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equal and our brother? The history of the times clearly | from office, and to fill their places with bold, able, and show that our fathers dia not regard the African race as true men, and to cause a thorough and searching invesany kin to them, and determined so to lay the foundation rigation into all the crimes and enormities which are of society and government that they should never be of alleged to be perpetrated daily in that Territory, under kin to their posterity. (Immense applause.)

the direction of Brigham Young and his confederates But, when you confer upon the African race the privi- aud to use all the military force necessary to protect leges of citizenship, and put them on an equality with the officers in the discharge of their duties, and to en. white men at the polls, in the jury-box, on tlie benon, in force the laws of the land. (Applause.) the Executive chair, and in the councils of the nation, When the authentic evideuce shall arrive, if it shall upou what principle will you deny their equality at the establish the facts which are believed to exist, it will be. festive board and in the domestic circle ?

come the duty of Congress to apply the knife and cut The supreme Court of the United States have decided out this loathsome, disgusting ulcer. (Applause.) No that, under the Constitution, a negro is not and cannot temporizing policy-no halfway measures will then anbe a citizen.

swer. It has been supposed by those who have not The Republican Abolition party pronounce that decision thought deeply upon the subject, that an act of Con. cruel, inhuman and infamous, and appeal to the Ameri- gress prohibiting murder, robbery, polygamy, and other can people to disregard and refuse to obey it. Let us crimes, with appropriate penalties for those offences, join issue with them, and put ourselves upon the country would afford adequate remedies for all the enormities for trial. (Cheers and applause.)

complained of. Suppose such a law to be on the sta

tute book, and I believe they have a criminal code, proCONDITION OF AFFAIRS IN UTAH, AND THE

viding the usual punishment for the entire catalogue of REMEDY.

crimes, according to the usages of all civilized and

Christian countries, with the exception of polygamy, Mr. President, I will now respond to the call which has which is practised 'under the sanction of the Mormon been inade upon me for my opinions of the condition of Church, but is neither prohibited nor authorized by the things in Utah, and the appropriate remedies for existing laws of the Territory. evils,

Suppose, I repeat, that Congress should pass a law The Territory of Utah was organized under one of the prescribing a criminal code, and punishing polygamy acts known as the Compromise Measures of 1850, on the among other offences, what other effect would it havesupposition that the inhabitants were American citizens, what good would it do? Would you call on twenty-three owing and acknowledging allegiance to the United States, grand jurymen, with twenty-three wives each, to find a and consequently entitled to the benefits of self-govern- bill of indictment against a poor miserable wretch for ment while a Territory, and to admission in the Union having two wives ? (Cheers and laughter.) Would you on an equal footing with the original States, as soon as call upon twelve petit jurors, with twelve wives they should number the requisite population. It was each, to convict the same loathsome wretch for having conceded on all hands, and by all parties, that the pecu- two wives ? (Continued applause.) Would you expect Jiarities of their religious faith and ceremonies interposed a grand jury composed of twenty-three “ Danites” to no valid and constitutional objection to their reception find a bill of indictment against a brother “ Danite " for into the Union, in conformity with the Federal Constitu- having murdered a Gentile, as they call all American tion, so long as they were in all other respects entitled to citizens, under their direction ? Much less would you admission. Hence, the great political parties of the expect a jury of twelve "destroying angels" to find country indorsed and approved the Compromise Mea- another "destroying angel" guilty of the crime of mursures of 1850, including the act for the organization of the der, and cause him to be hanged for no other offence Territory of Utah, with the hope and in the confidence than taking the life of a Gentile ? No! If there is any that the inhabitants would conform to the Constitution truth in the reports we receive from Utah, Congress may and laws, and prove themselves worthy, respectable and pass whatever laws it chooses ; but you can never rely law-abiding citizens. If we are permitted to place cre- upon the local tribunals and juries to punish crimes comdence in the rumors and reports from that country (and mitted by Mormons in that Territory. Some other and it must be admitted that they have increased and more effectual remedy must be devised and applied. In strengthened and assumed consistency and plausibility by my opinion, the first step should be the absolute and each successive mail), seven years' experience has dis- unconditional repeal of the organic act-blotting the closed a state of facts entirely different from that which Territorial Government out of existence – upon the was supposed to exist when Utah was organized. These ground that they are outlaws, denying their allegiance rumors and reports would seem to justify the belief that and defying the authorities of the United States. (Imthe following facts are susceptible of proof.

