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Perseca- set fire to the city of Rome, threw the odium of that ex- at Bombay a round tower, covered with planks of wood, Persecs,

tion, ecrable action on the Christians, who under that pre- on which the Persees lay out their dead bodies. When Persepolisi Persees. tence were wrapped up in the skins of wild beasts, and the flesh is devoured, they remove the bones into two

worried and devoured by dogs ; others were crucified, chambers at the bottom of the tower.
and others burnt alive. The second was under Domi. “ The Persees, followers of the religion of Zerdust or
tian, in the year 95. In this persecution St Joba the Zoroaster, adore one God only, eternal and almighty.
apostle was sent to the isle of Patmos, in order to be em- They pay, however, a certain worship to the sun, the
ployed in digging in the mines. The third began in moon, the stars, and to fire, as visible images of the
the third year of Trajan, in the year 100, and was car. invisible divinity. Their veneration for the element
ried on with great violence for several years. The fourth of fire induces them to keep a sacred fire constantly
was under Antoninus the philosopher, when the Christ- burning, which they feed with odoriferous wood, both
jans were banished from their houses, forbidden to show in the temples, and in the bouses of private persons who
their heads, reproached, beaten, hurried from place to are in easy circumstances. In one of their temples at
place, plundered, imprisoned, and stoned. The fifth Bombay, I saw a fire which had burnt unextinguished
began in the year 197, under the emperor Severus. for two centuries. They never blow out a light, lest
The sixth began with the reign of the emperor Maxi- their breath should soil the purity of the fire. Soc
minus in 235. The seventh, which was the most dread- POLYTHEISM.
ful persecution that had ever been known in the church, “ The religion of the Persees enjoins purifications as
begau in the year 250, in the reign of the emperor De- strictly as that of the Hindoos. The disciples of Zer-
cius, when the Christians were in all places driven from dust are not, however, obliged to abstain from animal
their babitations, stripped of their estates, tormented food. They have accustomed themselves to refrain
with racks, &c. The eighth began in the year 257, from the flesh of the ox, because their ancestors pro-
in the fourth year of the reign of the emperor Valerian. mised the Indian prince who received them into his
The ninth was under the emperor Aurelian, A. D. dominions never to kill horned cattle. This promise
284; but this was very inconsiderable : and the tenth they continue to observe under the dominion of Christ-
began in the 19th year of Dioclesian, A. D. 303. In ians and Mahometans. The horse is by them consider-
this dreadful persecution, which lasted ten years, houses ed as the most impure of all animals, and regarded with
filled with Christians were set on fire, and whole droves extreme aversion.
were tied together with ropes and thrown into the sea. “ Their festivals, denominated Ghumbars, which re-
See TOLERATION.

turn frequently, and last upon each occasion five days,
PERSEES, the descendants of a colony of ancient are all commemorations of some part of the work of
Persians, who took refuge at Bombay, Surat, and in creation. They celebrate them not with splendour, or,
the vicinity of those cities, when their own country with any particular ceremonies, but only dress better du-
was 'conquered 1100 years ago by the Mahometan ring those five days, perform some acts of devotion in
Arabs. They are a gentle, quiet, and industrious their houses, and visit their friends."
people, loved by the Hindoos, and living in great har- The Persees were till lately but very little known :
imony among themselves. The consequence is, that the ancients speak of them but seldom, and what they
they multiply exceedingly, whilst their countrymen in say seems to be dictated by prejudice, On this account
the province of Keman are visibly diminishing under Dr Hyde, who thought the subject both curious and
the yoke of the Mahometan Persians. Of the manners interesting, about the end of the 19th century attempted
and customs of this amiable sace, we have the follow- a deeper investigation of a subject which till then had
ing account in Heron's elegant translation of Niebuhr's been but very little attended to. He applied to the
Travels.

