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Perizzites the river Jordan, in the mountains, and in the plains. PERONNE, a strong town of France, in the de

T 11 In several places of Scripture the Canaanites and Periz

partment of Somme. It is said never to have been Perones. zites are mentioned as the two chief people of the coun- taken, though often besieged. It is seated on

the la try. It is said,' for example, that in the time of Abra- Somme. E. Long. 3. 1. N. Lat. 44. 50. Population ham and Lot the Canaanite and Perizzite were in the

3700 in 1800. land (Gen. xiii. 7.). The Israelites of the tribe of Eph- PERORATION, in Rhetoric, the epilogue or last rain complained to Joshua that they were too much pent part of an oration, wherein what the orator bad insisted up in their possession (Josh. xvii. 15.): he bid them go, on through his whole discourse is urged afresh with if they pleased, into the mountains of the Perizzites, and greater vehemence and passion. The peroration conRephaims or giants, and there clearing the land, to cul

sists of two parts.

1. Recapitulation; wherein tlie tivate and inhabit it. Solomon subdued the remains of substance of what was diffused throngbout the whole the Canaanites and Perizzites which the children of speech is collected briefly and cursorily, and summed Israel had not rooted out, and made them tributary to up with new force and weight. 2. T'he moving the him (1 Kings ix. 20, 21. and 2 Chr. viii. 7.). There passions ; which is so peculiar to the peroration, that is still mention made of the Perizzites in the time of the masters of the art call this part sedes affectuum. The Ezra (ix. 1.), after the return from the captivity of Ba- passions to be raised are various, according to the vabylon; and several Israelites had married wives from rious kinds of oration. In a panegytic, love, admirathat nation.

tion, emulation, joy, &c. In an invective, hatred, PERKIN, a beverage prepared from pears. See Cy- contempt, &c. In a deliberation, bope, confidence, DERKIN, under AGRICULTURE, N° 656.

or fear. The qualities required in the peroration are, PERMEABLE, a term applied to bodies of so that it be very vebement and passionate, and that it be loose a texture as to let sometbing pass through short; because, as Cicero observes, tears soon dry up. them.

These qualities were well observed by Cicero, who PERMSKI, or PERMIA, a town of the Russian never had an equal in the management of this part of an empire, and capital of a province of the same name, orator's province; for peroration was his master-piece. seated on the river Kama between the Dwina and the “ Concerning peroration (says Dr Blair), it needOhy; E. Long. 55. 50. N. Lat. 57. 10.

less to say much, because it must vary so considerably, PERMUTATIOŇ, in commerce, the same with according to the strain of the preceding discourse. bartering. In the canon-law, permutation denotes the Sometimes the whole pathetic part comes in most proactual exchange of one benefice for another.

perly at the peroration. Sometimes, when the discourse PERNAMBUCO, a province of Brazil, in South has been entirely argumentative, it is fit to conclude America, bounded on the north and east by the ocean, with summing up the arguments, placing them in one on the south by Bahia, and on the west by Piara. It view, and leaving the impression of them full and strong

is about 300 miles in length and as much in breadth. on the mind of the audience. For the great rule of a
· The Dutch became masters of it in 1630, but the Por- conclusion, and what nature obviously suggests, is, to
tuguese soon after retook it. It produces a great place that last on which we choose that the strength of
quantity of sugar, cotton, and Brazil wood. An in- our case should rest.
surrection broke out in this province on the 7th April “ In all discourses, it is a matter of importance to hit
1817. The Portuguese authorities were driven out, the precise time of concluding, so as to bring our dis-
and a republican constitution proclaimed; but in the course just to a point ; neither ending abruptly and un-
following month the revolutionists were subdued. expectedly, nor disappointing the expectation of the

