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in the cultivation est, to give the necessar. What is
German pers on these manner is the to bark the
in the cultivation of such wood ? 2. Can any means be devised, and what are the casiest, to give the necessary form and degree of flexibility to the timber without injuring it? 3. What is the fittest time for cutting the trees? 4. Is it beneficial to bark the trees before they are cut ; and in what manner is the operation to be performed ?
The papers on these questions may be written either in Danish, German, English, or French, and must be transmitted to the Society at Copenhagen before the month of O&tober 1800.
The Public will judge of the importance of this question by the length of time which is judiciously given for its due consideration. Description of an HYDRAULIC MACHINE, invented by Monsieur
Danzel, for making a Vessel or Boat advance in a Calm, or even .- against a Current.
The mechanism of this hydraulic machine is extremely simple: it consists of a long pole, to the advanced extremity of which an apparatus, in the shape of a drawer, without back or front, is fixed in such a manner that, when impelled forwards, it folds itself back
under the pole, and presents to the water the thin cutting surface of - its three edges, viz. the bottom and two sides of the apparatus, shaped
like a drawer. When the pole, after being pushed forwards from the vessel is drawn back, the machine attached to it will assume a -vertical position to the surface of the water; and by presenting its cavity, will press and resist the fluid infinitely more than a number of oars, while the re-action is less laborious. .
We understand there is now on the river Thames a vessel having an apparatus constructed on principles somewhat similar to the above ; and made to work in a calm or against a current by means of steam,
SKETCH OF THE STATUTES
THE several acts of parliament passed on different occasions for
the increase and encouragement of seamen in his Majesty's Navy, have greatly tended to augment the marine force of this realm; upon which the security of these kingdoms, and the support and preservation of their trade and commerce do immediately depend,
The increasing strength of our Navy having at different times made many additional alterations necessary, to the simple system originally established in its infancy for the payment of seamen's wages ; and the several acts passed in the reigns of King William, Queen Anne, and George the First, having been found by experience in a great measure ineffe&ual to answer the benevolent purposes of protection and encouragement for which they were intended, it therefore, in the year 1758, excited the attention of Mr. Grenville, then Treasurer of the Navy, to prepare a bill for the consideration of parliament, which had for its object the repealing of former acts respecting the payment of seamen's wages in the Navy *, and consolidating more efficaciously the benefit and protection for which they were intended : as well as establishing some new regulations which time and circumstances appeared necessary to suggest. This bill accordinglyįpassed into a law, and is entitled, “ An Act for the Encouragement of Seamen employed in the Royal Navy, and for establishing a regular Method for the punctual, frequent and certain Payment of their Wages, and for enabling them more easily and readily to remit the same for the Support of their Wives and Families, and for preventing Frauds and Abuses attending such Payments.” By this act Seamen, either at home or on foreign service, were provided with the means of remitting by bill a part of their wages for the support of their wives and families. Tickets were made out and transmitted to the Navy Office, which enabled their relations to receive immediately the wages of such as died abroad. Such modes were prescribed for witnessing the powers made by Seamen, as were expected to put a stop to fraud and forgery; and the great object of all the regulations which it established and embraced, appears to have been to remove the difficulties, delays, and disappointments, which Seamen and their representatives encountered prior to that period in recovering the wages to which they were justly entitled. This act accordingly became the foundation of the system upon which Seamen's wages have since been paid. But after the experience of many years, more especially towards the conclusion of the late war, it was found, that the mode established for making and witnessing powers of attorney, and the want of proper regulations respecting Seamen's wills, were insuficient to guard against imposition and forgery; which for some years after the conclusion of the war had become so much the practice among Seamen, that sums to a large amount were annually paid to fictitious authorities; by which the public suffered in the first instance, and in the second individuals, who incurred heavy expences in proving the existence of forgeries in order to substantiate their own claims. Seamen were oppressed and disgusted by the disappointments they experienced, on finding their wages paid to those who had no authority from them; and the facility with which impositions wyere pra Aised, was the occasion of many persons suffering public
punishments, hy tempting them to commit frauds which appeared casy in the execution, To remove these evils a bill was in the year 1786, introduced into parliament by Mr. Dundas, establishing specific modes for executing Wills and powers of attorney in every situation in which a Seaman could be placed, and appointing an officer expressly for the purpose of examining and enquiring into the authenticity of these instruments : this was entitled *,~" An Ad for the further preventing Frauds and Abuses attending the Payment of Wages, Prize Money, and other Allowances due for the Service of Petty Officers and Seamen on board any of his Majesty's Ships." The regulations contained in this Act relative to making Wills and powers were easy in the execution, and by the experience of upwards of twelve years have been found nearly complete in their effect, having effectually stopped that system of fraud and imposition which had wasted the public money, distressed individuals, and created much discontent and dissatisfaction among the inferior classes of the Navy. Mr. Dundas, upon longer acquaintance with the different modes of payment practised in his office, found that the manner of witnessing seamen's Wills and powers was not the only point in which the act of 31 Geo. II. 6. 10. would admit of being amended; but by the effect of proper regulations a wide field was left for improvement, and much was still possible to be added to the comfort and convenience of Seamen and their families, without increasing the expences of the public.