mense applause.) 1. That nine-tenths of the inhabitants are aliens by The Territorial Government once abolished, the counbirth, who have refused to become naturalized, or to try would revert to its primitive condition prior to the take the cath of allegiance, or to do any other act recog- act of 1850, " under the sole and exclusive jurisdiction nizing the Government of the United States as the para- of the United States," and should be placed under the mount authority in that Territory.

operation of the act of Congress of the 30th of April, 2. That all the inhabitants, whether native or alien 1790, and the various acts supplemental thereto and born, known as Mormons, (and they constitute the whole amendatory thereof, “providing for the punishment of people of the Territory), are bound by horrid oaths and crimes against the United States within any fort, arsenal terrible penalties, to recognize and maintain the autho-dockyard, magazine, OR ANY OTHER PLACE OR DISTRICT rity of Brigham Young, and the government of which he OF COUNTRY, UNDER THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE jurisdic. is the head, as paramount to that of the United States, tion of the United States." All offenses against the in civil as well as in religious affairs; and that they will, provisions of these acts are required by law to be tried in due time, and under the direction of their leaders, and punished by the United States Courts in the States use all means in their power to subvert the government or Territories where the offenders shall be “FIRST APPREof the United States, and resist its authority.

TIENDED OR BROUGHT FOR TRIAL." Thus it will be seen 3. That the Mormon government, with Brigham Young that under the plan proposed, BRIGHAM Young and his at its bead, is now forming alliance with Indian tribes confederates could be " apprehended and brought for in Utah and adjoining territories-stimulating the In. trial,” to lowa or Missouri, California or Oregon, or to dians to acts of hostility-and organizing bands of his any other adjacent State or Territory, where a fair trial own followers under the name of “ Danites, or Destroy- could be had, and justice administered impartiallying Angels,” to prosecute a system of robbery and where the witnesses could be protected and the judg. murders upon American citizens, who support the ment of the court could be carried into execution, withauthority of the United States, and denounce the in-out violence or intimidation. I do not propose to introfamous and disgusting practices and institutions of the duce any new principles into our jurisprudence, nor to Mormon Government.

change the modes of proceeding or the rules of practice If, upon a full investigation, these representations in our Courts. I only propose to place the district of shall prove true, they will establish the fact that the country embraced within the Territory of Utah under Mormon inhabitants of Utah, as a community, are out the operation of the same laws and rules of proceeding, laws and alien enemies, unfit to exercise the right of that Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota and our other Terri. self-government under the organic act, and unworthy to tories were placed before they became organized Terri. be admitted into the Union as a State, when their only tories. The whole country embraced within these Terriobject in seeking admission is to interpose the sov- tories was under the operation of that same system of ereignty of the State, as an invincible shield to protect laws, and all the offenses committed within the same them in their treason and crime, debauchery and in- were punished in the manner now proposed, so long as famy. (Applause.)

the country remained “under the sole and exclusive Under this view of the subject, I think it is the duty jurisdiction of the United States;" but the moment the of the President, as I have no doubt it is his fixed pur-country was organized into Territorial Governments, pose to remove Brigham Young and all his followers with legislative, executive and judicial departments, it ceased to be under the sole and exclusive jurisdiction money; or, if purchased for a post-office, it must be of the United States, within the meaning of the act of governed under the power to establish post offices and Congress, for the reason that it had passed under another post-roads ; or, for a custom-house, under the power to and a ditferent jurisdiction. Hence, if we abolish the regulate commerce; or for a court-house, under the Territorial Government of Utah, preserving all existing judiciary power. In short, the clause in the Constitution rights, and place the country under the sole and exclusive under which any land or territory belonging to the jurisdiction of the United States, offenders can be ap- United States must be governed, is indicated by the prehended and brought into the adjacent States or Ter- object for which it was acquired and the purpose for ritories for punishment, in the same manner and under which it is dedicated. So long, therefore, as the organic the same rules and regulations which obtained and act of Utah shall remain in force, setting apart that have been uniformly practiced under like circumstances country for a new State, and pledging the faith of the since 1790.

