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Perynnus tual, though exceeding cruel method. Most of the ci. PERICARDIUM, in Anatomy, a membranous bag Pericardi
ties in the kingdom had no other water than what was filled with water, which contains the heart in man and Perian brought from a considerable distance in aqueducts. many other animals. It is formed by a duplicature 0 These Aquilius did not demolish, but poisoned the wa- of the mediastinum, or membrane which divides the
Perigraphe. ter, which produced the greatest abhorrence of him thorax into two unequal parts. See ANATOMY, N° throughout all the east. At last, however, the whole country being reduced, Aquilius triumphed, the unlap
PERICARPIUM, (from me, "round," and xaqnos, }'Y
Aristonicus was led in chains before his chariot, and “ fruit,"') the seed-vessel ; that organ of a plant contain-
with a seed-vessel ; in such as are deprived of it, the
Greeks to their profane games or combats, that is, to
flourished in Greece. He was educated with all ima-
Many were unjust enough to suspect him of atheism,
nese, of a dark gray colour, like basalt.
abdomen. VOL. XVI, Part I.
585 B. C.
Perigueux . PERIGUEUX, an ancient town of France, capital Hipparchus's Period, is a series of 304 solar years, Period
!1 of the province of Perigord, seated on the river Isle, returning in a constant round, and restoring the new Period,
in E. Long. 0. 33. N. Lat. 45. 18. It is remark- and full moons to the same day of the solar year, acable for the ruins of the temple of Venus, and an am- cording to the sentiment of Hipparcbus. This period phitheatre.
PERIHELIUM, in Astronomy, that part of a pla- Hipparchus assumed the quantity of the solar year to net or comet's orbit wherein it is in its least distance be 365 days 5 hours 55' 12'; and hence concluded, from the sun; in which sense it stands in opposition to that in 104 years Calippus's period would err a whole aphelium.
day. He therefore multiplied the period by four, PERIMETER, in Geometry, the bounds or limits and from the product cast away an entire day. But of any figure or body. The perimeters of surfaces or even this does not restore the new and full moons to figures are lines ; those of bodies are surfaces. In cir. the same day throughout the whole period; but they cular figures, instead of perimeter, we say circumfe- are sometimes anticipated 1 day 8 hours 23' 29" 20". rence, or periphery.
See ASTRONOMY, N° 14. PERINÆUM, or PERINEUM, in Anatomy, the Julian PERIOD. See JULIAN. space between the anus and the parts of generation, Period, in Grammar, denotes a small compass of divided into two equal lateral divisions by a very distinct discourse, containing a perfect sentence, and distinline, which is longer in males than in females.
guished at the end by a point, or full stop, thus (.); PERIOD, in Astronomy, the time taken up by a and in members or divisions marked by commas, costar or planet in making a revolution round the sun; or lons, &c. the duration of its course till it return to the same part Father Buffier observes two difficulties in the use of of its orbit. See PLANET.
the period, or point; i. e. in distinguishing it from the The different periods and mean distances of the seve- colon, or double point; and in determining justly the ral planets are as follows:
end of a period, or perfect sentence. It is remarked
that the supernumerary members of a period, separated Days. h.
from the rest by colons and semicolons, usually comHerschel
1908352 mence with a conjunction: yet it is true these same con-
954-72 junctions sometimes rather begin new periods than suJupiter 4332 14 27
520279 pernumerary members of old ones. It is the sense of Mars 686 23 30 35
152369 things, and the author's own discretion, that must make Earth
100000 the proper distinction which of the two in effect it is. Venus 224 16 49
72333 No rules will be of any service, unless this be admitted Mercury 87 23 15 43 38710 as one, that when what follows the conjunction is of as
much extent as what precedes it, it is usually a new peThere is a wonderful harmony between the distances ,iod; otherwise not. of the planets from the sun, and their periods round The second difficulty arises hence, that the sense aphim; the great law whereof is, that the squares of pears perfect in several short detached phrases, wherein the periodical times of the primary planet, are to each it does not seem there should be periods ; a thing preother as the cubes of their distances from the sun ? quent in free discourse: as, We are all in suspense : make and likewise, the squares of the periodical times of the your proposals immediately : you will be to blame for secondaries of any planet are to each other as the detaining us longer. Where it is evident, that simple cubes of their distances from that primary. This har. phrases have perfect senses like periods, and ought to be mony among the planets is one of the greatest confir- marked accordingly; but that the shortness of the dismations of the Copernican hypothesis. See ASTRO- course making them easily comprebended, the pointing NOMY, p. 100 and 101.
is neglected. For the periods of the moon, see Moon, ASTRONOMY De Colonia defines period a short but perfect senInder.
