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handful of hemp-seed, barrowing it with by chance in the clean water, the future any thing you can conveniently draw husband or wife will come to the bar of after you. Repeat, now and then, hemp- matrimony a maid ; if in the foul, a seed I saw thee, hemp-seed I saw thee; widow; if in the empty dish, it foretells and him (or her) that is to be my true, with equal certainty no marriage at all. come after me and pou thee.' Look over It is repeated three times : and every your left shoulder and you will see the time the arrangement of the dishes is alappearance of the person invoked, in the tered.” Sir Frederick Morton Eden says, attitude of pulling hemp. Some tradi- that “ Sowens, with butter instead of tions say, 'come after me and shaw thee,' milk, is not only the Hallow E'en supper, that is, show thyself; in which case it but the Christmas and New-year's-day's simply appears. Others omit the harrow- breakfast, in many parts of Scotland." ing, and say, 'come after me and harrow In the province of Moray, in Scotland,
“ A solemnity was kept on the eve of the Another is, “to winn three wechts first of November as a thanksgiving for o'naething.” The wecht is the instru- the safe in-gathering of the produce of the ment used in winnowing corn. “ This fields This I am told, but have not seen: charm must likewise be performed unper- it is observed in Buchan and other counceived and alone. You go to the barn tries, by having Hallow Eve fire kindled and open both doors, taking them off the on some rising ground.”+ hinges, if possible : for there is danger In Ireland fires were anciently lighted that the being, about to appear, may shut up on the four great festivals of the Druids, the doors and do you some mischief. but at this time they have dropped the Then take that instrument used in win- fire of November, and substituted cannowing the corn, which, in our country dles. The Welsh still retain the fire of dialect, we call a wecht, and go through November, but can give no reason for the all the attitudes of letting down corn illumination. against the wind. Repeat it three times ; The minister of Logierait, in Perthand, the third time, an apparition will pass shire, describing that parish, says: “ On through the barn, in at the windy door, the evening of the 31st of October, 0. S. and out at the other, having both the among many others, one remarkable or figure in question, and the appearance or remony is observed. Heath, broom, and retinue marking the employment or sta- dressings of flax, are tied upon a pole. tion in life.”
This faggot is then kindled. One takes Then there is “to fathom the stack it upon his shoulders; and, running, bears three times.” “ Take an opportunity of it round the village. A crowd attend. going unnoticed to a bear stack (barley When the first faggot is burnt out, a se stack), and fathom it three times round. cond is bound to the pole, and kindled in The last fathom of the last time, you will the same manner as before. Numbers of catch in your arms the appearance of your these blazing faggots are often carried future conjugal yokefellow.” Another, about together; and when the night hap"to dip, your left shirt sleeve in a burn pens to be dark, they form a splendid where three lairds land's meet.” “You fumination. This is Halloween, and is a go out, one or more, for this is a social night of great festivity." Also at Cat spell, to a south-running spring or rivu- lander, in Perthshire: On All Sains let, where three lairds' lands meet,' and Even they set up bonfires in every vide dip your left shirt sleeve. Go to bed in lage. When the bonfire is consumed, the sight of a fire, and hang your wet sleeve ashes are carefully collected into the form before it to dry. Lie awake; and some of a circle. There is a stone put in, Deut time near midnight, an apparition, hav- the circumference, for every person of the ing the exact figure of the grand object in several families interested in the bonfire; question, will come and turn the sleeve, and whatever stone is moved out of its as if to dry the other side of it.”. place, or injured before next morning,
The last is a singular species of divi- the person represented by that stoee is nation with three luggies, or dishes.” devoted, or fey; and is supposed not to “Take three dishes ; put clean water in live twelve months from that day. The one, foul water in another, and leave the third empty: blindfold a person, and lead • Eden's State of the Poor. hiin to the hearth where the dishes are
† Shaw's Hist. of Moray. ed: he (or she) dips the left hand if
• Vailancey, Collet. Hibern.
Sinclair's sial. Acc. of Scotland.
