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occurs after the Gospel), and the Priest recited a collect Post other books of the use of Sarum were formally adopted for the precen,

whole province of Canterbury by an act of Convocation. Not. "Then the Deacon proclaimed to the catechumens to depart, but withstanding the variations that had so long existed in the ritual whether any previous prayers were made for them seems doubt- customs of different districts and dioceses, it must not be supful. Germanus speaks of its being an ancient custom of the posed that these variations extended to any essential matters. On Church to pray for catechumens in this place, but his words do the contrary, there was a distinct generic identity, which showed Rot absolutely prove that there were particular prayers for them that all were, in reality, local forms of one great national rite, in the Gallican Church, and no other author refers to the custom, that rite itself being a branch of one great Catholic system; and as far as I am aware. The catechumens, and those under peni- this was especially the case with the Communion Office or Liturgy. tential discipline, having been dismissed, silence was again en- The substance of the Salisbury Liturgy is given in the Appenjoined, and an address to the people on the subject of the day,

dix to the Communion Office, but it is necessary to give some and entitled Præfatio, was recited by the Priest, who then account of it here to show the manner in which the Church of repeated another prayer. The oblations of the people were next England celebrated the Holy Communion from A.D. 1080 to A.D. received, while the choir sang an offertory anthem, termed sonum 1549. Many further illustrations of it, and of the other English by Germanus. The elements were placed on the holy table, and uses, as well as of the connexion between them and our present covered with a large and close veil or pall, and in later times Communion Office, will be found in the subsequent notes. the Priest here invoked the blessing of God on the gifts.

The Mediæval Liturgy of the Church of England was made * Then the tablets called diptychs, containing the names of the up, like all others, of the two great divisions which are called in living and departed saints, were recited, and the Priest made a the Eastern Church the Pro-Anaphora and the Anaphora, and in collect, post nomina.' Then followed the salutation and kiss of the Western Church, the Ordinarium and the Canon; the former peace; after which the Priest read the collect, 'ad pacem.' The part ending with the Sanctus, the latter part beginning with the mystical liturgy now commenced, corresponding to the Eastern Prayer of Consecration and Oblation. prosphora,' or 'anaphora,' and the Roman preface and canon. The first portion of the Ordinary consisted of the hymn “Veni It began with the form 'sursum corda,' &c., and then followed Creator," the Collect, Almighty God, to whom all hearts be the preface, or thanksgiving, called 'contestatio,' or 'immolatio,' open,” the forty-third Psalm, “Give sentence with me, O God," in which God's benefits to the human race were variously com- the lesser Litany and the Lord's Prayer, all of which were said mernorated; and at the proper place the people all joined in sing. in the vestry while the Celebrant was putting on his albe, ing the hymn Tersanctus.

chasuble, &c. The public part of the service began with the " The thanksgiving then continued in the form called 'post “Officium,” or Introit, of which many examples are given in the sanctus,' which terminated with the commemoration of our notes to the Epistles and Gospels, and which was sung (in the Saviour's deed and words at the institution of this sacrament. manner described at p. 71) while the Celebrant and his ministers afterwards the Priest recited a collect entitled 'post mysterium,' were going from the vestry to the altar. After this followed the of 'post secreta, probably because the above commemoration Confession and absolution, said as at Prime and Compline, and was not committed to writing, on account of its being esteemed as described in a note at p. 5, the Gospeller and Epistoler taking to have great efficacy in the consecration. The collect, post part with the choir in the alternate form used. This mutual mysterium,' often contained a verbal oblation of the bread and

confession of unworthiness was sealed with a kiss of peace given wine, and an invocation of God to send His Holy Spirit to by the Celebrant to the Deacon and Sub-deacon', and burning sanctify them into the sacraments of Christ's body and blood. incense having been waved before the altar by the former, the After this the bread was broken, and the Lord's Prayer repeated

“Gloria in Excelsis” was sung (except at certain seaso

asons) as the by the Priest and people, being introduced and concluded with solemn commencement of the rite. The Mutual Salutation (see appropriate prayers, made by the Priest alone.

p. 22] was then said, and after that the Collect of the Day, the " The Priest or Bishop then blessed the people, to which they Epistle and Gospel, and the Nicene Creed. The Gospel was premerered, Amen. Communion afterwards took place, during ceded by a procession with singing [the Gradale], somewhat which a psalm or anthem was sung. The Priest repeated a

similar to the “little entrance” of the Eastern Church (p. 148], collect of thanksgiving, and the service terminated.”

and was generally read (in large churches) from the “Jube" or It was on this rite that the Eucharistic customs of the Church “pulpit," a desk placed between the cross and the chancel wall of England were founded, although they were plainly revised on the rood-loft. The Nicene Creed was followed by the Offerand altered at several periods, and in several dioceses ; as, for tory, the solemn Oblation of the Elements, short supplications example, by St. Augustine in the seventh century, and St. that the sacrifice might be acceptable to God for the living and Osinund in the eleventh.

the departed, and certain private prayers of the Celebrant, with

which the first part of the Service, or Ordinarium, may be said $ The Medieval Liturgy of the Church of England. to have ended. As, in the early Church throughout the world, there were

The Canon of the Mass was introduced by the Apostolic ver. various forms of the Liturgy, all having a substantial unity, so sicles, the Proper Preface, and the Tersanctus, which we still use while England was divided into several distinct districts, by in the same place; and then followed a long prayer, interspersed dialect and civil government, the form of Liturgy which was with many ceremonies, but substantially equivalent to the“ Prayer used in various parts of the country was affected by local circum- for the Church Militant,” the “Consecration Prayer,” and the stances; especially as each diocese had the right of adopting first " Thanksgiving Prayer” of our modern English Liturgy. (within certain limits) its own particular customs, or use

in This will be found given at length in the Appendix to the ComDivine Service, until the sixteenth century.

munion Office. Soon after the Conquest, however, about the year 1085, a The prayer of Consecration was not immediately followed by great liturgical successor of St. Gregory arose in the person of the Participation as in our modern Liturgy. First came the Osuund, Bishop of Salisbury, of whom we know little beyond Lord's Prayer, preceded by a short preface, and followed by a the fact that he revised the Breviary and Missal, and brought prayer for deliverance from all evil, analogous to the Embolismus both into a form which commended itself to a large portion of of the Eastern Church [p. 6]. Then came the Agnus Dei, the Church of England, and even to some foreign dioceses. There sung thrice, in the same manner as it is sung twice in the modern were, indeed, independent Breviaries and Missals of York, Here- Litany. After the Agnus Dei followed the ceremony of the comford, Bangor, Lincoln, and perhaps other churches; but those of mixture of the consecrated eleinents, by placing a portion of the Salisbury were the most generally used throughout the southern wafer into the chalice, in symbolical signification of the union of counties, and before the sixteenth century the Missal of that diocese came to be callel, in some editions, “Missale secundum

1 This is peculiar to the Sarum and Bangor rites, not being found in any usun Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ.” In 1541-2, the Missal as well as

other Liturgy in this part of the service.

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