- works of Arabian and Persian authors, from whom, and
“ The Persees (says he) make common contributions from the relations of travellers, togetber with a variety
for the aid of their poor, and suffer none of their number of letters from persons in India, he compiled his cele-
to ask alnus from people of a different religion. They brated work on the religion of the Persees. Other ac-
are equally ready to employ their money and credit to counts have been given by different men, as accident
screen a brother of their fraternity from the abuses of put information in their way. But the most distinguish-
justice. When a Persee behaves ill, he is expelled from ed is by M. Anquetil dů Perron, who undertook a
their communion. They apply to trade, and exercise voyage to discover and traurslate the works attributed
all sorts of professions.

to Zoroaster. Of this voyage he drew up an account
“The Persees have as little knowledge of circum- himself, and read it before the Royal Academy of
cision as the Hindoos. Among them, a man marries Sciences at Paris in May 1761. A translation of it
only one wife, nor ever takes a second, unless when the was made and published in the Gentleman's Magazine
first happeus to be barren. They give their children in for 1762, to which we refer our readers. The account
marriage at six years of age ; but the young couple begins at page 373, and is concluded at page 614. Re-
continue to live separate, in the houses of their

parents, marks were afterwards made on Du Perron's account
till they attain the age of puberty. Their dress is the by a Mr Yates. See the same Magazine for 1766,
same as that of the Hindoos, except that they wear under p. 529.
each ear a tuft of hair, like the modern Persians. They PERSEPOLIS, formerly the capital of Persia, situ-
are much addicted to Astrology, although very little ated in N. Lat. 30. 30. E. Long. 84. O. now in ruins,
skilled in astronomy.

but remarkable for the most magnificent remains of a
“ They retain the singular custom of exposing their palace or temple that are to be found throughout the

Plate dead to be eaten by birds of prey, instead of interring or world.—This city stood in one of the finest plains in

CCCCIX. burning them. I saw (continues our author) on a hill Persia, being 18 or 19 leagues in length, and in some VOL. XVI. Part I.

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Persepolis, places two, in some four, and in others six leagues in staircase, you enter what was formerly a most magni- Persepolis,

breadth. It is watered by the great river Araxes, now ficent hall: the natives have given this the name of Perseve-
Bendemir, and by a multitude of rivulets besides. With chehul minar, or forty pillars; and though this name is
in the compass of this plain, there are between 1000 often used to express the whole of the building, it is
and 1500 villages, without reckoning those in the more particularly appropriated to this part of it. Al.
mountains, all adorned with pleasant gardens, and though a vast number of ages have elapsed since the
planted with shady trees. The entrance of this plain foundation, 15 of the columns yet remain entire ; they
on the west side has received as much grandeur from are from 70 to 80 feet in height, and are masterly pieces
nature, as the city it covers could do from industry or of masonry: their pedestals are curiously worked, and
art. It consists of a range of mountains steep and high, appear little injured by the hand of time. The shafts
four leagues in length, and about two miles broad, form- are enfluted up to the top, and the capitals are adorned
ing two flat banks, with a rising terrace in the middle, with a profusion of fretwork.
the summit of which is perfectly plain and even, all of From this ball you proceed along eastward, until
native rock. In this there are such openings, and the you arrive at the remains of a large square building, to

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terraces are so fine and so even, that one would be which you enter through a door of granite. Most of
tempted to think the whole the work of art, if the great the doors and windows of this apartment are still stand-
extent, and prodigious elevation thereof, did not con- ing; they are of black marble, and polished like a
vince one that it is a wonder too great for aught but mirror : on the sides of the doors, at the entrance, are
nature to produce. Undoubtedly these banks were the bas-reliefs of two figures at full length; they represent
very place where the advanced guards from Persepolis a man in the attitude of stabbing a goat : with one
took post, and from which Alexander found it so diffi- hand he seizes hold of the animal by the horn, and
cult to dislodge them. One cannot from hence descry thrusts a dag ger into his belly with the other ; one of
the ruins of the city, because the banks are too high to the goat's feet rests upon the breast of the man, and
be overlooked; but one can perceive on every side the the other upon his right arm.