people received the consecrated fire from escape from the black short-tailed sow; the Druid priests next morning, the vir- then supping upon parsnips, nuts, and tues of which were supposed to continue apples ; catching at an apple suspended for a year."'* At Kirkmichael, in the by a string with the mouth alone, and the same shire, “ The practice of lighting same by an apple in a tub of water; each bonfires on the first night of winter, ac- throwing a nut into the fire, and those companied with various ceremonies, still that burn bright betoken prosperity to prevails in this and the neighbouring the owners through the following year, highland parishes.". So likewise at but those that burn black and crackle Aberdeen, “ The Midsummer Even fire, denote misfortune. On the following a relict of Druidism, was kindled in some morning the stones are searched for in the parts of this county; the Hallow Even fire, and if any be missing they betide fire, another relict of Druidism, was kin- ill to those that threw them in.” dled in Buchan. Various magic ceremo- At St. Kilda, on Hallow E'en night, nies were then celebrated to counteract they baked " a large cake in form of a the influence of witches and demons, and triangle, furrowed round, and which was to prognosticate to the young their suc- to be all eaten that night."* In England, cess or disappointment in the matrimonial there are still some parts wherein the lottery. These being devoutly finished, grounds are illuminated upon the eve of the Hallow fire was kindled, and guarded All Souls, by bearing round them straw, by the male part of the family. Societies or other fit materials, kindled into a blaze. were formed, either by pique or humour, The ceremony is called a tinley, and the to scatter certain fires, and the attack and Romish opinion among the common peodefence here often conducted with art ple is, that it represents an emblematical and fury.”—“ But now"_" the Hallow lighting of souls out of purgatory. fire, when kindled, is attended by children “ The inhabitants of the isle of Lewis only; and the country girl, renouncing (one of the western islands of Scotland,) the rites of magic, endeavours to enchant had an antient custom to sacrifice to a her swain by the charms of dress and of sea god, called Shony, at Hallow-tide, in industry."1
the manner following: the inhabitants Pennant records, that in North Wales round the island came to the church of " there is a custom upon All Saints Eve St. Mulvay, having each man his proviof making a great fire called Coel Coeth, sion along with him. Every family furwhen every family about an hour in the nished a peck of malt, and this was night makes a great bonfire in the most brewed into ale. One of their number conspicuous place near the house; and was picked out to wade into the sea up when the fire is almost extinguished, every to the middle; and, carrying a cup of ale one throws a white stone into the ashes, in his hand, standing still in that posture, having first marked it; then, having said cried out with a loud voice, saying, their prayers, turning round the fire, they 'Shony, I give you this cup of ale, go to bed. In the morning, as soon as hoping that you'll be so kind as to send they are up, they come to search out the us plenty of sea-ware, for enriching our stones; and if any one of them is found ground the ensuing year;' and so threw wanting, they have a notion that the person the cup of ale into the sea. This was who threw it in will die before he sees performed in the night time. At his reanother All Saints Eve." They also dis- iurn to land, they all went to church, tribute soul cakes on All Souls-day, at where there was a candle burning upon the receiving of which poor people pray the altar; and then standing silent for a to God to bless the next crop of wheat. little time, one of them gave a signal, at
Mr. Owen's account of the bards, in which the candle was put out, and immesir R. Hoare's “ Itinerary of archbishop diately all of them went to the fields, Baldwin through Wales," says, “ The au- where they fell a drinking their ale, and tumnal fire is still kindled in North Wales spent the remainder of the night in dance on the eve of the first day of November, ing and singing," &c.t and is attended by many ceremonies; At Blandford Forum, in Dorsetshire, such as running through the fire and “there was a custom, in the papal times, smoke, each casting a stone into the fire, to ring bells at Alhallow-ride for all and all running off at the conclusion to christian souls." Bishop Burnet gives a Cranmer “ against superstitious prac- and endeavour to bring one up in the tices,” wherein“ the vigil and ringing of mouth. They suspend a cord with a bells all the night long upon Allhallow- cross stick, with apples at one point, and day at night,” are directed to be abo- candles lighted at the other; and endealished; and the said vigil to have no vour to catch the apple, while it is in a watching or ringing. Šo likewise a circular motion, in the mouth. These, subsequent injunction, early in the reign and many other superstitious ceremonies, of queen Elizabeth, orders “ that the su- the remains of Druidism, are observed on perfluous ringing of bels, and the super- this holiday, which will never be eradistitious ringing of bells at Alhallowntide, cated while the name of Saman is perand at Al Soul's day, with the two nights mitted to remain.". next before and after, be prohibited.” It is mentioned by a writer in the
letter from king Henry the Eighth to • Sinclair's Stat. Acc. of Scotland. Ibid. : Ibid.
• Martin's Western Islands.
General Vallancey says, concerning this “Gentleman's Magazine,” that lamb's-wool night, “On the Oidhche Shamhna, (Ee Ow- is a constant ingredient at a merryna,) or vigil of Samam, the peasants in Ire- making on Holy Eve, or on the eveaing land assemble with sticks and clubs, (the before All Saints-day in Ireland. It is emblems of laceration,) going from house made there, he says, by bruising roasted to house, collecting money, bread-cake, apples, and mixing them with ale, or butter, cheese, eggs, &c. &c. for the feast, sometimes with milk. “ Formerly, when repeating verses in honour of the solem- the superior ranks were not too refined nity, demanding preparations for the fes- for these periodical meetings of jollity, tival in the name of St. Columb Kill, de- white wine was frequently substituted for siring them to lay aside the fatted calf, ale. To lamƯs-wool, apples and nuts and to bring forth the black sheep. The are added as a necessary part of the engood women are employed in making the tertainment; and the young folks amuse griddle cake and candles; these last are themselves with burning nuts in pairs oa sent from house to house in the vicinity, the bar of the grate, or among the warm and are lighted up on the (Saman) next embers, to which they give their name day, before which they pray, or are sup- and that of their lovers, or those of their posed to pray, for the departed soul of friends who are supposed to have such the donor. Every house abounds in the attachments; and from the manner of best viands they can afford. Apples and their burning and duration of the flame, nuts are devoured in abundance; the &c. draw such inferences respecting the nut-shells are burnt, and from the ashes constancy or strength of their passions, many strange things are foretold. Cab
as usually promote mirth and good hubages are torn up by the root. Hemp- mour." ‘Lamb's-wool is thus etymoloseed is sown by the maidens, and they gized by Vallancey :-" The first day of believe that if they look back, they will November was dedicated to the angel see the apparition of the man intended presiding over fruits, seeds, &c. and was for their future spouse. They hang a therefore named La Mas Ubhal, that is, shift before the fire, on the close of the the day of the apple fruit, and being profeast, and sit up all night, concealed in a nounced lamasool, the English have corcorner of the room, convinced that his rupted the name to lamb's-wool." apparition will come down the chimney So much is said, and perhaps enough and turn the shift. They throw a ball for the present, concerning the celebraof yarn out of the window, and wind it tion of this ancient and popular vigil. on the reel within, convinced that if they repeat the paternoster backwards, and
FLORAL DIRECTORY. look at the ball of yarn without, they Fennel-leaved, Tickseed Corcopsis ferile will then also see his sith, or apparition.