United States to receive it into the Union as soon as it If the plan proposed shall be found an effective and should have the requisite population, we are bound to adequate remedy for the evils complained of in Utah, / extend to it all the rights of self-government, agreeably no one, no matter what his political creed or partisan to the clause in the Constitution providing for the ad. associations, need be apprehensive that it will violate mission of new States. Hence the necessity of repealing any cherished theory or constitutional right in regard the organic act—withdrawing the pledge of admission, to the government of the Territories. It is a great and placing it under the sole and exclusive jurisdiction mistake to suppose that all the territory or land belong of the United States, in order that persons and property ing to the United States must necessarily be governed may be protected, and justice administered, and crimes by the same laws and under the same clause of the punished under the laws prescribed by Congress in such Constitution, without reference to the purpose to which cases. it is dedicated or the use which it is proposed to make of While the power of Congress to repeal this organic act it; while all that portion of the country which is or shall and abolish ihe Territorial Government cannot be denied, be set apart to become new States, must necessarily be the question may arise whether we possess the moral governed under and consistent with that clause of the right of exercising the power, after the charter has been Constitution which authorizes Congress to admit new once granted and the local government organized uuder States, it does not follow that other territory, not its provisions. This is a grave questiva-one which intended to be organized and admitted into the Union should not be decided hastily, nor under the influence of as States, must be governed under the same clause of passion or prejudice. I am free to say that in my opinion the Constitution, with all the rights of self-government there is no moral right to repeal the organic act of a Ter. and State equality. For instance, if we should purchase ritory, and abolish the government organized under it, Vancouver's Island from Great Britain for the purpose unless the inhabitants of that Territory, as a cominunity, of removing all the Indians from our Pacific territories have done such acts as amount to a forfeiture of all rights and locating them on that island as their permanent under it-such as becoming alien enemies, outlaws, dishome, with guaranties that it should never be occupied avowing their allegiance, or resisting the authority of or settled with white mëň, will it be contended that the the United States. These, and kindred acts, which we purchase should be made and the island governed under have every reason to believe are daily perpetrated in that the power to admit new States when it was not acquired Territory, would not only give us the moral right, but for that purpose, nor intended to be applied to that make it our imperative duty to abolish the Territorial object? Being acquired for Indian purposes and applied Government, and place the inhabitants under the sole to Indian purposes, it is not more reasonable to assume and exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, to the end that the power to acquire was derived from the Indian that justice may be done and the dignity and authoriiy clause, and the island must necessarily be governed under of the Government vindicated. and consistent with that clause of the Constitution which I have thus presented plainly and frankly my views of relates to Indian affairs. Again, suppose we should deem the Utah question-the evils and the remedy-upon the it expedient to buy a small island in the Mediterranean facts as they have reached us, and are supposed to be or the Carribean Sea for a naval station, can it be substantially correct. If official reports and authentic said with any force or plausibility that the purchase information shall change or modify these facts, I shall be should be made or the island governed under the power ready to conform my notion to the real facts as they shall to adinit new States ? On the contrary, is it not obvious be found to exist. I have no such pride of opinion as that the right to acquire and govern in that case is de will induce me to persevere in an error one moment after rived from the power “to provide and maintain a navy,' my judgment is convinced. If, therefore, a better plan and must be exercised consistently with that power. So, can be devised-one more consistent with justice and if we purchase land for forts, arsenals, or other military sound policy, or more effective as a remedy for acknow. purposes, or set apart and dedicate any territory which ledged evils, I shall take great pleasure in adopting it, in we now own for a military reservation, it immediately lieu of the one I have presented to you to-night. passes under the military power and must be governed In conclusion, permit me to express my grateful acin harmony with it. So if the land be purchased for a knowledgments for your patieni attention and the kind and mint, it must be governed under the power to coin respectful manner in which you have received my remarks.

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SPEECH OF MR. DOUGLAS. On the 16th of January, 1860, Mr. Douglas rely, thate a conspiracy of formidable extent, in means and

I have information from various quarters, upon which I submitted to the United States Senate the fol. numbers, is formed in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New-Yo:k, and lowing Resolution :

other States, to rescue John Brown and his associates, pri

soners at Charleston, Virginia. The information is specific Resolved, That the Committee on the Judiciary be in- enou to be reliable » structed to report a bill for the protection of each State

“Places in Maryland, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, have been and Territory of the Union, against invasion by the occupied as depots and rendezvous by these desperadoes, un authorities or inhabitants of any other State or Territory;

obstructed by guards or otherwise, to invade this Stale, and

we are kept in continual apprehension of outrage fra fire and for the suppression and punishment of conspiracies and rapine. I apprise you of these facts in order that you or combinations in any State or Territory with intent to may take steps to preserve peace between the States." invade, assail, or molest the government, inhabitants, property, or institutions of any other State or Territory states, on the 28th of November, returned a reply, from

To this communication, the President of the United of the linion.

which I read the following sentence: This Resolution, coming up as a special order

"I am at a loss to discover any provision in the Constitution on the 23d of January,

or laws of the United States which would authorize me to take steps for this purpose.'

