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LETTER FROM HON. A. B. DICKINSON. evidence of a deep, porous soil, which no observing,
practical and experienced farmer would think of manurSuggestions about the Treatment of Diffe- ing in the fall for spring crops. I am satisfied that deep, rent Soils.
coarse, porous soils, will in no country retain manure LEON, Central America, March 1, 1862.
more than three or four years. Indeed, the manure is of MESSRS. Tucker & Son-Your valuable paper of 19th but little benefit on such soils after the second year, and December has been received, and was truly a welcome is principally exhausted the first. Therefore on all soils visitor, as it was the first I bad received since my arrival of this character, the manure should be put on with the in a country where such a thing as an agricultural paper growing crop, as the loss would generally be one-fourth,
and in some instances one half, by applying it the fall is unknown.
before. There are thousands of acres of land which have It is a singular fact that while more than one half of been exhausted by cultivation, and thrown out to the the whole male population of the globe are engaged in commons; and as cities and villages grow up in their agricultural pursuits, I have never yet seen an agricultu- neighborhood, and produce is increased in value, they ral journal for sale on steamboats, cars or other lines of have been reclaimed by lime and manure, and have travel, or at any place except at the offices where they yielded excellent crops for a year or two. But it has
soon been found that, not baving a bottom to retain are printed; and yet all of the above places (especially it in the surface soil, through which it leached with about in our own country) are flooded with political, religious, as much facility as through a sieve, they were a source of miscellaneous, and other papers of almost every descrip- more expense than profit, and so they have again been tion. Why should this be so while every body admits abandoned to their natural products—five finger and their utility, and while it is an admitted fact that all men poverty.grass. And this too between the two great com
mercial emporiums of the United States, New York and --particularly the politicians of all ages and of all count- Philadelphia. ries, have been the friends and advocates of the farmers ? Much of the land on Long Island, which is so valuable Indeed one might be led to suppose that their peculiar near the city, would not be worth a straw in Cayuga champion—the politician--understood the business of county for farming purposes; and yet, where it is, they agriculture much better than the farmers themselves. can afford to purchase manure and leached ashes by the
bushel, and carry them on their shoulders to spread both They are always ready to give them good advice.
fall and spring; and they can make more money by garWhy is it that agricultural journals, above all others, dening in this manner than the farmers of Seneca, Yates are not to be found in the market places? It is simply, and Livingston counties do on their naturally fertile and because no one calls for them. I have asked the news- enduring soils. boys a thousand times for an agricultural paper, and the And what do these facts teach? Simply this: know answer has always been-“I do not keep them, for no well your soil wherever it is ; cease quarreling with the one, or none but yourself, ever asks for them." Let ten Almighty, and use the land for the purposes for which or twenty men call for them every day, and they will be He made it. You will then cease to reverence the on hand as plenty as goose-yokes would be in a country teachings of Liebig, or follow in the wake of Way, and store if all the customers demanded them.
fall back on your own resources, and try to master the I also received Mr. LUTHER H. TUCKER'S Oswego unerring truths of Nature. County Address, for which I am much obliged. And Mr. Bartlett tells us there is a great saving by drawing while acknowledging the receipt of those, allow me to and spreading in the fall, as the expense of piling in answer a few of the erroneous teachings of one of your large heaps and reloading in the spring is no trifling job. old correspondents, to be found on page 397 of the cur- Nothing truer. But wherefore the necessity of drawing rent volume of the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN.
