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orefer open warfare, and I assure you I have had capital sport. That you may be acquainted with some of these wildfowl, I will just mention the birds I have shot here within the last three weeks, beginning with the godwit; their names in French are from my recollection of BufTon.

The Godwit. Common Godwit, la grand barge. Red Godwit, la barge rousse. Cinereous Godwit, {Bewick). Cambridge Godwit, {Latham). Green-shanked Godwit, la barge varUe. Red-legged Godwit, le chevalier rouge. Redshank, le chevalier aux pieds rouges.

Sandpiper: Ruffs and Reeves, le combattant. Green Sandpiper, le bicasseau, ou cul

blanc Common Sandpiper, la guignette. Blown Sandpiper, (Beioick.) Dunlin, la brunette. Ox-eye, Valouette de mer. Little Stint, la petite alonette de mer,

(Brisson) &c. &c.

Curlew, la courles.
Whimbiel, le petite courles.

Common, le heron hupe.
Bittern, le butor.
Little Bittern, le blongois.

The common Wild Duck, le canard sau-

vage. Gadwell, or Gray, le chipeau. Widgeon, le canard siffleur. Pochard, penelope, le millovin. Pintail, le canard a longue queue. Golden-eye, le garrot. Morillon, le morillon. Tufted Duck, le petit morillon. {Brisson.) Gargany, la sarcelle. Teal, la petite sarcelle.

If you were here you should have a "gentleman's recreation," of the most delightful kind. Your propensity to look for " old masters," would turn into looking out for prime birds. The spotted red-shanks, or barkers, as they are sometimes called, would be fine fellows for you, who are fond of achieving difficulties. They come in small flocks, skimming about the different ponds into which they run to the height of the body, pick

ing up insects from the bottom, and looking as if they had no legs. They are excessively wary, and above all, the most difficult to get near. Confound all * black letter" say I, if it keeps a man from such delightful scenes as I have enjoyed every hour since I came here; as to pictureloving—come and see these pictures which never tire by looking at. I like a good picture though myself, and shall pick up some prints at Paris to put with my others. You may be certain therefore of my collecting something for you, after the birds have left, especially wood cuts. I shall accomplish what I can in the scrap and story-book way, which is not quite in my line, yet I think I know what you mean. In my next you shall have something about lark-shooting, which, in England, is nothing compared with what the north of France affords.

I am, &c.



White Cedar. Cuprestus thyoides. Dedicated to St. Olympias.

Mtttmbtr 18.

SU. Rufus and Zozimut, A. n. 116. St. Gatian, 1st. Bp. of Tours, 3d. Cent. St Winebald, A. D. 760.


Fault was found because a newspaper commenced a police-office report of one of the humane endeavours of the warmhearted member for Galway, in behalf of the proverbially most patient of all quadrupeds, by saying, " Mr. Martin came to this office with another ass." Ridicule, however, never injures a just man with the just-minded; Mr. Martin has been properly supported in every judicious effort by public opinion.

The notice of the all-enduring ass, in former pages, occasions a letter from a gentleman, (with his name) whose researches have been directed to the geographical and natural history of foreign countries. In this communication he re- fers to a work of considerable interest relative to Africa, which it may be important for inquirers regarding the interior of that region to be acquainted with.

To the Editor of the Every-Day Book.

Sir. November 29, 1825.

The facetious Tiny Tims, in your

Every-Day Book, of the 19th of Septemoer, (p. 1309.) cites the amusing and accurate Leo Africanus, as asserting " that asses may be taught to dance to music." This is an error. Leo, in his description of Africa, (Elzevir edition, 1632. p. 749.) says. "I saw in Cairo a camel dance to the sound of a drum, and as the master told me, this is the mode of teaching: a young camel is selected and placed for half an hour in a place prepared for him of about the size of a stove, the pavement of which is heated by fire. Some one then, outside the door, beats the drum, and the camel, not on account of the music, but of the fire by which his feet are hurt, lifts first one leg then another, after the manner of a dancer, and after having been thus trained for ten or twelve months, he is led into public, when, on hearing the drum, and remembering the burning of his feet, he immediately begins to jump, and thinking himself to be on the same floor, he raises himself on his hind legs, and appears to dance; and so, use becoming second nature, he continues to do."