This device is common
ruins of walls and of edifices, which beretofore adorned throughout the palace. Over another door of the same
range of mountains of wbich we are speaking,

On apartment is a representation of two men at full length;
the west and on the north this city is defended in the behind them stands a domestic holding a spread um-
like manner : so that considering the beight and even- brella: they are supported by large round staffs, ap-
ness of these banks, one may safely say that there is not pear to be in years, have long beards, and a profusion of
in the world a place so fortified by nature,

hair upon their beads.
The mountain Rehumut, in the form of an amphi- " At the south-west entrance of this apartment are
theatre, encircles the palace, which is one of the no- two large pillars of stone, upon which are carved four
blest and most beautiful pieces of architecture remaining figures ; they are dressed in long garments, and hold in
of all antiquity. Authors and travellers bave been ex- their hands spears 10 feet in length. At this entrance
ceedingly minute in their descriptions of those ruins ; also the remains of a staircase of blue stone are still vi-
and yet some of them have expressed themselves so dif- sible. Vast numbers of broken pieces of pillars, shafts,
ferently from others, that, bad they not agreed with and capitals, are scattered over a considerable extent of
respect to the latitude and longitude of the place, que ground, some of them of such enormous size, that it is
would be tempted to suspect that they bad visited diffe- wonderful to think how they could have been brought
rent ruins. These ruins have been described by Gar- whole, and set up together. Indeed, every remains of
cias de Silva Figueroa, Pietro de la Valle, Chardin, Le these noble ruins indicate their former grandeur and
Brun, and Mr Francklin. We shall adopt the descrip- magnificence, truly worthy of being the residence of a
tion of an intelligent traveller. The ascent to the co- great and powerful monarch.”
lumns is by a grand staircase of blue stone containing These noble ruins are now the shelter of beasts and
· 104 steps.

birds of prey. Besides the inscriptions above mention-
“ The first object that strikes the beholder on his en- ed, there are others in Arabic, Persian, and Greek. Dr
trance, are two portals of stone, abont so feet in height Hyde observes, that the inscriptions are very rude and
each; the sides are embellished with two sphinxes of an clumsy ; and that some, if not all of them, are in praise
immense size, dressed out with a profusion of bead- of Alexander the Great ; and therefore are later than
work, and contrary to the usual method, they are repre- that conqueror. See the article Ruins.
sented standing. On the sides above are inscriptions in PERSEVERANCE, in Theology, a continuance in
an ancient character, the meaning of which no one bi- a state of grace to a state of glory.
therto has been able to decypher.

About this subject there has been much controversy
“ At a small distance from these portals you ascend in the Christian church. All divines, except Unitari-
another flight of steps, which lead to the grand hall of ans, admit, that no man can be ever in a state of grace.
eolumns. The sides of this staircase are ornamented without the co-operation of the spirit of God; but the
with a variety of figures in basso relievo; most of them Calvinists and Arminians differ widely as to the nature
have vessels in their bands : here and there a camel ap- of this co-operation. The former, at least such as call
pears, and at other times a kind of triumphal car, themselves the true disciples of Calvin, believe, that those
made after the Roman fasbion ; besides these are se- wbo are once under the influence of divine grace can
veral led horses, oxen, and rams, that at times inter- never full totally from it, or die in mortal sin. The
yene and diversify the procession. At the head of the Arminians, on the other hand, contend, that the whole
staircase is another basso relievo, representing a lion of this life is a state of probation ; that without the
seizing a bull; and close to this are other inscriptions grace of God we can do nothing that is good ; that the
in ancient characters. On getting to the top of this Holy Spirit assists, but does not overpower, our natural

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Perseve- faculties; and that a man, at any period of his life, may became afterwards king, and where he and his posterity Persia.

resist, grieve, and even quench, the spirit. See Theo- reigned for 100 years. He flourished, according to most
LOGY.

chronologists, 1348, B. C.; but, according to Sir Isaac Persia.

PERSEUS was the most ancient of all the Greek Newton, only 1028.
heroes. He founded the city of Mycenæ, of which he PERSEUS. See ASTRONOMY Index.