PERNIO, a kibe or chilblain, is a little ulcer, occa- hearers when they look for the close, and continuing to
sioned by cold, in the hands, feet, heels, nose, and lips. hover round and round the conclusion till they become
It will come on when warm parts are too suddenly ex- heartily tired of us. We should endeavour to get off
posed to cold, or when parts from being too cold are with a good grace; not to end with a languishing and
suddenly exposed to a considerable warmth; and has al- drawling sentence, but to close with dignity and spirit,
ways a tendency to gangrene, in which it frequently that we may leave the minds of the hearers warm, and
terminates. It most commonly attacks children of a dismiss them with a favourable impression of the sub-
sanguine habit and delicate constitution; and may be ject and of the speaker.”
prevented or removed by such remedies as invigorate the PEROTIS, a genus of plants belonging to the tri-
system, and are capable of removing any tendency to andria class, and in the natural method ranking under
gangrene in the constitution.

the 4th order, Gramina. See BOTANY Index.
PERONÆUS, in Anatomy, is an epithet applied to PERPENDICULAR, in Geometry, a line falling
some of the muscles of the perone or fibula. See Ana- directly on another line, so as to make equal angles on
TOMY, Table of the Muscles.

each side. See GEOMETRY.
PERONES, a sort of high shoes wbich were worn PERPETUAL, something that endures always, or
not only by country people, but by men of ordinary lasts for ever.
rank at Rome. In the early times of the common- PERPETUAL Motion. See MOVEMENT.
wealth they were worn even by senators; but at last PERPIGNAN, a considerable town of Rousillon,
they were disused by persons of figure, and confined in France, with a strong citadel, an university, and a
to plouglimen and labourers. They were very rudely bishop's see. It is seated on the river Tet; over which
formed, consisting only of hides undressed, and reach- there is a handsome bridge. E. Long. o. 43. N. Lat.
ing to the middle of the leg. Virgil mentions the pe-
-rones as worn by a company of rustic soldiers on one PERQUISITE, in a general sense, something gain-
foot only.

ed by a place over and above settled wages.


45. 18.


li Perruke.

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PERQUISITE, in Laur, is any thing gotten by a man's to engage Henry IV. to change his religion ; and that

own industry, or purchased with his money; in contra- prince sent him to negociate bis reconciliation to the Perron distinction to what descends to bim from his father or holy see, to which he succeeded. Du Perron was conother ancestor.

secrated bishop of Evreaux while he resided at Rome.
PERRAULT, CLAUDE, the son of an advocate in On his return to France, he wrote, preached, and dis-
parliament, was born at Paris in 1613; and was bred a puted against the reformed; particularly against Du
physician, though he never practised but among his re- Plessis Mornay, with whom he had a public conference
lations, friends, and the poor. lle discovered early a in the presence of the king at Fountainbleau. He was
particular taste for the sciences and fine arts; of which made cardinal in 1604 by Pope Clement VIII. at the
he acquired' a consummate knowledge without the as- solicitation of Henry IV, who afterwards nominated
sistance of a master: he excelled in architecture, paint- him to the archbishopric of Sens. The king at length
ing, sculpture, mathematics, physics, and all those arts sent him to Rome with Cardinal Joyeuse, in order to
that relate to designing and mechanics. The entrance terminate the disputes which had arisen between Paul
into the Louvre, which was designed by him, is, ac- V. and the Venetians. It is said that this pope had
cording to the judgment of Voltaire, one of the most such a high opinion of the address of the cardinal Du
august monuments of architecture in the world. M. Perron, that he used to say, “ Let us pray to God to
Colbert put him upon translating Vitruvius into French; inspire the cardinal Du Perron, for lie will persuade us
which he performed, and published it in 1673, folio, to do whatever he pleases.” After the death of Henry
with figures from his own drawings; which are said to IV. he retired into the country, where he put the last
have been more exactly finished than the plates them- hand to his work; and, setting up a printing-house, cor-
selves. When the academy of sciences was established, rected every sheet himself. He died at Paris in 1618.
he was one of its first members, and was chiefly de- His works were collected after his death, and published
pended on for mechanics and natural philosophy. His at Paris in 3 vols. folio.
works are, Memoires pour servir à l'Histoire naturelle PERROT, NICHOLAS, Sieur d'Ablancourt, one of
des Animaux, folio, 1676, with figures; Essais de Phy- the first geniuses of bis age, was born at Chalons in
sique, 4 vols. 12!no, 1688 ; Recueil des plusieurs ma- 1606. After studying philosophy about three years,
chines de nouvelle invention, 4to, 1700, &c. He died he was sent to Paris to follow the law. At eighteen
in 1688.