.'" (That is, to preserve the peace Mr. Douglas said: Mr. President, on the 25th of Novem: between the States.] ber last, the Governor of Virginia addressed on official communication to the President of the United States, in

Mr. Douglas argued at considerable length, to which he said:

prove that the Constitution does provide for the protection, by the Federal Government, of each England against the lives of the princes of France. I State against invasion from any and all sources, States. I predicate my argument upon the Constitution

shall not argue the question of comity between foreign and continued :

by which we are governed, and which we have sworn to The question then remaining is, what legislation is, obey, and dewand that the Constitution be executed in necessary and proper to render this guaranty of the good faith so as to punish and suppress every combinaConstitution effectual? I presume there will be very tion, every conspiracy, either to invade a State or to little difference of opinion that it will be necessary to molest its inhabitants, or to disturb its property, or to place the whole military power of the Government at the subvert its institutions and its government. I believe disposal of the President, under proper guards and this can be effectually done by authorizing the United restrictions against abuse, to repel and suppress invasion States courts in the several States to take jurisdiction of when the hostle force shall be actually in the field. But, the offense, and punish the violation of the law with sir, that is not sufficient. Such legislation would not be appropriate punishments. a full compliance with this guaranty of the Constitution.

It cannot be said that the time has not yet arrived for The framers of that instrument meant more when they such legislation. It cannot be said with truth that the gave the guaranty. Mark the difference in language Harper's Ferry case will not be repeated, or is not in between the provision for protecting the United States danger of repetition. It is only necessary to inquire into against invasion and that for protecting the States. the causes which produced the Harper's Ferry outrage, When it provided for protecting the United States, it said and ascertain whether those causes are yet in active Congress shall have power to *repel invasion."' When operation, and then you can determine whether there is it came to make this guaranty to the States, it changed any ground for apprehension that that invasion will be the language, and said the United States shall protect" repeated. Sir, what were the causes which produced the each of the States against invasion. In the one instance, Harper's Ferry outrage ? Without stopping to adduce the duty of the Government is to repel; in the other, the evidence in detail, I have no hesitation in expressing my guaranty is that they will protect. In other words, the firm and deliberate conviction that the Harper's Ferry United States are not permitted to wait until the enemy crime was the natural, logical, inevitable result of the shall be upon your borders ; until the invading army doctrines and teachings of the Republican partý, as shall have been organized and drilled and placed in march explained and enforced in their platform, their parwith a view to the

invasion ; but they must pass all laws tisun presses, their pamphlets and books, and espenecessary and proper to insure projection and domestic cially in the speeches of their leaders in and out of tranquillity to each State and Territory of this Union Congress. (Applause in the galleries.) against invasion or hostilities from other States and Ter. And, sir, inasmuch as the Constitution of the United ritories.

States confers upon Congress the power coupled with Then, sir, I hold that it is not only necessary to use the the duty of protecting each State against external military power when the actual case of invasion shall aggression, and inasmuch as that includes the power of occur, but to authorize the judicial department of the suppressing and punishing conspiracies in one State Government to suppress all conspiracies and combina- against the institutions, property, people, or govern. tions in the several states with intent to invade a State, ment of every other State, I desire to carry out that or molest or disturbits government, its peace, its citizens, power vigorously. Sir, give us such a law as the Conits property or its institutions. You must punish the stitution contemplates and authorizes, and I will show conspiracy, the combination with intent to do the act, the Senator from New York that there is a constitutional and then you will suppress it in advance. There is no mode of repressing the “irrepressible conflict." I will principle more familiar to the legal profession than that open the prison doors to allow conspirators against the wherever it is proper to declare an act to be a crime, it is peace of the Republic and the dom.stic tranquillity of proper to punish a conspiracy or combination with intent our Stutes to select their cells wherein to drug out a to perpetrate the act. Look upon your statute-books, miserable life as a punishment for their crimes against and I presume you will find an enactment to punish the the peace of society. counterfeiting of the coin of the United States; and then another section to punish a man for having counterfeit This system of sectional warfare must cease.

Mr. President, the mode of preserving peace is plain.