in the fall, and reloading in the spring? Does manure, Mr. Levi BARTLETT, in speaking of Mr. Thomas' recom- like wine, improve by long keeping? Are the farmers mendation to Cayuga County farmers, “to spread their of the country so rich, or their farms so profitable that manure for spring planting in the fall,” says:
they can afford to lay out of their interest for a year, as farmers, and whatever course in this method of applying manure is next spring's use ? Take your manure the same spring
"' I believe Mr. Thomas is correct in his advice to Cayuga County they must do if they hold their manure over till fall for profitable to the farmers of that county: win also be found equally so after it is made, and draw it out on any land where it
of States." Strange teaching this to new beginners who are look. should be drawn in spring, or can be without injury to ing for correct information as to the most economical the soil, and I will engage that it will pay more than ten mode of using the great renovator of soils, to say that per cent the first year, at any reasonable value you choose because the fall application is best in Cayuga County, to put upon it. Do you not believe that cight loads to where the surface soil is highly charged with lime and the acre, well spread on a thin meadow, would increase clay, resting on a tenacious subsoil within twelve or the quantity of hay from one-fourth to one-half of a ton eighteen inches of the surface, which holds all the leach- per acre? And it will do still more good if spread on a ings as safely as would a stone crock, it will also be found newly sowed crop seeded with grass. If the land is equally so to the farmers of other Counties and States. thin, the crop of oats or any other spring crop, will be
On all soils where manure does not waste, the earlier increased from 10 to 28 per cent.; and besides, the grassit is spread on the surface and incorporated into the soil, seed will be sure to take, and the hay will be increased the more benefit is derived from it. Where the field is at least as much more the next season. level, and contains an impervious subsoil, there can be The many unerring proofs which exhibit themselves to no waste, if no more is applied than the soil requires. It the observing, thoughtful, practical farmer in the various is much better and safer to apply on sod than on plowed kinds of soil, show the proper time for applying manures ground. Sueh tenacious soils, when once made rich, by in different countries, and not unfrequently that differ. good husbandry never grow any poorer. The benefit of ent mode of treatment is required on the same farm, the fall manuring in Cayuga, holds equally good in the most reasons for which are quite too numerous to explain in of Seneca and Yates counties, and in considerable por such a paper. Let one or two suffice on this occasion, tions of Ontario, Livingston, Genesee, Niagara, Orleans that new beginners may not mistake. and Erie. While most of the land in Cayuga would be On all tenacious soils, no matter what their composition benefitted by this system, I am not by any means certain may be, never apply manure when the ground is wet. that all the land in that county should be treated to a fall Nothing can be more injurious to such soils than driving dressing; for if I remember correctly, when traveling over and trampling them down while in such a condition. there some forty years since, the timber on portions of It crushes the life out of the soil, and packs it solid, so the Owasco flats, and the old Indian fields on Salmon that it bakes and chunks up when plowed ; and therefore creek, as well as some other localities, give unmistakable it is sometimes necessary to manure such soils in the fall
especially where the spring season is so short and wet the tubers for seed; still it is difficult to keep a number that there is not sufficient time to draw out and spread of kinds apart, which always ought to be done. the manure in time for planting.
I have quite a different experience to relate in regard On the other hand, some of the coarse, gravelly or to our cultivation of wheat. I have had to change seed sbale soils, or even the barren sands of Cape Cod, of every few years. We have found what we call the finer which Mr. B. speaks, are improved by driving over and kinds of white wheat, more apt to degenerate. By sow. trampling them when wet. I have but little doubt that ing three or four years, it will scarcely pass as white, those barren sands could be made productive by herding We have to get a new start from the north. I think we cattle on them a sufficient length of time in wet weather. are too far south to raise wbeat to perfection-latitude, The priucipal question to determine in that case would 38 north. Although the State of Kentucky is famed for be, whether it would not cost more than it would come producing fine crops of white wheat, I think it must be to. Much of the prairie land of the West, which he owing to the soil more than the climate, and should like thinks would have been as barren as those of Cape Cod, to hear from some of the farmers there how they manage if Liebig's theory was not correct (which I will endeavor to keep it of a fair color. 8. J. Gallipolis, o. to show the fallacy of in another communication,) is improved by herding cattle on it, as the traveller, if an ob
For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.]' serving one, will discover by seeing here and there a
THE COST OF RAISING CORN. most beautiful green spot covered thickly over with luxuriant white cloyer and blue grass, which are not to be We had always been surprised that western farmers found anywhere else on the prairie. If he will take the could raise corn at a profit at prices varying at from 16 to trouble to inquire, he will And that some herdsman has in by-gone times yarded his cattle there ; and if a practi- 30 cents per bushel; but the past year we kept án accal farmer he will soon take the bint that its fertility is curate account of the cost of our corn crop, and can easily not altogether chargeable to the manure which bas been believe that on the fertile and easily cultivated lands of left there, but partly to trampling down of tbe light soil, the west, where horse power can be used instead of the which has given it greater compactness and tenacity than hoe, corn can be profitably raised at the above prices. the surrounding soil, and which in fact has changed its Our cornfield consisted of three acres. It had been character, and made it congenial to other plants. mowed for three years previous—was strong, and required
On the other hand, the same treatment on a stiff tena- two yoke of oxen and two men to break it. cious soil, would drive out the very same plants, and to 4 day's work, plowing......