age he was admitted advocate of parliament,
PERRAULT, Charles, the brother of Claude, was born and frequented the bar ; but he soon conceived a dis-
at Paris in 1626, with as great a genius for arts, and a taste for it, and therefore discontinued his practice.
greater for letters, than his brother. Colbert chose him This displeased an uncle, but whose favour he recover-
first clerk of the buildings, of which he was superinten- ed by quitting the Protestant religion. He could not,
dant, and afterward made him comptroller general of however, be prevailed upon to take orders in the
the finances under him. He was one of the first mem- Romish church ; and some years after, he had a de-
bers of the academy of the belles lettres and inscrip- sire to return to the religion he had abjured. But,
tions, and was received into the French academy in that he might not do any thing rashly, be resolved to
1671. His poem, La Peinture, printed in 1688, was study philosophy and divinity. For that purpose he
universally admired: that entitled La siecle de Louis le chose for his master Mr Stuart a Scotsman and Luthe-
Grand, in which he exalted the modern authors above ran, a man of great learning. Almost three years he
the ancient, was a prelude to a war with all the learn- spent in the most assiduous study; and then set out
ed. After he had disengaged himself from this contest, from Paris to Champagne, where he abjured the Ro--
be applied himself to draw up eulogies of several great man Catholic, and once more embraced the Protestant
men of the 17th century, with their portraits, of which religion. In 1637 he was admitted a member of the
he has collected 102. There are other esteemed works French academy; a little after which he undertook a
of Perrault.-Besides these there were two other bro- translation of Tacitus. Whilst he was engaged in that
thers, Peter and Nicholas, who made themselves known laborious task, he retired to his small estate of Ablan--
in the literary world.

court, and lived there till his death in 1664. He
PERRON, JAMES Davy du, a cardinal, distinguish- was a man of fine understanding, of great piety and
ed by his abilities and learning, was born in the canton integrity, and of universal learning. Moreri bas gi-
of Bern in 1556. He was educated by Julian Davy, ven a catalogue of his works, the greatest part of
his father, a learned Calvinist, who taught bim Latin which consist of translations, wbich seemed rather ori-
and the mathematics; after which, he by himself be- ginals.
came acquainted with the Greek and Hebrew, philoso- PERRUKE, PERUKE, or Periwig, was anciently
phy, and the poets. Philip Desportes, abbot of 'Tyron, a name for a long head of natural hair ; such, particu-
made him known to Henry III. king of France, who Jarly, as there was care taken in the adjusting and trim--
conceived a great esteem for him. Some time after, ming of. Menage derives the word rather fancitully
Du Perron abjured Calvinism, and afterwards embraced from the Latin, pilus, “ hair." It is derived, according
the ecclesiastical function ; and having given great to this critic, thus, pilus, pelus, pelutus, peluticus, pelu-
proofs of his wit and learning, he was chosen to pro- tica, perutica, peruca, perruque. The Latins called it
nounce the funeral oration of Mary queen of Scots. coma ; whence part of Gaul took the denomination of
After the murder of Henry 111. he retired to the house Gallia Comata, from the long hair which the inhabi-
of Cardinal de Bourbon, and took great pains in bring- tants wore as a sign of freedom. · An ancient author
ing back the Protestants to the church of Rome. Å- says, that Absalom's perruke weighed 200 shekels.
mong others he gained over Henry Spondanus, after- The word is now used for a set of false bair, curled,
wards bishop of Pamiers. He also chiefly contributed buckled, and sewed together on a frame or cawl; an-