tence, consisting of certain parts or members, depending The periods of several comets are now pretty well one on another, and connected together by some comascertained. See ASTRONOMY, N° 306.
mon vinculum. The celebrated definition of Aristotle PERIOD, in Chronology, denotes a revolution of a is, a period is a discourse which has a beginning, s certain number of years, or a series of years, whereby, middle, and an end, all visible at one view. Rhetoriin different nations, and on different occasions, time is cians consider period, which treats of the structure of measured; such are the following.
sentences, as one of the four parts of composition. The Calippic Period, a system of seventy-six years. See periods allowed in oratory are three: A period of two CALIPpic, and ASTRONOMY, No 11, &c.
members, called by the Greeks dicolos, and by the LaDionysian Period, or Victorian Period, a system of tins bimembris; a period of tbree members, tricoles, tri532 lunæ-solar and Julian years; wbich being elapsed, membris; and a period of four,quadrimembris,letracolos. the characters of the moon fall again upon the same See PunCTUATION. day and feria, and revolve in the same order, accord- PERIOD, in numbers, is a distinction made by a point ing to the opinion of the ancients.
or comma, after every sixtli place, or figure; and is used This period is otherwise called the great paschal in numeration, for the readier distinguishing and naming cycle, because the Christian church first used it to find the several figures or places; which see under NUMERAthe true time of the pascha or easter. The sum of these TION. years arises by multiplying together the cycles of the PERIOD, in Medicine, is applied to certain diseases sun and moon.
which have intervals and returns, to denote an entire 2
Period course or circle of such disease; or its progress from and metaphysical about the first being, his affections,
adds from Clearchus, one of Aristotle's scholars, that
libus for a long time : in the earlier ages of Christianity,
cing its way into the Christian church. Towards the Period, in Oratory. See there, No
end of the fifth century, it rose into great credit ;'the PERIODIC, or PERIODICAL, something that ter- Platonics interpreting in their schools some of the wriminates and comprehends a period ; such is a periodic tings of Aristotle, particularly his dialectics, and remonth; being the space of time wherein the moon di- commending them to young persons. This appears to spatches her period.
have been the first step to that universal dominion which PERIOECI, Tigoixos, in Geography, such inhabitants Aristotle afterwards obtained among the learned, wbich of the earth as have the same latitudes, but opposite was at the same time much promoted by the controverlongitudes, or live under the same parallel and the same sies which Origen had occasioned. This father was meridian, but in different semicircles of that meridian, zealously attached to the Platonic system ; and there. or in opposite points of the parallel. These have the fore, after his condemnation, many, to avoid the impusame common seasons throughout the year,
and the same tation of his errors, and to prevent their being counted phenomena of the heavenly bodies ; but when it is noon- among the number of his followers, openly adopted the day with the one, it is midnight with the other, there philosophy of Aristotle. Nor was any philosophy more being twenty-four hours in an east or west direction. proper for furnishing those weapons of subtle distinctions These are found on the globe by the hour-index, or by and captious sophisms, which were used in the Nestorian, turning the globe half round, that is, 180 degrees either Arian, and Eutychian controversies. About the end way.
of the sixth century, the Aristotelian philosophy, as well PERIOSTEUM, or Periostium, in Anatomy, a as science in general, was almost universally decried ; nervous vascular membrane, endued with a very quick and it was chiefly owing to Boetius, who explained and sense, immediately surrounding, in every part, both the recommended it, that it obtained a bigher degree of internal and external surfaces of all the bones in the bo- credit among the Latins than it had hitherto enjoyed. dy, excepting only so much of the teeth as stand above Towards the end of the seventh century, the Greeks the gums, and the peculiar places on the bones in which abandoned Plato to the monks, and gave themselves up the muscles are inserted. It is hence divided into the entirely to the direction of Aristotle; and in the next external and internal periosteum; and where it exter- century, the Peripatetic philosophy, was taught everynally surrounds the bones of the skull, it is generally where in their public schools, and propagated in all placalled the pericranium. See ANATOMY Index.
ces with considerable success. John Damascenus very PERIPATETICS, philosophers, followers of Ari- much contributed to its credit and influence, by comstotle, and maintainers of the peripatetic philosophy; posing a concise, plain, and comprehensive view of the called also Aristotelians. Cicero says, that Plato left doctrines of the Stagirite, for the instruction of the two excellent disciples, Xenocrates and Aristotle, who more ignorant, and in a manner adapted to common cafounded two sects, which only differed in name : the pacities. Under the patronage of Photius, and the proformer took the appellation of Academics, who were tection of Bardas, the study of philosophy for some those that continued to hold their conferences in the time declined, but was revived again about the end of Academy, as Plato had done before; the others, who the ninth century. About the middle of the 11th cenfollowed Aristotle, were called Peripatetics, from rigira- tury, a revolution in philosophy commenced in France ; TIW, “ I walk;" because they disputed walking in the when several famous logicians, who followed Aristotle Lyceum.