The Concoiu in his possession with intent to pass it;

and another stitution has given the power, and all we ask of Congress section to puni.h him for having the molds or dies or in- is to give the means, and we, by indictments and con: struments for counterfeiting, with intent to use them. victions in the Federal courts of our several States, will This is a familiar principle in legislative and judicial pru- make such examples of the leaders of these conspiracies ceedinge. If the act of invasion is criminal, the conspiracy to invade should also be made criminal. If it be there will be an end of this crusade. Sir, you must

as will strike terror into the hearts of the others, and unlawful and illegal to invade a State, and run off fugi- check it by crushing out the conspiracy, the combinative slaves, why not make it unlawful to form conspiracies tion, and then there can be safety. and cornbinations in the several States with intent to do the act? We have been told that a notorious man who has recently suffered death for his crimes upon the gal.

(A special committee of the Senate, of which lows, boasted in Cleveland, Ohio, in a public lecture, a Mr. Mason, of Va., was chairman, appointed to year ago, that he had then a budy of men employed in investigate the Harper's Ferry affair, ascertain running away horses from the slaveholders of Missouri: the cause of the raid, and report what laws, if and pointed to a livery stable in Cleveland which was full of the stolen horses at that time.

any, were necessary to prevent a repetition, I think it is within our competency, and consequently reported near the close of the session, that our duty, to pass a law making every conspiracy or coni- the committee were unable to discover that bination in any State or Territory oi this Union to invade another with intent to steal or run away property of any any persons were either directly or indirectly kind, whether it be negroes, or horses, or property of any engaged in the invasion, other than John other description, into

another State, a crime, and punisi Brown and those who accompanied him to courts and confinement in the prisons and penitentiaries Harper's Ferry.] of the State or Territory where th conspiracy may be formed and quelled. Sir, I would carry these provisions WHAT POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY HAS DONE. of law, as far as our constitutional powers will reach. I would make it a crime to form conspiracies with a From Mr. Douglas' Speech in the Senate, May 16, 1860. viero of invading States or Territories to control elections, whether they be under the garb of Emigrant But, we are told that the necessary result of this docAid Societies of New England or Blue Lodges of Mis- trine of non-intervention, which, gentlemen, by way of suuri. (Applause in the galleries.) In other words, throwing ridicule upon it, call squatter sovereignty, is this provision of the Constitutions means more than the to deprive the south of all participation in what they mere repelling of an invasion when the invading army call the common Territories of the United States. That shall reach the border of a State. The language is, it was the ground on which the Senator from Misissippi (Mr. shall protect the State against invasior; the meaning of Davis), predicated his opposition to the Compromise which is, to use the language of the preamble to the Con. Measures of 1850. He regarded a refusal to repeal the stitution, to insure to each state domestic tranquillity Mexican law as equivalent to the Wilmot Proviso; a reagainst external violence. There can be no peace, there fusal to recognize by an act of Congress the right to can be no prosperity, there can be no safety in any com- carry a slave there as equivalent to the Wilmot Proviso; munity, unless it is secured against violence from abroad. a refusal to deny to a Territorial Legislature the right to Why, sir, it has been question seriously mooted in exclude Slavery as equivalent to an exclusion. He beEurope, whether it was not the duty of England, a power lieved at that time that this doctrine did amount to a foreign to France, to pass laws to punish conspiracies in denial of southera rights; and he told the people of

Mississippi so; but they doubted it. Now let us see how tor from Mississippi regards as hostile to the rights of the far his theory and suppositions have been verified. I South. Where did you ever get any other fruits that infer that he told the people of Mississippi so, for he were more palatable to your taste or more refreshing to makes it a charge in his bill of indictment against me, your strength? What other inch of Free Territory has been that I am hostile to southern rights because I gave those converted into Slave Territory on the American continent, votes.