With these laudable impressions Mr. Dundas, in the Session of 1792 + brought forward three separate bills, which, from the liberal and benevolent objects of improvement they embraced, met with no difficulty in passing. The first was entitled [, “ An Act for explaining and amending an Act passed in the 26th Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, and for further extending the Benefits thereof to Petty Officers and Seamen, Non-commissioned Officers of Marines, and Marines serving, or who may have served on board any of his Majesty's Ships ;" the principal objects of which are,ist. Extending to marines serving in the Navy the liberty of remitting a part of their wages to their families ; to allow them the privilege of being paid by tickets, and other advantages afforded by the act of 31 Geo. II. to Seamen only: 2d. Enabling Seamen who may be removed abroad from one Ship to another, and perhaps afterwards to a third or forrth, to receive upon their arrival at any port in England, where wages are paid, all the pay to which they are entitled for their past services; to empower such as are disabled in the Service to receive their pay from
26 Geo. III. 6.
+ 32 Geo. III.
Stat. 32 Geo. III.
the revenue officer nearest to the place where they arrive, or where they reside, without obliging them to travel, as has hitherto been the case, from a remote part of the kingdom to London, to Portsmouth, to Plymouth, or to Chatham ; and without making them wait till the arrival of the different ships in which they had successively served, which might be often kept on foreign service for many years ; enabling them likewise to receive their pay, without waiting for the return of their ships, if left on shore at hospitals : 3d. To stop the practice too common with officers of the Navy, of anticipating their pay, by assigning to agents and others, not only such part as was due at the time of the transaction, but also such as they expected to receive for their future services ; thereby extending to officers a principle which had been applied by the Act 31 Geo. II. to Seamen only: 4th. To stop the practice of taking Seamen out of the service by fraudulent arrests, still continued, notwithstanding the regulations of former acts: by those acts Seamen were exempted from arrests for any sum under 201 ; they were trusted therefore till their debts exceeded that amount, and then imprisoned; by purposely granting fictitious notes also, and procuring themselves to be arrested thereon, Seamen often avoided going on particular duties, to the detriment of the public service.
The second, entitled, “An Act for explaining and amending an Ad passed in the 26th Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, and for further extending the Benefits thereof to Petty Officers and Seamen, Non-commissioned Officers of Marines, and Marines serving, or who may have served, on board any of his Majesty's Ships." The objects of this A& relate principally to the wives, the families, and relations of Seamen, enabling them in the most remote situations to receive their allowances from the public, without the assistance or interference of agents or attorneys; and by making the money pass immediately from the public purse into the hands of the party entitled thereto, to put a stop to the heavy deductions and abatements which are almost always made when a third person is employed : this is done by means of remittances, and is also an extension of a principle introduced by former acts. Under the regulations of this A4, the widow, the child, the father, or other relation, the person entitled by will, or even the fair creditor of deceased Seamen, who have served in the Navy, has only to make application by letter to the Treasurer of the Navy, stating his connexion or relation to the deceased, and the nature of his expectations from his estate ; and desiring that all the wages and allowances due may be remitted to him, at whatever place he finds most convenient. No acquaintance with the proceedings or forms of office is necessary. In consequence of the first application
the necessary papers and vouchers are sent to be executed ; and as soon after as the steps for examination can be taken, and the justness of the claim is admitted, a Bill is sent for the clear balance due, payable by the revenue officer most convenient to the party, without fee, deduction, or abatement. This Act establishes several regulations long found necessary and secretly practised in the payment of the Navy, in order to prevent desertions ; but which, having no other authority than the practice of office, were incapable of being enforced ; and likewise some salutary regulations relative to the more certain and speedy payment of prize money, and other regulations.
The third Act* extends the benefits of all the former acts to Seamen and their families who reside in Ireland, gives them the same powers of remitting wages and pensions to themselves and families, and puts them in every respect upon the same footing with Seamen and their families who reside in Great Britain.
The last Act passed on this occasion, (which, while it is most beneficial to the interest of that invaluable class of men for whose benefit it was proposed, combines the wisest policy with that humanity, liberality, and gratitude, for which Great Britain has ever been distinguished towards her brave defenders, ) is entitled, “ Aa Act for carrying into Execution his Majesty's Order in Council of the 3d day of May 1797, for an Increase of Pay and Provisions to the Seamen and Marines serving in his Majesty's Navy ; and to amend sa much of an Act made in the 35th Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, as enables Petty Officers and Seamen, Non-commissioned Officers of Marines, and Marines, to allot Part of their Pay for the Maintenance of their Wives, Children, or Mothers.”
This act is founded upon his Majesty's Order in Council for an increase to the allowance of wages and provisions for the petty officers, Seamen, landsmen, and marines ; and for a continuation of the pay of all petty officers, Seamen, landsmen, and marines, who may hereafter be wounded in a&tion with the enemy, until their wounds shall be healed, or some other provision shall be made for them. By the first clause of this Act the following additions are made to the wages. --viz, five shillings and sixpence per month in addition to the wages of the petty officers and able Scamen; an addition of four shillings and sixpence per month to the wages of landsmen; and to the marines when embarked and serving on board his Majesty's Ships, the allowances usually called consolidated allowances, made to marines when serving on shore-viz. co serjeants, corporals, and drummers, at the rate of two-perce, and to privates at the rate of twopence farthing per day; and with sespect to provisions, the full a lowance is to be issued to the crews of