as their guide, took nevertheless the liberty of illustraAmmonius derives the name Peripatetic from Plato ting and modelling anew his philosophy, and extending himself, who only taught walking; and adds, that the it far beyond its ancient limits. In the 12th century, disciples of Aristotle, and those of Xenocrates, were three methods of teaching philosophy were in use by equally called Peripatetics; the one Peripatetics of the the different doctors : the first was the ancient and plain Academy, the other Peripatetics of the Lyceum : but method, which confined its researches to the philosophithat in time the former quitted the title Peripatetic forcal notions of Porphyry, and the dialectic system, comthat of Academic, on account of the place where they monly attributed to St Augustine, and in which was assembled ; and the latter retained simply that of Peri- laid down this general rule, that philosophical inquiries patetic. The greatest and best part of Aristotle's phi- were to be limited to a small number of subjects, lest losophy was borrowed from Plato. Serranus asserts, and by their becoming too extensive, religion might suffer says he could demonstrate, that there is nothing exqui- by a profane mixture of buman subtilty with its divine site in any part of Aristotle's philosopby, dialectics, wisdom. The second method was called the Aristoethics, politics, physics, or metaphysics, but is found telian, because it consisted in explications of the works in Plato. And of this opinion are many of the ancient of that philosopher, several of whose books being transauthors, such as Clemens Alexandrinus, &c. Gale at- lated into Latin, were almost everywhere in the bands tempts to show, that Aristotle borrowed a"good deal of of the learned. The third was termed the free method, his philosophy, both physical, about the first matter, employed by such as were bold enough to search
Peripate- after truth, in the manner the most adapted to render of Rome. The Hebrews also had a vessel for puris. Per
their inquiries successful, without rejecting the succours cation.
of Aristotle and I'lato. A reformed system of the Pe. PERISCII, in Gcography, the inhabitants of either Perirrhan
ripatetic philosophy was first introduced into the schools frigid zone, between the polar circles and the poles,
The Peripatetic system, after having prevailed with the fæces are protruded towards the anus.
cera of that part as it were in a bag. See ANATOMY
or circle, concentric with the base of a cylinder, and
PERJURY, in Law, is defined by Sir Edward Coke
swears wilfully, absolutely, and falsely, in a matter ma-
" and Qersw, “ I speak;” in rhetoric, a circuit it was in some places punished with death ; in others it or tour of words, much affected by orators, to avoid made the false swearer liable to the punishment due to common and trite manners of expression. The peri- the crime he had charged the innocent person with ; in phrasis is of great use on some occasions; and it is often others a pecuniary mulct was imposed. But though it necessary to make things be conceived which are not escaped human, yet it was thought, amongst the ancients proper to name.
It is sometimes polite to suppress the in general, that the divine vengeance would most cernames, and only intimate or design them. These turns tainly overtake it; and there are many severe inflictions of expression are also particularly serviceable in ora- from the hand of God upon record, as monuments of tory; for the sublime admitting of no direct citations, the abhorrence in which this atrocious crime is held by there must be a compass taken to insinuate the authors the Deity. The souls of the deceased were supposed to whose authority is borrowed. A periphrasis, by turn- be employed in punishing perjured persons.
Even the ing round a proper name to make it understood, ampli- inanimate creation was thought to take revenge for this fies and raises the discourse; but care must be taken crime. The Greeks supposed that no person could swear it be not too much swelled, nor extended, mal à pro- falsely by Styx without some remarkable punishment ; pos; in which case it becomes flat and languid. See and that no person guilty of perjury could enter the CIRCUMLOCUTION and ORATORY.
cave of Palæmon at Corinth without being made a me PERIPLOCA, VIRGINIAN SILK : a genus of plants morable example of divine justice. In Sicily, at the belonging to the pentandria class; and in the natural temple of the Palici, there were fountains called Delli, method ranking under the 30th order, Contorte. See from which issued boiling water, with flames and balls BOTANY Index.
of fire ; and we are told that if any person swore falsePERIPNEUMONY, Meqstvev movid, formed from ly near them, he was instantly struck dumb, blind, lame, Tilli
" about," and Tyeupewi, lungs,” in Medicine, an or dead, or was swallowed up by the waters. But al-
counts of divine inflictions, it was so much practised.
Perjury. his opinion thus : “ Some are forward to take oaths escape within the time. It has sometimes been wished, Perjury
from a contempt of religion ; others, from an extraordi that perjury, at least upon capital accusations, whereby 11
of deliberate murder, and deserves au equal punishment;
he continued till his death, which happened in 1715.