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extending in length from the mouth of the river traveller, compiled from the books of such Persians as fled Araxes to that of the river Indus, about 1840 of our from their country upon the innovation in religion made miles, and in breadth from the river Oxus, to the Per- by Zoroaster: and if these books, of which a few still sian gulf, about 1080 of the same miles. It is bounded remain, be genuine, and the Mahometan a faithful comon the north by the Caspian sea, the river Oxus, and piler, facts of which Sir William has not the smallest Mount Caucasus; on the east, by the river Indus and doubt, the evidence is certainly sufficient to bear the the dominions of the Great Moyul; on the south, by superstructure which he has raised upon it. the Persian gulf and the Indian ocean; and on the west, If the Persian monarchy was thus ancient, it is natu- Perhaps the by the dominions of the Grand Signior.

ral to suppose that Persia or Iràn was the original seat original Persia proWe learn from Sir William Jones, the illustrious pre- of the human race, whence colonies were sent out or

seat of the perly the sident of the Asiatic Society, that Persia is the name of emigrated of themselves to people the rest of the babi- human name of

only one province of this extensive empire, which by table globe. This supposition is actually made by our s only one province of

the present natives, and all the learned Mussulmans who ingenious author, who strongly confirms it by remarks this vast reside in the British territories in India, is called Iràn. on the most ancient language of Persia, which he shows empire. It has been a practice not uncommon in all ages to de- to have been the parent of the Sanscrit, as well as of the

nominate the whole of a country from that part of it Greek, Latin, and Gothic (see PHILOLOGY). He
with which we are best acquainted ; and hence have therefore holds, as a proposition firmly established,
the Europeans agreed to call Irån by the name of " that Iràn or Persia, in its largest sense, was the true
that province of which Shirauz is the capital : See centre of population, of knowledge, of languages, and
SHIRAUZ.

of arts; which instead of travelling westward only, as it Variogs The most ancient name, bowever, of this country was has been fancifully supposed, or eastward, as might with 26 names of that of Elam, or, as some write it Ælam, from Elam equal reason bave been asserted, were expanded in all the coun. the son of Shem, from whom its first inhabitants are des- directions to all the regions of the world.” He thinks

cended. Herodotus calls its inhabitants Cephenes; and it is from good authority that the Saxon Chronicle
in very ancient times the people are said to have called brings the first inhabitants of Britain from Armenia ;
themselves Artæi, and the country where they dwelt that the Goths have been concluded to come from Per-
Artæa. In the books of Daniel, Esdras, &c. it is callo sia ;, and tbat both the Irish and old Britons have been
ed by the names of Pars, Pharas, or Fars, whence the supposed to have proceeded from the borders of the Cas-
modern name of Persia ; but whence those names have pian: for all these places were comprehended within
been derived, is now uncertain.

the ancient Iran. Opinions That Persia was originally peopled by Elam the son Of this first Persian monarchy we have no historical Accounts of respecting of Shem, has been very generally admitted ; but the accounts; and must therefore, after having thus

the birth,

&c. of uits first po- truth is, that of the ancient history of this distinguished tioned it, descend at once to the era of Cyrus. This

Cyrus. pulation.

empire very little is perfectly known. For this igno- prince is celebrated both by sacred and profane bisto-
rance, which at first seems strange, satisfactory reasons rians ; but the latter are at no small variance concern-
may easily be assigned; of which the principal are the ing his birth and accession to the throne. According
superficial knowledge of the Greeks and Jews, and the to Herodotus, Astyages, the last king of the Medes,
loss of Persian archives or historical compositions. “That being warned in a dream, that the son who was to be
the Grecian writers before XENOPHON bail no acquaint- born of his daughter Mandane, should one day be lord
ance with Persia, and that their accounts of it are of Asia, resolved to marry her, not to a Mede, but to
wholly fabulous, is a paradox too extravagant to be se- a Persian. Accordingly he chose for her husband one
riously mentioned; but (says Sir William Jones) their Cambyses, a man of a peaceable disposition, and of no
connection with it in war or peace had been generally very high station. However, about a year after they
confined to bordering kingdoms under feudatory princes ; were married, Astyages was frightened by another
and the first Persian emperor, whose life and character dream, which made him resolve to dispatch the infant
they seem to have known with tolerable accuracy, was, as soon as it should be born. Hereupon the king sent
the great CYRUS.” Oor learned author, however, is for his daughter, and put her under confinement, where
so far from considering Cyrus as the first Persian mo- she was soon after delivered of a son. The intant was
narch, that he thinks it evident a powerful monarchy committed to the care of one Harpagus, with strict or-
liad subsisted in Iran for ages before the accession of ders to destroy it in what manner lie thought proper,
that hero; that this monarchy was called the Mahélé- But be, having acquainted his wife with the command
dian dynasty; and that it was in fact the oldest mo- he bad received, by her advice gave it to a shepherd,
narchy in the world. The evidence upon which the pre- desiring him to let it perish by exposing it. But the