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Perruke, ciently called capillamentum or “false perruke.” It is his narrative in the Preface to The State of Russiu). In
Perry. doubted whether or not the use of perrukes of this kind 1721 he was employed in stopping with success the terre

was known among the ancients. It is true, they used breach at Dagenham, in which several other under-
false hair : Martial and Juvenal make merry with the takers had failed; and the same year about the harbour
women of their time, for making themselves look young at Dublin, to the objections against which he then pu-
with their borrowed hair ; with the men who changed blished an Answer. He was author of The State of
their colours according to the seasons ; and with the Russia, 1716, 8vo, and an account of the stopping of
dotards, who hoped to deceive the Destinies by their Dagenham Breach, 1721, 8vo; and died February 11.
white hair. But these seem to have scarce bad any 1733
thing in common with our perrukes ; and were at best PERRY, the name of a very pleasant and wholesome
only composed of hair painted, and glued together. liquor extracted from pears, in the same manner as cyder
Nothing can be more ridiculous than the description is from apples. See Cyder, and AGRICULTURE Index.
Lampridius gives of the emperor Commodus's perruke: The best pears for perry, or at least the sorts which
it was powdered with scrapings of gold, and oiled (if bave been hitherto deemed the fittest for making this
we may use the expression) with glutinous perfumes liquor, are of a tart and harsh quality. Of these the
for the powder to hang by. In effect, the use of per. Bosbury pear, the Bareland pear, and the borse pear,
rukes, at Icast in their present mode, is not much more are the most esteemed for perry in Worcestershire, and
than 160 ytars old; the year 1629 is reckoned the the squash pear, as it is called, in Gloucestershire; in
cpocha of long perrukes, at which time they began to both which counties, as well as in some of the adjacent
appear in Paris; from whence they spread by degrees parts, they are planted in the hedge-rows and most
through the rest of Europe. At first it was reputed common fields. There is this advantage attending pear-
a scandal for young people to wear them, because the trees, that they will thrive on land where apples will
loss of their hair at that age was attributed to a dis- not so much as live, and that some of them grow to such
ease the very name whereof is a reproach ; but at a size, that a single pear-tree, particularly of the Bosbury
length the inode prevailed over the scruple, and per- and the squash kind, has frequently been known to
sons of all ages and conditions have worn them, fore- yield, in one season), from one to four hogsheads of perry.
going without any necessity the conveniences of their The Bosbury pear is thought to yield the most lasting
natural hair. It was, however, some time before the and most vinous liquor. The John pear, the Harpary
ecclesiastics came into the fashion : the first who as- pear, the Drake pear, the Mary pear, the Lullum pear,
sumed the perruke were some of the French clergy, and several others of the harshest kinds, are esteemed
in the year 1660; nor is the practice yet well. autho- the best for perry, but the redder or more tawney they
rized. Cardinal Grimaldi in 1684, and the bishop of are, the more they are preferred. Pears as well as ap-
Lavaur in 1688, prohibited the use of the perruke to ples, should be full ripe before they are ground.
all priests without a dispensation or necessity. M. Thiers Dr Beale, in bis general advertisements concerning
has an express treatise, to prove the perruke indecent cyder, subjoined to Mr Evelyn's Pomona, disapproves
in an ecclesiastic, and directly contrary to the decrees of Palladiue's saying, that perry will keep during the
and canons of councils. A priest's head, embellished winter, but that it turns sour as soon as the weather
with artificial hair curiously adjusted, he esteems a mon- begins to warm ; and gives, as his reasons for being
ster in the church ; nor can he conceive any thing so of a contrary opinion, that he had himself tasted at the
scandalous as an abbot with a florid countenance, height- end of summer, a very brisk, lively, and vinous liquor,
ened with a well-curled perruke.

made of horse pears; that he had often tried the juice
PERRY, CAPTAIN JOHN, was a famous engineer, of the Busbury pear, and found it both pleasanter and
who resided long in Russia, having been recommended richer the second year, and still more so the third,
to the czar Peter while in England, as a person ca- though kept only in common hogsheads, and in but
pable of serving bim on a variety of occasions relating indiferent cellars, without being bottled ; and that a
to bis new design of establishing a fleet, making his very honest, worthy, and ingenious gentleman in liis
rivers navigable, &c. His salary in this service was neighbourhood, assured him, as of his own experience,
zool. per annum, besides travelling expences and sub- that it will keep a great while, and grow much the
sistence money on whatever service he should be em- stronger for keeping, if put into a good cellar and ma-
ployed, together with a further reward to his satisfac- naged with due care. He imputes Palladins's error to
tion at the conclusion of any work he should finish. bis possibly speaking of common eatable pears, and to
After some conversation with the czar himself, parti- the perry's having been made in a very hot country:
cularly respecting a communication between the rivers but he would have ascribed it to a more real cause,
Volga and Don, he was employed on that work for perhaps, bad he pointed out the want of a thorongh
three summers successively; but not being well sup- regular fermentation, to which it appears plainly that
plied with men, partly on account of the ill success of the ancients were entire strangers ; far all their vinous
the czar's armis against the Swedes at the battle of liquors were medicated by boilivg before they were laid
Narva, and partly by the discouragement of the gover- up in order to be kept.
nor of Astracan, he was ordered at the end of 1707 to PERSECUTION, is any pain or affliction which a
stop, and next year was employed in refitting the ships person designedly inflicts upon another; and in a more
at Veronise, and 1700 in making the river of that name restrained sense, the sufferings of Christians on account
navigable ; but after repeated disappointments, and a of their religion.
variety of fruitless applications for his salary, he at Historians usually reckon ten general persecutions,
last quitted the kingdom under the protection of Mr