The only ass described by Leo, is the ass of the woods, found only in the desert or its borders. It yields to the Barb, or Arabian, (Leo says they are the same,) in swiftness, and is caught with the greatest difficulty. When feeding, or drinking, he is always moving.

A word more about the camel. He is of a most kind and mild nature, and partakes in a manner of the sense of man. If, at any time, between Ethiopia and Barbary (in the great desert) the day's journey is longer than ordinary, he is not to be driven on by stripes (or beating,) but the driver sings certain short songs, by which the camel being allured, he goes on with such swiftness, that no one is able to keep up with him.

When I open this highly valued book, I never know when to close it; and, indeed, the less at this time, when we are all on tip-toe with respect to Africa.

Now it does appear strange to me, that not one word has been said, either by the travellers, or those who have traced them, about this little work. One reason may be, that it has never been wholly translated into English. It is called by Hartman, (who has been deemed the ablest editor of these oriental authors,) a golden book, which had he wanted, he should as frequently have wanted light. The author, who was a man of a noble

family and great acquirements, had been at Tombuto twice at least. Once he accompanied his father on his embassy from the king of Fez to that city, and afterwards as a merchant. This must have been at the very beginning of the sixteenth century, for he finished this work at Rome, the 5th of March, 1526. He describes Tombuto, as well as Bornou, and Cano, and many other of the Negro kingdoms with great minuteness, and with respect to the Niger, (which, like the Nile, rises, falls, and fertilizes the country,) he says, that its course is from the kingdom of Tombuto towards the west as far as Ginea or Jinnea, and even Melli, which joins the ocean at the same place where the Niger empties itself into the sea. He also says, that at Cabra, which is situate on the Niger, about twelve miles from Tombuto , the merchants sailing to Ginea or Melli, go on board their vessels.

Moore, who resided as a writer and factor under the African company, at the mouth of the Gambia, about five years, and in 1738, published his travels, describing the several nations for the space of six hundred miles up that river, concludes that river and the Niger to be the same. In this work will be found an English translation from the Italian, of parts of Leo's work.

Jackson is a coxcomb, who copies without acknowledgment. He fancies the Niger runs backwards, and joins the Nile, after which they most fraternally run into the Mediterranean.

I am, &c.



New Holland Cyprus. Cupretsui Au»


Dedicated to St. Wtnebald.

Semnbtr 19.

St- Nemetion, &c, A. n 250. St. Sans. thana, Abbess, A.d. 738.


By the contemplation of the " shining heavens" at this season, the mind is induced to the solemn thinking, beautifully imagined by the greatest and most wayward poet of our age.

A Starlight Winter Night.

The stars are forth, the moon above the top,

Of the snow-shining mountains.—Beautiful 1

I linger yet with Nature, for the night

Hath been to me a more familiar face

Than that of man; and in her starry shade

Of dim and solitary loveliness,

I learn'd the language of another world.

I do remember me, that in my youth,

When I was wandering,—upon such a night

I stood within the Coloseum's wall,

'Midst the chief relics of almighty Rome;

The trees which grew along the broken arches

Waved dark in the blue midnight, and the stars

Shone through the rents of ruin: from afar

The watchdog bayed beyond the Tiber; and

More near from out the Caesars' palace came

The owl's long cry, and, interruptedly,

Of distant sentinels the fitful song

Begun and died upon the gentle wind.

Some cypresses beyond the time-worn breach

Appeared to skirt the horizon, yet they stood

Within a bowshot—where the Caesars dwelt,

And dwell the tuneless birds of night, amidst

A grove which springs through levell'd battlemen

And twines its roots with the imperial hearths,

Ivy usurps the laurel's place of growth ;—

But the gladiators' bloody Circus stands,

A noble wreck in ruinous perfection!