3 day's drawing manure with two men and team, bring in a different kind, the worthless May-weed for Spreading manure,. instance, that is seen growing on the road-side.
Chaining both ways,. Again, take two pieces on the same farm, and on the Three day's planting. same stiff adhesive soil as near as can be--sow a crop of Three pecks seed corn,. field turnips, or almost any other crop on one of them on Three hundred pounds of plaster, the same day in the morning when dry, and put on a flock
Cultivating both ways three times, of sbeep large enough to trample it thoroughly, and it Twelve day's work boeing three times, will improve the crop. Treat the other piece in precisely
Four day's work cutting,
Husking and drawing in corn and fodder.. the same manner until the crop is in; then let a shower Sixty loads manure at half price on account of future of rain come on it sufficient to saturate the soil, and then turn the sheep on and trample it down in the same way, and the crop is spoiled. On the other hand, if the soil
Corn fodder,..... should be very light and porous, the latter piece would be improved. Therefore the casual observer, by studying Three hundred and seventy bushels of ears at a cost of the simplest laws of nature, can determine where it is 27 cents per bushel shelled corn—showing that corn can best to apply manure in the fall, and where in the spring, be profitably produced even in this stony country. with the same certainty that he can tell which he should St. Lawrence Co., N. Y.
ST. LAWRENCE, Bet under his water-spont, bis basket or his barrel. A. B. DICKINSON,
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.]
MATCHING WORKING CATTLE. [For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) CHANGE OF SEED.
MESSRS. EDITORS–Observation has led me to the con
clusion that in matching working cattle the following are, I see the subject of changing seed has been discussed in the Farmers' Clubs this winter, and it is not my inten- of the same color, space between the eyes of equal width,
requisites, viz, : They should be of one age, of equal size, tion to say that a judicious change of seed is not some length of hair
, and also quality of hair as to coarse or times necessary, but merely to state a few facts in regard fineness, size of bone, thickness of skin, &c., &c., all of to my own experience. I have cultivated the white which should be as nearly as possible the same. Then, if Meshanoc potato for thirty-four years on the same farm, well broke, my word for it, you will bave a good pair of without any visible deterioration either in quantity or
cattle. quality. Our early patch in the garden has been raised above statements, we will call their attention to the follow
For the consideration of those who may doubt the on the same plot of ground without changing for thirty ing facts: Why is one animal white,
another black, this years, and never has failed to produce a good crop in all one red, that one spotted, one long-haired, another shortthat time. The ground was rich when I commenced, and haired, &c. ? Why this difference? Men may not agree bas been manured every spring since with stable manure. as to the cause of cattle varying so much in their appear
I bave one kind of corn that we have raised for thirty ance; but nevertheless the cause is a true one. And as successive years, and I would not exchange it for any a general rule when causes are alike, their effects will be other corn that I know of; but I would state that it re alike. Why are twin calves more likely to make an even quires the greatest care to prevent corn from deteriorating. pair of cattle than calves that are of no kin to each other ? It must be planted apart from other varieties; and more They are more likely to be fashioned alike in every rethan that, you must select your seed from corn that has speet. Hence their evenness. Like causes like effects, been raised on rich land, for it is just like cattle; it will Two animals of no more kin to each other than men of degenerate if not well fed. We have not confined our the present day are to Adam, if fashioned alike in every selves to the one kind of potatoes and corn. We have respect, will be as near alike in their dispositions as a pair tried various kinds, but consider it more trouble than of twins, and in one sense of the word would be twins. profit to keep them distinct, although we are not of that the same rule will apply to horses and other animals, number that believe that potatoes will bybridize by using' mankind not excepted.