the first of which was under the emperor Nero, 31 years
Whitworth, the English ambassador, in 1712: (See after our Lord's ascension ; when that emperor having


are in

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Perseca- set fire to the city of Rome, threw the odium of that ex- at Bombay a round tower, covered with planks of wood, Persees,

tion, ecrable action on the Christians, who under that pre- on which the Persees lay out their dead bodies. When Persepolisa Persees. tence were wrapped up in the skins of wild beasts, and the flesh is devoured, they remove the bones into two

worried and devoured by dogs; others were crucified, chambers at the bottom of the tower.
and others burnt alive. The second was under Domi. “ The Persees, followers of the religion of Zerdust or
tian, in the year 95. In this persecution St Jobo the Zoroaster, adore one God only, eternal and almighty.
apostle was sent to the isle of Patmos, in order to be em- They pay, however, a certain worship to the sun, the
ployed in digging in the mines. The third began in moon, the stars, and to fire, as visible images of the
tbe third year of Trajan, in the year 100, and was car- invisible divinity. Their veneration for the element
ried on with great violence for several years. The fourth of fire induces them to keep a sacred fire constantly
was under Antoninus the philosopher, when the Christ- burning, which they feed with odoriferous wood, both
jans were banished from their houses, forbidden to show in the temples, and in the bouses of private persons who
their heads, reproached, beaten, hurried from place to

easy circumstances. In one of their temples at
place, plundered, imprisoned, and stoned. The fifth Bombay, I saw a fire which had burnt unextinguished
began in the year 197, under the emperor Severus. for two centuries. They never blow out a light, lest
The sixth began with the reign of the emperor Maxi- their breath should soil the purity of the fire. Sec
minus in 235. The seventb, which was the most dread- POLYTHEISM.
ful persecution that had ever been known in the church, The religion of the Persees enjoins purifications as
began in the year 250, in the reign of the emperor De- strictly as that of the Hindoos. The disciples of Zer-
cius, when the Christians were in all places driven from dust are not, however, obliged to abstain from animal
their habitations, stripped of their estates, tormented food. They have accustomed themselves to refrain
with racks, &c. The eighth began in the year 257, from the flesh of the ox, because their ancestors pro-
in the fourth year of the reign of the emperor Valerian. mised the Indian prince who received them into his
The ninth was under the emperor Aurelian, A. D. dominions never to kill horned cattle. This promise
284; but this was very inconsiderable : and the tenth they continue to observe under the dominion of Christ-
began in the 19th year of Dioclesian, A. D. 303. In ians and Mahometans. The horse is by them consider-
this dreadful persecution, which lasted ten years, houses ed as the most impure of all animals, and regarded with
filled with Christians were set on fire, and whole droves extreme aversion.
were tied together with ropes and throwyn into the sea. “ Their festivals, denominated Ghumbars, which re-