While Cesar's chambers, and the Augustan halls,

Grovel on earth in indistinct decay.—

And thou didst shine, thou rolling moon, upon

All this, and cast a wide and tender light,

Which softened down the hoar austerity

Of rugged desolation, and fill'd up,

As 'twere, anew, the gaps of centuries;

Leaving that beautiful which still was so,

And making that which was not, till the place

Became religion, and the heart ran o'er

With silent worship.



Two-coloured Heath. Erica bieolor.
Dedicated to St. Samthana.

JDf ttIXlbtl' 20. According to fabulous history, the vir

tues of the hot springs at Bath, were dis8t Philogonitu, Bp. of Antioch, A. o. covered long before the christian era, by 322. St. Paul, of Latrus, or Lalra, B'adud, a British prince, who having A. D. 956. been driven from his father's house be

cause he was leprous, was reduced like The Bath season, the prodigal gon to keep swine. His

Mr. Foster's letter, inserted on the 17th pigs, says the story, had the same disease

instant, occasions the seasonable recol- as himself; in their wanderings they came

lection, that this is the time when, in to this valley, and rolled in the mud where

fashionable language, " every body" goes these waters stagnated; and healed them.

to Bath. Whereupon prince Bladud, attaining

"to the height of this great argument," tried the same remedy with the same success, and when he became king, built a city upon the spot—the famous city of Bath.


Beau Nash, the founder of the theatre at Bath, made laws to regulate when and where the company should assemble, and when they should separate; arranged the tactics of the dance; enacted the dress in which ladies should appear; and, if they ventured to disobey, whatever was their rank, turned them back. His strong sense and sarcastic humour, being supported by a prevailing sense of propriety, kept offenders of this sort in awe. It has been said that such a man in old times, would have been selected for the king's fool; he seems to have considered himself in that relation to the Bath visiters, and made use of the privilege the character allowed him. He lived on the follies of mankind, and cultivated them. He gambled, and his profits and his office required and enabled him to live expensively, sport a gay equipage, and keep a large retinue. Yet he became old and helpless, and lived to need that charity which he had never withheld from the needy, but which none extended to him. He died poor, neglected, and miserable; and the inhabitants of Bath rewarded his services and genius, in the usual manner; they erected a statue to the honour of the man whom they had suffered almost to starve.

His loss, to the assemblies was exem

?lined in a very remarkable manner, 'wo ladies of quality quarrelled in the ball-room. The company took part, some on one side, some on the other: Nash was gone, and his successor in office did not inherit his authority: the partizans as well as the combatants became outrageous, a real battle-royal took place, and caps, lappets, curls, cushions, diamond pins, and pearls, strewed the floor of those rooms, wherein during Nash's time order was supreme.


Stone Pine. Pintu Pinea. Dedicated to St. Philogonin*.

23mmbn* 21,

St. Thomas, the Apostle. St. Edburge.

This apostle is in the church of England calendar and almanacs. He is affirmed to have travelled and promulgated Christianity among the Parthians, Medes, Persians, and Carmenians, and to have been the apostle of the Indies; where he effected numerous conversions, and by his preaching raised the indignation of the Bram ins, who instigated the people against him till they threw stones and darts at him, and ended his life by running him through the body with a lance.

It is said that the body of the apostle was carried to the city of Edessa. On the discovery of Malabar, by the Portuguese, they found' there the Nestorian christians of St. Thomas, whom they treated as heretics, and held a council, which passed decrees for their purgation. Yet many of the Malabarians still maintain the Nestorian doctrines and ceremonies, and refuse to acknowledge the authority of the pope.