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Persia. shepherd, out of compassion, exposed a still-born child into Persia, where he would find his father and mother Persia.

which his wife happened to be then delivered of, and in circumstances very different from those of the poor
brought up the son of Mandane as his own, giving him shepherd and his wife with whom he bad hitherto lived.
the name of CYRUS.

Cyrus, on his arrival at his father's house, was received
When the young prince had attained the age of ten with the greatest joy. When he grew up, he soon be-
years, as he was one day at play with other children of came popular on account of his extraordinary parts ;
il:e same 'age, he was chosen king by his companions ; till at last his friendship was courted by Harpagus, who
and having, in virtue of that dignity, divided them into had never forgot the cruel treatment he received from
several orders and classes, the son of Artembares, a lord Astyages. By this means a conspiracy was formed
of eminent dignity among the Medes, refused to obey againsi Astyages ; wbo being overthrown in two suc-
his orders ; whereupon Cyrus caused him to be seized, cessive engagements, was taken prisoner and confined
and whipped very severely. The boy ran crying to his for life.
father; and he immediately hastened to the king's pa- The account given by Xenophon of the rise of Cyrus
lace, loudly complaining of the affront his son had re- is much more consonant to Scripture; for he tells us,
ceived from the son of a slave, and intreating Astyages that Babylon was conquered by the united forces of the
to revenge, by some exemplary punishment, the indig- Medes and Persians. According to him, Cyrus was the
nity offered to him and his family. Astyages, com- son of Cambyses king of the Medes, and Mandane the
manding both the herdsman and his son to be brought daughter of Astyages king of Persia. He was born a
before him, asked the latter, how he, who was the son year after his uncle Cyaxares, the brother of Mandane.
of so mean a man, had dared to abuse the son of one of He lived till the age of twelve with his parents in Per-
the chief lords of the kingdom ? Cyrus replied, that he sia, being educated after the manner of the country,
had done no more than he had a right to do; for the and inured to fatigues and military exercises. At this
hoys of the neighbourhood having chosen him king, be- age he was taken to the court of Astyages, where he
cause they thought him most worthy of that dignity, resided four years ; when the revolt of the Medes and
and performed what he, vested with that character, had Persians from the Babylonians happened, and which
commanded, the son of Artembares alone bad slighted ended in the destruction of the Babylonish empire, as
his orders, and for his disobedience had suffered the pu- related under the article BABYLON.
nishment he deserved. In the course of this conversa- While Cyrus was employed in the Babylonish war, His war
tion Astyages happening to recollect, that his grandson, before he attacked the metropolis itself, he reduced als with the
whom he had ordered to be destroyed, would have been the nations of Asia Minor. The most formidable of Lydians.
about the same age with Cyrus, began to question the these were the Lydians, whose king Crosus assembled
shepherd concerning his supposed son, and at last ob- a very numerous army, composed of all the other na-
tained from him a confession of the whole truth. tions in that part of Asia, as well as of Egyptians,