G. P. SERVISS.
Total cost, .
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) results, we would continue to make use of this fact, as far How to Improve a Badly Run Farm. as circumstances will admit, by adopting a systematic
change or rotation of crops. There are many good and MESSRS. Editors—Having in a former article advised sufficient reasons besides those already given, in favor of those with limited means, to buy farms that were more or a rotation; but the readers of the Co. Gent. being famil. less run down, and stated that they would have to adopt iar with them, I shall proceed to consider what crops some course of improvement, by which the land may be should be included in a rotation for a badly run out farm.
Perhaps the best way to determine this question, will brought up and made productive, I will now proceed to be to consider what crops have been grown to impoverish point out the course that it will be best for them to pur- the land. But this has already been done to some ex
tent, in considering the necessity of a change of crops. The first and most important point to be considered Hence, having seen that the small grains have been the ånd attended too, is a general change of crops. Most be best to raise as little as possible of them, and find
principal crops raised in running down the land, it will farms that are run down, bave been under a long course
some other crops to take their place. of cropping with one or more of the different small grains, Now there is one crop that I have seldom, if ever, heard such as wheat, rye, barley or oats-one of these grains charged with wearing out, or even injuring land. True, generally being made a leading crop; in wheat sections, we sometimes hear of land becoming clover sick " in it is wheat, in other sections oats. And although rye and England. But I believe such cases are exceedingly rare, barley are raised to some extent, yet a large portion of if there are any at all, in this country, and more especial. badly run land has been mainly cropped with wheat or ly when plaster is sown on the clover, as it always should oats; while these crops are calculated to have as bad be on all but very rich lands. But on the contrary, while effect on land, and to give it a poor worn-out appearance clover never impoverishes land, it is seldom raised with as quick as perhaps any other crops ; though in reality it out improving the soil and putting it in a much better may not be so very badly run down for other crops, be state for other crops; and this improvement being much sides wheat and oats. Again, such land is generally not greater and more surprising on badly run land that has plowed more than four or five inches deep, consequently, been but seldom, if ever, clovered. Again, clover canthough the land may sooner appear to be worn out, yet be made a very profitable crop, as I hope to show when in reality it is only badly run to that depth. Hence a writing more in detail in regard to its cultivation. Now change of crops, and deep and thorough cultivation, may for these reasons, and many more, some of which may be be expected to produce excellent results.
given another time, clover should be the leading crop in This may be illustrated by relating a little of my own
bringing up land. experience. (And here let me say, I do not intend to
Next to clover I consider corn the best crop to grow in state or recommend anything in these remarks, that I do improving the soil. The reason for this opinion can be not consider warranted by my own experience or observa. easily made apparent to all, in this way. Who ever heard tion.). I commenced farming on a small place that had of land being run down where clover and corn were the been let to neighboring farmers,—no one residing on the principal crops; and these crops, made good by thorough place for many years, before it came into my hands.