Ribadeneira pretends that on the eve of Christmas, in the church of St. Thomas at Malabar, a stone cross commences to shed blood as soon as the Jesuits begin to say mass, "and not before." He says, "The holy cross also begins, by little and little, to change its natural colour, which is white, turning into yellow, and afterwards into black, and from black into azure colour, until the sacrifice of the Mass being ended, it returns to its natural colour: and that which augments both admiration and devotion is, that, as the holy cross changes its colours, it distils certain little drops of blood, and by little and little they grow thicker, until they fall in so great abundance that the clothes with which they wipe it are dyed with the same blood: and if any year this miracle fail, it is held as a certain sign of great calamity that is to come upon them, as experience has shown them." Perhaps it is further miraculous, that in a country where there is liberty of thought and speech, and a free press, no stone cross will do the like

ST. Thomas's Day.

Going a gooding on St. Thomas's day formerly prevailed in England. Women begged money, and in return presented the donors with sprigs of palm and branches of primroses.* Mr. Ellis says, "this practice is still kept up in Kent, in the neighbourhood of Maidstone." Mr. Brand adds, "My servant B. Jelkes, who is from Warwickshire, informs me that there is a custom in that county for the poor on St. Thomas's day to go with a bag to beg com of the farmers, which they call going a corning."


In London, on St. Thomas's day, wardmotes are held for the election of the inquest and common councilmen, and other officers, who are annually chosen for the service and representation of the respective wards.

It is a remarkable fact that the majority of the inhabitants, in many wards, are indifferent to these elections, and suffer their ample franchise to run to waste, like housewives who are careless of their serviceable water; hence important offices are frequently filed by persons either ignorant of the duties they should discharge, or indifferent to them, or unqualified to understand them.

The Ward Inquest: From "An Inquiry into the Nature and Duties of the Office of Inquest Jurymen," by Mr. Thomas Newell, of Cripplegate Ward, published in 1825, it appears that the ward inquest should be elected on St. Thomas's day, before the common councilmen are elected, inasmuch as "the alderman is commanded by his precept from the lord mayor, to give all the articles of the precept in charge to the inquest; which they cannot take charge of unless they are elected first." It is now the common practice of wardmotes, to elect the inquest last. This has arisen, perhaps, from what may be called, in the ordinary sense of the word, the "political" importance usually attached to the election of the common councilmen, and by this means the inquest, though foremost in power, has been degraded in rank, and sunk into comparative insignificance. Withal it is to be observed, that the inquest, with the aldermen, are the returning officers of the election of the common councilmen; so that where the practice prevails of electing the inquest last, such inquests are in fact constituted too

• n«ntlrra«n'i Mifuine, April, 17M.

late to take cognizance, as an inquest, of the election of the common council, and such inquests are consequently incompetent upon their oaths, as inquest men, to return the common councilmen as having been truly and duly elected.

It appears further, that another extraordinary inroad has been made in Loodon, upon the right of the wardmote inquests to return the jurors to serve in the mayor's and sheriffs' courts of the city. By some by-law or order of the court of aldermen, that court claims to exercise this most important and ancient right of the wardmote inquests ; and issues a precept to the alderman of each ward, requiring him to acquaint the inquest " that they are not hereafter to intermeddle or concern themselves in the making of the said returns." This mandate is said to be conformed to at this time by all the inquests; so that the court of aldermen seems to have obtained the inquests to surrender their right to nominate the juries in the city courts, without a strugele. If the proceedings of the court of aldermen were illegal, it is clear that each alderman, in his own ward, illegally dispossessed each inquest of its right, and then, exercised their usurped power when they met together as a court of aldermen.

From the elections in each ward on this day, the citizens are all in a hurry, and there is much discussion at the few remaining clubs and tavern parlours in the different parishes, concerning the qualifications of the respective candidates. All freemen, being householders, are entitled to vote.

floral Directory.

Sparrowwort. Erica passerine.

Dedicated to St. Thomas, Apostle.

9t amber 22.

5/. Ischyrion, A. D. 253. Sts. Cyril axd Methodius, A.d. Mt.

Clark, the Miser of Dundee.

On the 22d of December, 1817, died, at Dundee, aged sixty-six, Thomas Clark, a labouring man, who, by dint of parsimony and saving, had accumulated property to the amount of from 800/. to 1000/. before his death. There are perhaps few authenticated instances of endurance which this person did not voh.n

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