turn frequently, and last upon each occasion five days,
PERSEES, the descendants of a colony of ancient are all commemorations of some part of the work of
Persians, who took refuge at Bombay, Surat, and in creation. They celebrate them not with splendour, or,
the vicinity of those cities, when their own country with any particular ceremonies, but only dress better du.
was 'conquered 1100 years ago by the Mahometan ring those five days, perform some acts of devotion in
Arabs. They are a gentle, quiet, and industrious their houses, and visit their friends."
people, loved by the Hindoos, and living in great har- The Persees were till lately but very little known :
imony among themselves. The consequence is, that the ancients speak of them but seldom, and what they
they multiply exceedingly, whilst their countrymen in say seems to be dictated by prejudice, On this account
the province of Keman are visibly diminishing under Dr Hyde, who thought the subject both curious and
the yoke of the Mahometan Persians. Of the manners interesting, about the end of the 17th century attempted
and customs of this amiable race, we have the follow- a deeper investigation of a subject which till then had
ing account in Heron's elegant translation of Niebuhr's been but very little attended to. He applied to the

works of Arabian and Persian authors, from whom, and
“ The Persees (says he) make common contributions from the relations of travellers, together with a variety
for the aid of their poor, and suffer none of their number of letters from persons in India, he compiled his cele-
to ask alms from people of a different religion. They brated work on the religion of the Persees. Other ac-
are equally ready to employ their money and credit to counts have been given by different men, as accident
screen a brother of their fraternity from the abuses of put information in their way. But the most distinguish-
justice. When a Persee behaves ill, he is expelled from ed is by M. Anquetil du Perron, who undertook a
their communion. They apply to trade, and exercise voyage to discover and translate the works attributed
all sorts of professions.

to Zoroaster. Of this voyage he drew up an account
The Persees have as little knowledge of circum- himself, and read it before the Royal Academy of
cision as the Hindoos. Among them, a man marries Sciences at Paris in May 1761. A translation of it
only one wife, nor ever takes a second, unless when the was made and published in the Gentleman's Magazine
first happeus to be barren. They give their children in for 1762, to which we refer our readers. The account
marriage at six years of age ; but the young couple begins at page 373, and is concluded at page 614. Re-
continue to live separate, in the houses of their

parents, marks were afterwards made on Du Perron's account
till they attain the age of puberty. Their dress is the by a Mr Yates. See the same Magazine for 1766,
same as that of the Hindoos, except that they wear under p. 529.
eacb ear a tuft of hair, like the modern Persians. They PERSEPOLIS, formerly the capital of Persia, situ-
are much addicted to Astrology, although very little ated in N. Lat. 30. 30. E. Long. 84. O. now in ruins,
skilled in astronomy.

but remarkable for the most magnificent remains of a
“ They retain the singular custom of exposing their palace or temple that are to be found throughout the
dead to be eaten by birds of prey, instead of interring or world.—This city stood in one of the finest plains in

CCCCIX. burning them. I saw (continues our author) on a hill Persia, being 18 or 19 leagues in length, and in some VOL. XVI. Part I.






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Persepolis, places two, in some four, and in others six leagues in staircase, you enter what was formerly a most magni- Persepolit

, breadth. It is watered by the great river Araxes, now ficent hall: the natives have given this the name of PerseveBendemir, and by a multitude of rivulets besides. With chehul minar, or forty pillars; and though this name is in the compass of this plain, there are between 1000 often used to express the whole of the building, it is and 1500 villages, without reckoning those in the more particularly appropriated to this part of it. Al. mountains, all adorned with pleasant gardens, and though a vast number of ages have elapsed since the planted with shady trees. The entrance of this plain foundation, 15 of the columns yet remain entire ; they on the west side has received as much grandeur from are from 70 to 80 feet in height, and are masterly pieces nature, as the city it covers could do from industry or of masonry: their pedestals are curiously worked, and art. It consists of a range of mountains steep and high, appear little injured by the hand of time. The shafts four leagues in length, and about two miles broad, form- are enfluted up to the top, and the capitals are adorned ing two flat banks, with a rising terrace in the middle, with a profusion of fretwork. the summit of which is perfectly plain and even, all of “ From this ball you proceed along eastward, until native rock. In this there are such openings, and the you arrive at the remains of a large square building, to terraces are so fine and so even, that one would be which you enter through a door of granite. Most of tempted to think the whole the work of art, if the great the doors and windows of this apartment are still standextent, and prodigious elevation thereof, did not con- ing; they are of black marble, and polished like a vince one that it is a wonder too great for aught but mirror : on the sides of the doors, at the entrance, are nature to produce. Undoubtedly these banks were the bas-reliefs of two figures at full length; they represent very place where the advanced guards from Persepolis a man in the attitude of stabbing a goat: with one took post, and from which Alexander found it so diffi- hand he seizes bold of the animal by the horn, and cult to dislodge them. One cannot from hence descry thrusts a dag ger into his belly with the other ; one of the ruins of the city, because the banks are too high to the goat's feet rests upon the breast of the man, and be overlooked ; but one can perceive on every side the the other upon his right arm.