and deep cultivation and manuring, were mostly consumed is often the case, all that was raised was taken off from, on the farm, as, of course, they should be? Such cases and nothing returned to the land. It had not been seed must be exceedingly rare, if indeed there are any. For ed down for a long time until
the spring before I bought my part, I have yet to meet with the first one. True, run it, it was seeded to clover. Wheat
' had been the princi- down land will not continue to produce as good crops for pal crop, alternating occasionally with oats—the last any considerable length of time after a change as it does crop, which was oats, only yielding some twelve or thirteen at first. Yet by raising clover and corn for the principal bushels per acre. It was so badly run out, that it was crops, and feeding a large portion of both on the farm, difficult to get any one to take it. The spring it came into the land may be constantly improving, and the crops after my possession, I planted six acres to corn and potatoes, the first and principal effect of a change is worn off, be the corn yielding at the rate of fifty bushels of shelled continually growing better. It is true that corn grown year corn to the acre, and the potatoes at the rate of 160 after year on the same field for a long time will on most bushels per acre. These crops were raised without any
soils run down the land. But when it is grown only once manure, except the clover sod of the previous spring's in four or five years, in a judicious rotation, and everything seeding, and were undoubtedly due to a change of crops, in relation to the crop well managed, the general effect deep plowing, and good cultivation. Nor was this all; and result will be altogether different. by making a general change of crops and management, But, though corn and clover should be the principal the land was not only made productive and profitable, crops, yet there should be some kind of grain sown after but the general appearance and credit of the place was corn to seed down with. What this should be may perbrought up and improved so much, that when I wished to haps be best determined in each particular section, regard sell and buy a larger farm, it sold for about double what being had not only to what would be likely to succeed it cost me. I have also pursued a similar course or change best, but also to the kind of grain that clover will take of crops on my present farm, which was considerably the best with, it being always important to get a good run down-with very satisfactory results.
seeding. There are many similar instances of the great benefit In considering the best way to improve a badly run of a change of crops, that have come under my notice, farm, I have not alluded to underdraining, for the reason but I can make room for only one or two. One is in re that a man commencing on such a farm, more or less in gard to a piece of rather poor hemlock land, that, as it debt, will have but little means or inclination to do any. was not considered very good wheat land, had been kept thing of the kind, but will rather choose to buy a farm that in spring crops some years, and as the owner said, "wanted may be improved without it. Still there may be instances Beeding down.". He said he did not expect much wheat, where it will best to buy land that needs underdraining. as it was not wheat land, and had been a going in spring In such cases due allowance should be made for it in crops some time and wanted rest; but that in order to purchasing, and sufficient money retained to pay at least get it in a good condition for meadow, and well seeded, some portion of the expense. he was going to summer fallow and sow it to wheat." As good and deep cultivation and manuring, which Yet that field gave 30 bushels per acre, which was an ex- should include a liberal use of plaster and ashes, have been tra crop for that kind of land. In another instance, the frequently alluded to, it will not be necessary in concluding, same kind of land that had been badly run to spring to do more than merely state that while they are very imcrops, was sown to wheat on oat stubble, and gave over portant on all farms, no one need ever think to succeed 20 bushels per acre.
for any length of time on badly worn land without giving Having shown that a chang; of crops produces good both the strictest attention. And that, as a general change
in the course of cropping and manner of cultivation will where the thermometer stood at 10 degrees below zero, give good crops on the start; 80 these crops should be so Fahrenheit. managed and used as to give the largest amount of ma
It will be seen at once that this hive is adapted to the nure that it may be practical to make, thus making good movable combs, the fixtures of glass boxes and wooden covers, erops add largely to the amount of manure, which in turn and all the appliances of improved bee-keeping, quite as well
as those made of wood. will add to the amount of crops, and this course followed up, will be sure, sooner or later, to make a good produc- inner surface of such a hive with an inpervious coating of
It may be objected that the bees will very 200n cont the tive farm. F. Orleans Co., N, Y.
propolis, thus preventing the absorption of moisture. Grant
ing both this to be true and that it could not be easily reme(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) died, the advantage of an even temperature would remain. HOW TO DESTROY RED ANTS.