folia. They dip for apples in a tub of water, Dedicated to St. Quiniin.
This is the eleventh month of the year. the visible approach of winter, is unThe anglo-saxons gave names in their doubtedly a gloomy month to the gloomy; own tongue to each month, and “No- but to others, it brings but pensiveness, a vember they termed wint-nionat, to wit, feeling very far from destitute of pleasure; wind-moneth, whereby wee may see that and if the healthiest and most imaginaour ancestors were in this season of the tive of us may feel their spirits pulled yeare made acquainted with blustring down by reflections connected with eartb, Boreas; and it was the antient custome its mortalities, and its mistakes, we for shipmen then to shrowd themselves at should but strengthen ourselves the more home, and to give over sea-faring (not. to make strong and sweet music with the withstanding the littlenesse of their then changeful but harmonious movements of used voyages) untill blustring March had nature." This pleasant observer of the bidden them well to fare."* They like- months further remarks, that, “ There are wise called it blot-monath. In the saxon, many pleasures in November if we will “blot” means blood; and in this month lift up our matter-of-fact eyes, and find they killed great abundance of cattle for that there are matters-of-fact we seldon winter-store, or, according to some, for dream of. It is a pleasant thing to meet purposes of sacrifice to their deities. the gentle fine days, that come to contra
Bishop Warburton commences a letter dict our sayings for us; it is a pleasant to his friend Hurd, with an allusion to the thing to see the primrose come back evil influence which the gloominess of again in woods and meadows; it is a this month is proverbially supposed to pleasant thing to catch the whistle of the have on the mind. He dates from Bed- green plover, and to see the greenfinches ford-row, October 28th, 1749:-“ I am congregate; it is a pleasant thing to listen now got hither," he says, “ to spend the to the deep amorous note of the wood. month of November: the dreadful month pigeons, who now come back again; and of November! when the little wretches it is a pleasant thing to hear the deeper hang and drown themselves, and the voice of the stags, making their triumgreat ones sell themselves to the court phant love amidst the falling leaves. and the devil."
66 Besides a quantity of fruit, our .“ This is the month," says Mr. Leigh gardens retain a number of the flowers Hunt, “ in which we are said by the of last month, with the stripped hly in Frenchman to hang and drown ourselves. leaf; and, in addition to several of the We also agree with him to call it the flowering trees and shrubs, we have the gloomy month of November;' and, above fertile and glowing china-roses in flower : all, with our in-door, money-getting, and in fruit the pyracantha, with its and unimaginative habits, all the rest of lustrous red-berries, that cluster so beauthe year, we contrive to make it so. Not tifully on the walls of cottages. This is all of us, however: and fewer and fewer, ihe time also for domestic cultivators of we trust, every day. It is a fact welí flowers to be very busy in preparing for known to the medical philosopher, that, those spring and winter ornaments, which in proportion as people do not like air used to be thought the work of mazie. and exercise, their blood becomes darker They may plant hyacinths, dwarf tulips, and darker: now what corrupts and polyanthus-narcissus, or any other mode thickens the circulation, and keeps the rately-growing bulbous roots, either in humours within the pores, darkens and water-glasses, or in pots of light dry clogs the mind; and we are then in a earth, to flower early in their apartments state to receive pleasure but indifferently If in glasses, the bulb should be a little or confusedly, and pain with tenfold pain- in the water; if in pots, a little in the fulness. If we add to this a quantity of earth, or but just covered. They should pinnecessary cares and sordid mistakes, it be kept in a warm light room. is so much the worse. A love of nature “ The trees generally lose their leaves is the refuge. He who grapples with in the following succession : – walnut, March, and has the smiling eyes upon mulberry, horse-chesnut, sycamore, Line, him of June and August, need have no ash, then, after an interval, elm, then fear of November.-And as the Italian beech and oak, then apple and peachproverb says, every medal has its reverse. trees, sometimes not till the end of Non November, with its loss of verdure, itsvember; and lastly, pollard oaks and frequent rains, the fall of the leaf, and young beeches, which retain their wither
ed leaves till pushed off by their new * Verstegan. † Dr. F. Sayer.
ones in spring. Oaks that happen to be