since the Revolution, except in New Mexico and Arizona, Now, what has been the result? My views were under the principle of non-intervention affirmed at incorporated into the Compromise Measures of 1850, and Charleston ? If it be true that this principie of non-inter. his were rejected. Has the South been excluded from all vention has given to Slavery all New Mexico, which was the territory acquired from Mexico ? What says the bill surrounded on nearly every side by Free Territory, will from the House of Representatives now on your table, not the same principle protect you in the northern states repealing the slave code in New Mexico, established by of Mexico when they are acquired, since they are now surthe people themselves ?. It is part of the history of the rounded by Slave Territory; are several hundred miles country that under this doctrine of non-intervention, further South ; have many degrees of greater heat; and this doctrine that you delight to call squatter sove- have a climate and soil adapted to Southern products ? reignty, the people of Nero Mexico have introduced Are you not satisfied with these practical results ? Do and protected slavery in the whole of that Territory. you desire to appeal from the people of the Territories Under this doctrine, they have converted a tract of to the Congress of the United States to settle this quesFree Territory into Slave Territory, more than five tion in the Territories? When you distrust the people times the size of the State of Nero-York. Under this and appeal to Congress, with both houses largely against doctrine, Slavery has been extended from the Rio | you on this question, what sort of protection will you get? Grande to the Gulf of California, and from the line of Whenever you ask a Slave code from Congress to protect the Republic of Mexico, not only up to 36 deg. 30 min., your institutions in a Territory where the people do not but 24p to 38 deg.-GIYING YOU A DEGREE AND A HALF MORE want it, you will get that sort of protection which the SLAVE TERRITORY THAN YOU EVER CLAIMED. In 1848 and wolf gives to the lamb; you will get that sort of friendly 1849 and 1850, you only asked to have the line of 36 deg. hug that the grizzly bear gives to the infant. Appealing 30 min. The Nashville convention fixed that as its ulli- to an Anti-Slavery Congress to pass laws of protection, matum. I offered it in the Senate in August, 1848 and it with a view of forcing Slavery upon an unwilling and was adopted here but rejected in the House of Represen- hostile people! Sir, of all the mad schemes that ever tatives. You asked only up to 36 deg. 30 min., and non- could be devised by the South, or by the enemies of the intervention has given you Slave Territory up to 38 South, that which recognizes the right of Congress to deg., A DEGREE AND A HALF MORE THAN YOU ASKED ; touch the institution of Slavery either in States or Terriand yet you say that this is a sacrifice of Southern tories, beyond the single case provided in the Constitu. rights!

tion for the rendition of fugitive Slaves, is the most These are the fruits of this principle which the Sena- fatal.- Appendix to Congressional Globe, page 314




Delivered at Rochester, Monday,

Oct. 25, 1858.

FELLOW-CITIZENS : The unmistakable outbreaks of zeal this new continent as an engine of conquest, and for the which occur all around me, show that you are earnest men establishment of monarchical power, by the Portuguese and —and such a man am I. Let us, therefore, at least for a the Spaniards, and was rapidly extended by them all over time, pass by all secondary and collateral questions, South America, Central America, Louisiana, and Mexico. whether of a personal or of a general nature, and consider Its legitimate fruits are seen in the poverty, imbecility, and the main subject of the present canvass. The Democratic anarchy, which now pervade all Portuguese and Spanish party, or, to speak more accurately, the party which wears America. The free-labor system is of German extraction, that attractive name, is in possession of the Fe'leral Go- and it was established in our country by emigrants from vernment. The Republicans propose to dislodge that Sweden, Holland, Germany, Great Britain, and Ireland. party, and dismiss it from its high trust.

We justly ascribe to its influences the strength, wealth, The main subject, then, is, whether the Democractic greatness, intelligence, and freedom which the whole party deserves to retain the confidence of t'ie American American people now enjoy. One of the chief elements of people. In attempting to prove it unworthy, I think that the value of human life is freedom in the pursuit of happi. I am not actuated by prejudices against that party, or by ness. The slave system is not only intolerant, unjust, and prepossessions in favor of its adversary; for I have learned, inhuman toward the laborer, whom, only because he is a by some experience, that virtue and patriotism, vice and laborer, it loads down with chains and converts into mer. selfishness, are found in all parties, and that they differchandise, but is scarcely less severe upon the freeman, to less in their motives than in the policies they pursue. whom, only because he is a laborer from necessity, it de.

Our country is a theatre, which exhibits in full opera- nies facilities for employment, and whom it expels from tion, two radically different political systems; the one the community because it cannot enslave and convert him resting on the basis of servile or slave labor, the other on into merchandise also. It is necessarily improvident and the basis of voluntary labor of freemen.

ruinous, because, as a general truth, communities prosper The laborers who are enslaved are all negroes, or per- and flourish or droop and decline in just the degree that sons more or less purely of African derivation. But this they practice or neglect to practice the primary duties of is only accidental. The principle of the system is, that justice and humanity. The free-labor system conforms to labor in every society, by whomsoever performed, is nc- the divine law of equality, which is written in the hearts cessarily unintellectual, groveling, and base; and that the and consciences of men, and therefore is always and every. laborer, equally for his own good and for the welfare of where beneficent. the State, ought to be enslaved. The white laboring man, The slave system is one of constant danger, distrust, whether native or foreigner, is not enslaved, only because suspicion, and watchfulness. It debases those whose he cannot, as yet, be reduced to bondage.