Bui if the inside of the hive should chance to be coated as
thoroughly as supposed, the frames being movable could MESSRS EDITORS-J. H. F. inquires how to destroy " those easily be taken out and the propolis taken off the straw by ants.” I conclude from his description of them, they are if this could not be done, since winter is the time when the
scraping, scratching or scalding with hot water. And even what are called the red ant. I would say to him, and to all hive should be most nearly closed to retain the animal heat, others who are troubled, with those little torments, that the straw top would then be used, which would, probably, of thousands of them can be destroyed a day by putting walnut itself, afford sufficient ventilation. meats on pieces of paper and placing them in their trails. When a goodly number bave gathered on the meats (of
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) which they are very fond,) carry thein on the paper and burn them. This can be repeated several times a day. My
THE HONEY BEE. , house was literally over-run with these little pests a few years since, but by perseverence, my wife destroyed them to
Inexperienced bee-keepers will be interested to know that effectually, that we have not seen one of the little intruders many swarms are destroyed, and many others greatly injurfor the last two years.
L. South Hadley. ed, by neglecting timely to remove from the bottom board of We have no doubt but that the method above recommend the hive, the cappings of their winter stores and young brood, od will prove entirely successful ; but if our correspondent and the bees which die in winter--which, together with the cannot procure walnut meats, a piece of fresh meat, or any moisture from the condensed vapor in the hive, as it settles thing which will draw the ants to it, will answer the same into this mass, forms a compound too well adapted to mold purpose. The only requisite is that the remedy he con- the comb with which it comes in contact, or close the door tinued so long as any of the ants appear. The bait should and suffocate the bees. It is true the combs become mouldy be placed where the ants are most numerous, and it will bas- in many hives which have not been thus neglected, but this is ten their destruction by placing it in different apartments a very common cause, and easily prevented. Combs which where they congregate largely.
are but slightly mouldy are not materially injured.
It is a mystery to many bee-keepers even, why many HOW TO MAKE STRAW HIVES.
swarms continue year after year, without producing either
surplus honey, or a sufficient, number of bees to swarm. In the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN of Jan. 16, p. 50, we pub- Some, however, attribute such unproductiveness to a superalished an article from a correspondent of the Dollar News- bundance of drone comb, or of bee. bread (pollen) in the
brood combs. But I am gatisfied that it should as often be paper on the advantages of straw bives. The writer, in con- attributed to mouldy combs destroying to greater or less exclusion, promised to furnish a few plain directions for making tent brood combs. And as bees, in common with other instraw hives, which he had seen in use the past year. These seots, are short lived, one limited generation of bees might directions are as follows:
follow another for an indefinite period, without profit or bet
ter prospect. I do not claim that my plan for a straw hive adapted to
The best course to pursue with such swarms, that I know improved bee-keeping, is the best that can be devised. I do pot say that it is the best that has been given to the public, of, is to transfer them with such portions of comb
as is suitabut since it is cheap, simple, and free from the suspicious ble, and that worker brood comb only, to a new hire in early prefx of patent, (Would it not be claimed under the Lang: spring, or drive them in swarming time. stroth patent on account of the movable frames ?] it is the obtained from the flowers of the soft maple. Often, as early
The first bee food in spring of much importance (here,) is more confidently submitted for what it is worth. Take strips of pine or other soft wood, an inch thick by Hy to the woods, this food is supplied in abundance. But as
in spring as the weatber is sufficiently warm that bees can two inches wide, and make two rectangular frames, balving the corners together and keeping the wider surfaces in the this food, (pollen) is principally for the young brood, (though same plane. These frames must be of the same size, and of not less important,) such swarms as are short of honey will dimensions according to the size of the hive required. Lay still need to be fed. 1. 1. East Shelby, N. Y. one of them on the bench before you and nail to it upright
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) strips of lath of length corresponding to the height of the hive, the lower ends being even with the lower surface of the