This device is common
ruins of walls and of edifices, which heretofore adorned throughout the palace. Over another door of the same
the range of mountains of wbich we are speaking. On apartment is a representation of two men at full length;
the west and on the north this city is defended in the behind them stands a domestic holding a spread um-
like manner : so that considering the beight and even- brella: they are supported by large round staffs, ap-
ness of these banks, one may safely say that there is not pear to be in years, have long beards, and a profusion of
in the world a place so fortified by nature.

bair upon their beads.
The mountain Rehumut, in the form of an amphi- “ At the south-west entrance of this apartment are
theatre, encircles the palace, which is one of the no- two large pillars of stone, upon which are carved four
blest and most beautiful pieces of architecture remaining figures; they are dressed in long garments, and bold in
of all antiquity. Authors and travellers bave been ex- their hands spears 10 feet in length. At this entrance
ceedingly minute in their descriptions of those ruins ; also the remains of a staircase of blue stone are still vi-
and yet some of them have expressed themselves so dif- sible. Vast numbers of broken pieces of pillars, shafts,
ferently from others, that, had they not agreed with and capitals, are scattered over a considerable extent of
respect to the latitude and longitude of the place, oue ground, some of them of such enormous size, that it is
would be tempted to suspect that they bad visited diffe- wonderful to think how they could have been brought
rent ruins. These ruins have been described by Gar- whole, and set up together. Indeed, every remains of
cias de Silva Figueroa, Pietro de la Valle, Chardin, Le these noble ruins indicate their former grandeur and
Brun, and Ms Francklin. We shall adopt the descrip- magnificence, truly worthy of being the residence of a
tion of an intelligent traveller. The ascent to the co- great and powerful monarch.”
lumns is by a grand staircase of blue stone containing These noble ruins are now the shelter of beasts and
· 104 steps.

birds of prey.

Besides the inscriptions above mention-
" The first object that strikes the beholder on his en- ed, there are others in Arabic, Persian, and Greek. Dr
trance, are two portals of stone, abont 50 feet in height Hyde observes, that the inscriptions are very rude and
each ; the sides are embellished with two sphinxes of an clumsy ; and that some, if not all of them, are in praise
immense size, dressed out with a profusion of bead- of Alexander the Great; and therefore are later than
work, and contrary to the usual method, they are repre- that conqueror. See the article Ruins.
sented standing. On the sides above are inscriptions in PERSEVERANCE, in Theology, a continuance in
an ancient character, the meaning of which no one bi- a state of grace to a state of glory.
therto has been able to decypher.

About this subject there has been much controversy
“ At a small distance from these portals you ascend in the Christian church. All divines, except Unitari.
another flight of steps, which lead to the grand hall of ans, admit, that no man can be ever in a state of grace.
eolumns. The sides of this staircase are ornamented without the co-operation of the spirit of God; but the
with a variety of figures in basso relievo; most of them Calvinists and Arminians differ widely as to the nature
have vessels in their hands : here and there a camel ap- of this co-operation. The former, at least such as call
pears, and at other times a kind of triumphal car, themselves the true disciples of Calvin, believe, that those
made after the Roman fasbion; besides these are se- who are once under the influence of divine grace can
veral led horses, oxen, and rams, that at times inter- never fall totally from it, or die in mortal sin. The
yene and diversify the procession. At the head of the Arminians, on the other hand, contend, that the whole
staircase is another basso relievo, representing a lion of this life is a state of probation ; that without the
seizing a bull; and close to this are other inscriptions grace of God we can do nothing that is good ; that the
in ancient characters. On getting to the top of this Holy Spirit assists, but does not overpower, our natural


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