point out some of the more noted effects of our sa- and distinguished persons. We wish there were tellite, based upon the “observation” of certain very observing individuals.

more like them. Ï will first notice its effects upon vegetation, and upon some kinds of farm labor. In

MR. EDITOR: - Some time since I saw in the spring it is asserted that sap flows most freely at N. E. Farmer an engraving of the American crab the time of full moon, and sugar-makers are duly apple, with a description. We have a great manotified to prepare for a good run of sap "on the

ny in our woods; my father says they do not full.Peas must be sowed “on the full moon,

grow in New England. though some people think it best to sow them on

It is a small but handsome shaped tree, and the earth. Onion and most other kinds of garden would look pretty in a door-yard." The flowers seeds must be sown on the increase of the moon, to are beautiful, large, pink, and so sweet they perinsure a plentiful crop, and all kinds of roots and fume the air. The fruit is larger than the Sibeherbs must be gathered before the full, if you rian crab. It does not get ripe till mid-winter, would preserve their medical properties, and keep then it is a greenish yellow. They can be grafted them from shrinking by drying.. Apples must be on a common apple seedling. picked on the decrease of the moon, otherwise

If any one would like one of these pretty trees, bruised places will rot. Some say wood and tim- I will send them some grafts, if they will write ber must be cut at the time of full moon in mid- me a plain direction; and if they enclose a stamp summer to render it durable ; others say that fuel I can prepay the postage for them. The scions cut in mid-winter is best, at any rate the moon must

ought to be sent soon. be consulted. A neighbor informs me that he

My sister, who is younger than I, wants to once knew a man who had a particular time in the write you how to make nice sauce of the apples, moon in which to build rail fence !

as she has helped me prepare them. But she It is said a potential influence is also exerted had better wait till you get the apples. upon the condition of animals intended for meat.

My sister and I have a nursery and garden, and If you would have your pork" spend well,” kill we are trying to raise new kinds of fruits. I your hogs upon the increase of the moon, other- learned to bud last summer, and will learn to wise it will shrink in cooking, and the fat will all graft this spring. I like to read anything in the try out. Admitting this, would it not be well Farmer I can understand. for the Legislature of each State to enact a law Waukesha, Wis. HENRY W. HANFORD. reqniring all people who raise pork for market, to kill their hogs during the first and second quarters of the moon? Again, if you have bushes or thistles to cut, it

I wish to inquire about raising carrots. I have must be done at the time of full moon, and you ed to carrots, turnips, &c., the coming season. I

a lot of sandy loam, which I intend to have plant are certain to destroy them. All these, and many more whims of a similar purpose to put on the lot, (about an acre,) 100

bushels leached ashes, 4 cords rich manure, if I nature, are unworthy of belief in this enlightened age, yet there are those who pertinaciously with the ashes. I would like to get your views

can get it; but if not, I think of trying guano adhere to the tradition of their ancestors,-who believe in signs, wonders and witches, only because respecting it,--how much guano should I put on, they have no inclination to learn a few of the and how shall I apply it to the soil ? I wish you simplest laws of Nature.

would give directions as to the management of

said Now, ye observing sages, answer,


crop throughout, as fully as you can.

ye can, a few plain questions. In what manner is this lu

Scituate, Jan., 1855. JEREMIAH POTTER. nar influence exerted on plants? If they are REMARKS.-Drain thoroughly, if water ever more easily killed by cutting at the time of full stands upon the land, even if it is a “sandy loam.' moon,—which I doubt,—why is it? Does the full moon eause the sap to flow more abundantly

Manure the surface before plowing as liberally as in spring than it does at the change or quarter? you can with such barn manure as you have, and If so give us the reason. We all know it some-plow it under eight or ten inches; then add fine times fails, hence moonshine is not a certain cause. composted manure, or not having that, 300 lbs. Which has the greater influence on meat, the of guano per acre, pulverized and sown broadcast, moon or the food upon which the animal is fattened?

and cultivate, harrow and rake until the surface In my next I shall notice the lunar infilneuce is fine and pretty smooth. Sow with a seed sowupon the weather, referring to the popular belief, er, having a boy hitched on forward to assist, as


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