MADAGASCAR RABBITS. frame as it lieg. These uprights must be pailed on both inside and outside, and about four inches apart. Now take These beautiful pets, sometimes called Lop-Eared Rabbits, long clean straw, previously wet, and lay it between the up- do not receive the attention their good qualities entitle them right pieces of lath, bending it round the corners in such a to. They are much the largest and the most beautiful of all way as to make the walls of the bive. Having pressed the the rabbit family. Their flesh is far superior to that of the space full, lay the second frame upon the straw directly over the first, nail the upper ends of the lath to it, and the hive, wild rabbit, and better than the filesh of the common domestic with the exception of the top, is done. Such a hive should rabbit. I think they should be bred oxtensively by the poor have two tops, movable, of course, as in all movable-comb class as an article of food, for they can be easily raised at a hives; one of wood an inch thick, to be used during the trifling expense, requiring to be fed only on coarse and cheap gathering of surplus honey, and the other of straw for spring, food. They occupy but little space, breed often, and come fall
, and winter. This straw top may be made on the same early to maturity, when full grown frequently weighing from principle as the hire. Make a frame of proper size, and two bfteen to twenty pounds. Their skins, when tanned, make inches deep; nail pieces of lath on the under side, sinking beautiful robes, their colors boing bandsomely variegated. them in so as to leave a level surface; fill in above them with As fine a rabbit may be raised in a dry goods box, placed in straw and bind it down with lath Dailed abovo, crosswise, some shed or corner of the yard, as those raised in a warren from side to side. It will be unnecessary to leave any pas costing fifty or one hundred dollars. I would in no way dissages for ventilation, and as the thin wood top is to be used courage the raising of these rabbits as a matter of fancy, for in the honey season, no holes are necessary in the straw top the breeding of them is a pleasant and instructive amuseto communicate between the boxes and the hive. Such ment for children, and to follow the rabbit through all the bives, with no ventilation but that afforded by the porous different periods of life, from the time it is deposited in its absorptive inags of straw on the sides and the top, were downy best until it arrives at ma:urity, is one of the most found free from frost on tho combs and in fine condition pleasant observations of the Naturalist. S. P. KEATOR
MANAGEMENT OF THE BLACKBERRY. only to destroy weeds, but also to break up the surface, At the late meeting of the Illinois Hort. Society, c. which soon becomes baked and hard under the joint in
fluence of sun and rain, Merritt of Battle Creek, Mich., said he had been very successful with the New Rochelle—had an acre of the should be tied to neat painted sticks, which should be pre
All tall growing plants, or those with tall flower stems, plants, but they needed winter protection. This he ac
pared in large quantities of all sizes during seasons of complished by first cutting out the bearing shoots, when leisure. Herbaceous plants of the large sorts should bave with the help of two men with spades he laid down the their stems loosely tied together, or else heavy storms will whole in a day. The earth is loosened with a rake on the beat and break down the outside stems. side towards which they are to be laid down, when they
All flowers and leaves which have begun to decay should are pushed over with the rake, and the two men throw on be immediately removed, unless seeds are wanted, in earth, and a little rough litter is added. They are plant- which case only the dying petals of the flowers should be ed six feet apart, and cultivated each way. They are taken away. staked in spring. “Before laying down in autumn," says
Climbing plants should have trellises or strings to run the owner, “I cut off the main stalk nearly down to upon the moment they begin their growth, and those sorts where it bends over, and the side branches to fifteen or which will not run should be tacked to the wall or fence eighteen inches. Where there is no snow, I would cover with neat strips of leather. the stalk. Last spring when I got ready to plow, I found
All annuals which have finished their bloom should be I had only about half enough canes on the acre. I ma- removed, and early flowering herbaceous plants may be Pured in June with a wheel-barrow load to every two bills. cut down to the ground as soon as the flowers have faded, They were a "sight” when they blossomed. The crop when they will probably make a second growth and bloom. was estimated at from 100 to 150 bushels, and I am con
Straggling shoots in shrubs should be at once cut out, fident was not less than 100. I picked 60 bushels, and
Many more rules might be given for the proper care of sent them to this market; brought $4.50 to $5 per bushel. the garden, but the above are sufficient. The vigilance Four stalks in a hill are enough. I sell the sprouts or cut of the cultivator will at once detect the want of neatness them down. I thick from 120 to 150 bushels can be in any department of the garden, and will remedy it. raised on an acre. Some of the ground I mulched with
G. B. H. cut cornstalks, which was an improvement. My soil is a
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) gravelly sánd with loam, sub-soil gravelly and open, but not leachy. The berries were uniform in size, except in
ONIONS vs. MAGGOTS. the last of the season."