Astyages having now discovered Cyrus to be his Greeks, and Thracians. Cyrus being informed of these grandson, sent for Harpagus, who also confessed that vast preparations, augmented his forces to 196,000 ment, he had not seen Mandane's son destroyed, but had given and with them advanced against the enemy, who were him to the shepherd; at which Astyages was so much assembled near the river Pactolus. After long marches, incensed, that, having invited Harpagus to an enter- he came up with them at Thymbra, not far from Sartainment, he caused him to be served with the flesh of dis, the capital of Lydia. Besides the horse and foot, his own son. When he bad done, the king asked him which amounted to 196,000, as already observed, Cywliether he liked his victuals ; and Harpagus answer- rus had 300 chariots armed with scythes, each chariot ing, that he had never tasted any thing more delicious, drawn by four borses abreast, covered with trappings the officers appointed for that purpose brought in a bas- that were proof against all sorts of missive

weapons: he ket, containing the head, hands, and feet of his son, had likewise a great number of chariots of a larger size, desiring him to uncover the basket, and take what he upon each of which was placed a tower about 18 or 20 liked best. He did as they desired, and beheld the feet high, and in each tower were lodged 20 arohers. mangled remains of bis only child without betraying These towers were drawn by 16 oxen yoked abreast. the least concern, so great was the command which he There was moreover a considerable number of camels, had over his passions. The king then asked him, whe- each mounted by two Arabian archers, the one looking ther he knew with what kind of meat he had been en- towards the head, and the other towards the hinder tertained. Harpagus replied, that he knew very well, part of the camel. The army of Creesus consisted of and was always pleased with what his sovereign thought 420,000 men. The Egyptians, who alone were 120,000 fit to ordain ; and having thus replied, with a surprising in number, being the main strength of the army, were temper he collected the mangled parts of his innocent placed in the centre. Both armies were drawn up in an son, and went home.

immense plain, which gave room for the extending of Astyages having thus vented his rage on Harpagus, the wings on either side ; and the design of Cræsus, began next to consult what he should do with Cyrus. upon which alone he founded his hopes of victory, The magi, however, eased him of his fears with regard to surround and hem in the enemy's army. to bim, by assuring him, that as the boy had been once When the two armies were in sight of each other, The batle chosen king by his companions, the dream had been al- Ercesus, observing how much his front exceeded that of of Thymeready verified, and that Cyrus never would' reign in any Cyrus, made the centre halt, but commanded the tiro other sense. The king, being well pleased with this wings to advance, with a design to inclose the Persian answer, called Cyrus, and, owning how much he had army, and begin the attack on both sides at once. been wanting in the affection which he ought to have When the two detached bodies of the Lydian forces bad towards him, desired bim to prepare for a journey were sufficiently extended, Croesus gave the signal to the

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main body, which marched up to the front of the Per. resistance on foot; but were at last driven into the city, Persia.
sian
army,

while the two wings attacked them in flank; which was taken two days after : and thus the Lydian
so that Cyrus's army was bemmed in on all sides, and, empire was totally destroyed.
as Xenopbon expresses it, was inclosed like a small After the conquest of Sardis, Cyrus turned his arms Reduces
square drawn within a great one. This motion, how- against Babylon itself, which he reduced in the manner

Babylon. ever, did not at all alarm the Persian commander; but, related under that article. Having settled the civil