toil alone can produce wealth and resources for defense, You need not be told now that the slave system is the to the lowest degree of which human nature is capable, older of the two, and that once it was universal.

to guard against mutiny and insurrection, and thus The emancipation of our own ancestors, Caucasians wastes energies which otherwise might be employed in and Europeans as they were, hardly dates beyond a national development and aggrandizement, period of five hundred years. The great melioration of The free-labor system educates all alike, and by openhuman society which modern times exhibit, is mainly due ing all the fields of industrial employment, and all the to the incomplete substitution of the system of voluntary departments of authority, to the unchecked and equal labor for the old one of servile labor, which has already rivalry of all classes of men, at once secures universal taken place. This African slave system is one which, in contentment, and brings into the highest possible acti. its origin and in its growth, has been altogether foreign vity all the physical, moral, and social energies of the from the habits of the races which colonized these States, whole State. In States where the slave system prevails, and established civilization here. It was introduced on the masters, di'ectly or indirectly, secure all political power, and constitute a ruling aristocracy. In States whole structure of Government broadly on the principle where the free-labor system prevails, universal suffrage that all men are created equal, and therefore free-little necessarily obtains, and the State inevitably becomes, dreaming that, within the short period of one hundred sooner or later, a republic or democracy.

years, their descendants would bear to be told by any Russia yet maintains Slavery, and is a despotism. orator, however popular, that the utterance of that prinMost of the other European States have abolished ciple was merely a rhetorical rhapsody; or by any judge Slavery, and adopted the system of free labor. It was however venerated, that it was attended by mental rethe antagonistic political tendencies of the two systems | servations, which rendered it hypocritical and false. By which the first Napoleon was contemplating when he i the Ordinance of 1787, they dedicated all of the national predicted that Europe would ultimately be either all domain not yet polluted by Slavery to free labor imCossack or all Republican. Never did human sagacity mediately, thenceforth and forever ; while by the new utter a more pregnant truth. The two systems are at Constitution and laws they invited foreign free labor once perceived to be incongruous. But they are more from all lands under the sun, and interdicted the imthan incongruous--they are incompatible. They never portation of African Slave Labor, at all times, in all. have permanently existed together in one country, and places, and under all circumstances whatsoever. It is they never can. It would be easy to demonstrate this true that they necessarily and wisely modified this impossibility, from the irreconcilable contrast between policy of Freedom, by leaving it to the several States, their great principles and characteristics. But the expe- affected as they were by differing circumstances, to rience of mankind has conclusively established it. abolish Slavery in their own way and at their own pleaSlavery, as I have already intimated, existed in every sure, instead of confiding that duty to Congress, and state in Europe. Free labor has supplanted it every- that they secured to the Slave States, while yet retainwhere except in Russia and Turkey. State necessities ing the system of Slavery, a three-fifths representation developed in modern times, are now obliging even those of slaves in the Federal Government, until they should two nations to encourage and empl.y free labor; and find themselves able to relinquish it with safety. But already, despotic as they are, we find them engaged in the very nature of these modifications fortifies my posi. abolishing Slavery. In the United States, Slavery came tion that the fathers knew that the two systems could into collision with free labor at the close of the last cen- not endure within the Union, and expected that within tury, and fell before it in New-England, New-York, New- a short period Slavery would disappear forever. MoreJersey, and Pennsylvania, but triumphed over it effece over, in order that these modifications might not altotually, .aud excluded it for a period yet undetermined, gether defeat their grand design of a Republic maintainfrom Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Indeed, so ing universal equality, they provided that two-thirds of incompatible are the two systems, that every new state the States might amend the Constitution. which is organized within our ever-extending domain It remains to say on this point only one word, to guard makes its first political act a choice of the one and an against misapprehension. If these States are to again beexclusion of the other, even at the cost of civil war, if come universally slaveholding, I do not pretend to say necessary. The Slave States, without law, at the last with what violations of the Constitution that end shall be national election, successfully forbade, within their own accomplished. On the other hand, while I do confidently limits, even the casting of votes for a candidate for Presi- believe and hope that my country will yet become a land dent of the United States supposed to be favorable of universal Freedom, I do not expect that it will be made to the establishment of the free-labor system in new so otherwise than through the action of the several States States.