MR. EDITOR-In common with every farmer in this Novices should understand that summer pruning is in vicinity, I have suffered severely in the cultivation of most instances essential to success, that is, pinching off onions, from the ravages made by maggots. I made the leading stem when 34 or 4 ft. high, to induce the several experiments which were attended with little or growth of side branches, which also must be pinched off, no success, until I hit upon the following expedient: if they extend far--the object being to produce that short I took about two quarts of tar, put it in a kettle, and stubby growth which best favors fruitfulness. Boys who poured six or eight quarts of boiling water into it; let it pick wild blackberries at the east, have often observed stand till cold, then took a common watering pot, stopping that such bushes as the cows have browsed partly down, up all the holes in the filterer save one, and filled it with are loaded with berries; and this summer pruning is on this tar water; when the onions came up, I applied it
, the same principle, although in not quite so rough a style. I continued its application throughout the season, and the
running a small stream of the water along on each row.
result was I did not lose an onion. NEATNESS IN THE FLOWER GARDEN.
Last season, having much other business to attend to, The principal characteristic of the flower garden should neglected to apply it but two or three times, and I lost
probably one twentieth of the crop. I am confident that be neatness. No matter how much may be expended on this is a sure preventive, and would recommend every new and beautiful plants or how great the number of farmer to try it. It is simple, and does not 'retard the flowers, yet if neatness be neglected, the effect of the growth of the onion.
LEVI REMICK. whole is spoiled in the eyes of all persons who have been
Kittery, York Co., Maine, accustomed to see well kept gardens. A beautiful flower
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] ing plant may have all its loveliness destroyed by the re
NUTTING'S ROOT CUTTER. mains of dead flowers or decaying leaves, or a fipe speci. men may be devoid of attraction for want of a little care
MESSRS. L. TUCKER & SON-On page 107, Feb. 13, and attention in tying up or training. The lawn may be 1862, "COUNTRY GENT.,” is a communication from R. robbed of its beauty by allowing the grass to remain un- NUTTING, relative to his "New Root Cutter.” On reading cut until it more resembles a luxuriant meadow than an the article I enclosed the price to D. Odiorne, Randolph ornamental portion of the flower garden, whose chief Vt. The Cutter was forwarded - I was disappointed, and beauty consists in a smooth, closely shaven sward with a on receiving it at the R. R. Depot, would have sold out velvet-like surface. So too, rambling, straggling shrubs, at less than cost, but being no purchasers there, I took it climbers with no provision of strings or trellis
, walks fill-home-tried it, and changed my mind. I would not sell
it for four times its cost if I could not procure another of ed with weeds, borders foul with grass and noxious plants, the same kind. are all unsightly to a person with a true perception of the It cuts very fast-cuts in curved pieces which are left proper keeping of the garden.
in a broken condition, so that no animal could choke with The walks should be always kept free from weeds, and them; but does not cut quite so thin as Mr. Nutting says neatly raked. If grass edgings are used, they should be it will -- which I presume is accounted for by the fact, as kept neatly pared.
they wrote me, that my cutter is not so good as the aver. The borders should be frequently hoed and raked, not age, being the last one on hand at the time.
W. J. MORRIS