gogiving his troops the signal to face about, he attacked vernment of the conquered kingdoms, Cyrus took a in lank those forces that were going to fall upon his review of all his forces, which he found to consist of rear so vigorously, that he put them into great disorder. 600,000 foot, 120,000 horse, and 2000 chariots armed: At the same time a squadron of camels was made to ad- with scythes. With these he extended his dominion all vance against the enemy's other wing, which consisted over the nations to the confines of Ethiopia, and to the mostly of cavalry. The horses were so frightened at the Red sea; after which he continued to reign peaceably approach of these animals, that most of them threw their over his vast empire till his death, which happened ariders, and trod them under foot; which occasioned bout 529. before Christ. According to Xenophon, le Pis death, great confusion. Then Artageses, an officer of great va- died a natural death; but others tell us, that, having lour and experience, at the head of a small body of engaged in a war with the Scythians, he was by them horse, charged them so briskly, that they could never overthrown and cut in pieces with his whole army, afterwards rally; and at the same time the chariots, amounting to 200,000 men. But this is very imprearmed with scythes, being driven in among them, they bable, seeing all authors agree that the tomb of Cyrus were entirely routed. Both the enemy's wings being was extant at Pasargada in Persia in the time of Alex, thus put to flight, Cyrus commanded his chief favourite ander the Great ; which it could not have been if his Abradates to fall upon the centre with the large cha- body had remained in the possession of the Scythians, riots above mentioned. The first ranks, consisting most- as these authors assert. ly of Lydians, not being able to stand so violent a In the time of Cyrus, the Persian empire extended charge, immediately gave way; but the Egyptians, be- from the river Indus to the Ægean sea. On the north ing covered with their bucklers, and marching so close it was bounded by the Euxine and Caspian seas, and on that the chariots bad not room to penetrate their ranks, the south by. Ethiopia and Arabia. That monarch a great slaughter of the Persians ensued. Abradates kept bis residence for the seven cold months at Babylon, himself was killed, his chariot overturned, and the by reason of the warmth of that climate ; three months greatest part of his men were cut in pieces. Upon his in the spring he spent at Susa, and two at Ecbatan durdeath, the Egyptians, advancing boldly, obliged the ing the beat of summer. On his deathbed he appointed Persian infantry to give way, and drove them back bis son Cambyses to succeed him in the empire; and to quite to their engines. There they met with a new his other son, Smerdis, he gave several considerable goshower of darts and javelins from their machines; and vernments. The new monarch immediately set about at the same time the Persian rear advancing sword in the conquest of Egypt; which he accomplished in the hand, obliged their spearmen and archers to return to manner related in the history of that country. the charge. In the mean time Cyrus, having put to Having reduced Egypt, Cambyses next resolved to Cambyses flight both the horse and foot on the left of the Egyp- turn his arms against the Carthaginians, Hammonians, conquers tians, puehed on to the centre, where he had the mis- and Ethiopians. But he was obliged to drop the first Egypt. fortune to find his Persians again giving ground; and of these enterprises, because the Phoenicians refused to judging that the only way to stop the Egyptians, who supply him with ships against the Carthaginians, who were pursuing them, would be to attack them in the were a Phoenician colony. However, he sent ambasreår, he did so; and at the same time the Persian ca. sadors into Ethiopia with a design to get intelligence of valry coming up to his assistance, the fight was renewed the state and strength of the country. But the Ethiowith great slaughter on both sides. Cyrus himself was pian monarch, being well apprised of the errand on in great danger; for his horse being killed under him, which they came, treated them with great contempt: he fell among the midst of his enemies: but the Per- In return for the presents sent him by Cambyses, he sians, alarmed at the danger of their general, threw sent his own bow; and advised the Persians to make themselves headlong on their opponents, rescued bim, war upon the Ethiopians when they could bend such a and made a terrible slaughter; till at last Cyrus, admir- strong bow as easily as he did, and to thank the gode ing the valour of the Egyptians, offered them honour- that the Ethiopians had no ambition to extend their doable conditions : letting them know at the same time, minions beyond their own country.

13 that all their allies had abandoned them. They accept- Cambyses was no sooner informed of this answer by His unsuced the terms offered them; and having agreed with Cy- his ambassadors than be flew into a violent passion; and cessful exrus that they should not be obliged to carry arms against ordered his army immediately to begin their march,

pedition

against Crosus, they engaged in the service of the conqueror, without considering that they were neither furnished Ethiopia and continued faithful to him ever after.

with provisions nor any other necessary. When he ar- and the Sardis ta- The next morning Cyrus advanced towards Sardis, rived at Thebes in Upper Egypt, he detached 50,000 Hammo-ken, and and Cræsus marched out to oppose him at the head of men, with orders to destroy the temple of Jupiter Am

nians, the Lydian empire

the Lydians only: for his allies had all abandoned him. mon : but all these perished in the desert; not a single

Their strength consisted mostly in cavalry; which Cy- person arriving either at the oracle, or returning to thrown. · jus being well apprised of, he ordered his camels to ad- "Thebes. The rest of the army, led by Cambyses him

vance; by whom the horses were so frightened, that self, experienced incredible hardships; for not being
they became quite ungovernable. However, the Ly- provided with any necessaries, they had not marched å
dians dismounted, and for some time made a vigorous, fifth part of the way when they were obliged to kill and

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