coöperating with the Federal Government, and all acting Hitherto, the two systems have existed in different in strict conformity with their respective Constitutions. States, but side by side within the American Union. The strife and contentions concerning Slavery, which This has happened because the Union is a confederation gently-disposed persons so habitually deprecate, are noof States. But in another aspect the United States con- thing more than the ripening the conflict which the fatherg stitute only one nation. Increase of population, which themselves, not only thus regarded with favor, but which is filling the States out to their very borders, together they may be said to have instituted. with a new and extended net-work of railroads and It is not to be denied, however, that thus far the course other avenues, and an internal commerce which daily of that contest has not been according to their humane becomes more intimate, is rapidly bringing the States anticipations and wishes. In the field of federal politics, into a higher and more perfect social unity or con- Slavery, deriving unlooked-for advantages from commersolidation. Thus, these antagonistic systems are con- cial changes, and energies unforeseen from the facilities of tinually coming' into closer contact, and collision combination between members of the slaveholding class, results.

and between that class and other property classes, early Shall I tell you what this collision means? They who rallied, and has at length made a stand, not merely to rethink that it is accidental, unnecessary, the work of in- tain its original defensive position, but to extend its sway terested or fanatical agitators, and therefore ephemeral, throughout the whole Union. It is certain that the slavemistake the case altogether. It is an irrepressible con holding class of American citizens indulge this high ambiflict between opposing and enduring forces, and it tion, and that they derive encouragement for it from the means that the United States must and will, sooner or rapid and effective political successes which they have later, become either entirely a slaveholding nation, or already obtained. The plan of operation is this : By conentirely a free-labor nation. Either the cotton and rice tinued appliances of patronage and threats of disunion, fields of South Carolina and the sugar plantations of they will keep a majority favorable to these designs in the Louisiana will ultimately be tilled by free labor, and Senate, where each State has an equal representation, Charleston and New Orleans become marts for legiti. Through that majority they will defeat, as they best can, mate merchandise alone, or else the rye-fields and the admission of Free States, and secure the admission of wheat-fields of Massachusetts and New-York must again Slave States. Under the protection of the Judiciary, they be surrendered by their farmers to slave culture and to will, on the principle of the Dred Scott case, carry Slavery the production of slaves, and Boston and New-York be- into all the Territories of the United States now existing, come once more markets for trade in the bodies and and hereafter to be organized. By the action of the Presouls of men. It is the failure to apprehend this great sident and the Senate, using the treaty-making power, they truth that induces so many unsuccessful attempts at will annex foreign slaveholding States. In a favorable final compromise between the Slave and Free States, conjuncture they will induce Congress to repeal the act of and it is the existence of this great fact that renders all 1808, which prohibits the foreign slave-trade, and so they such pretended compromises, when made, vain and will import from Africa, at the cost of only $20- a head, ephemeral. Startling as this saying may appear to you, slaves enough to fill up the interior of the continent. fellow-citizens, it is by no means an original or even a Thus relatively increasing the number of Slave States, they modern one. Our forefathers knew it to be true, and will allow no amendment to the Constitution prejudicial to unanimously acted upon it when they framed the Consti- their interest; and so, having permanently established tution of the United States. They regarded the exist- their power, they expect the Federal Judiciary to nullify ence of the servile system in so many of the States with all State laws which shall interfere with internal or foreign sorrow and shame, which they openly confessed, and commerce in slaves. When the Free States shall be suffithey looked upon the collision between them, which was ciently demoralized to tolerate these designs, they reasonthen just revealing itself, and which we are now accus- ably conclude that Slavery will be accepted by those States tomed to deplore, with favor and hope. They knew that themselves. I shall not stop to show how speedy or how either the one or the other system must exclusively pre complete would be the ruin which the accomplishment of vail.

these slaveholding schemes would bring upon the country. Unlike too many of those who in modern times invoke For one, I should not remain in the country to test the sad their authority, they had a choice between the two. experiment. Having spent my manhood, though not my They preferred the system of free labor, and they deter- whole life, in a Free State, no aristocracy of any kind, mined to organize the Government, and so to direct its much less an aristocracy of slavehoiders, shall ever make activity, that that system should surely and certainly the laws of the land in which I shall be content to live. prevail. For this purpose, and no other, they based the Having seen the society around me universally engaged in

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