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SAMPLE SHBBT—Continued 1. LIMITATIONS-Continuod Airspeed instrument mark. (a) Radial RED line marks the never exceed speed which is the maximum safe airspeet ings and their signifi. (b) YELLOW arc on indicator denotes range of speeds in which operations should I cance:

conducted with caution and only in smooth air.
(c) GREEN arc denotes normal operating speed range.

(d) WHITE arc denotes speed range in which flaps may safely be lowered. NOTE: Maneuvers involving approach to stalling angle or full application of elevator rudder or aileron shouldt

confined to speeds below maneuvering speed. 2. PROCEDURES Normal operating pro- (a) Rear seat must not be occupied when airplane is operated in the Utility Categors.

cedures: 3. PERFORMANCE INFORMATION

The following performance figures were obtained during Civil Aer onautics Administration type tests and me be realized under conditions indicated with the airplane and engine in good condition and with average pilotir technique.

All performance is given for 2100 lbs. weight, with no wind and on level, paved runways. In using the followi data, allowance for actual conditions must be made.

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Following the performance information would be the section on weight and balance. The manufacturer may me append his regular weight and balance forms if he desires. (Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3298, Apr. 14, 1951)

$ 3.777-2 Calculated effects of tempera

ture and altitude variations (FAA

policies which apply to § 3.777). See $ 3.780–1. [Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3295, Apr. 14, 1951 ] $ 3.777-3 Performance data for altered

airplanes of this part (FAA policies

which apply to $ 3.777). See $ 3.780–2. (Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3295, Apr. 14, 1951)

$ 3.778 Operating limitations.

(a) Air-speed limitations. Suficie information shall be included to perti proper marking of the air-speed limit tions on the indicator as required $ 3.757. It shall also include the desig maneuvering speed, and the maximu safe air speed at which the landing ge can be safely lowered. In addition the above information, the significan of the air speed limitations and of color coding used shall be explained.

(b) Power-plant limitations. Sul cient information shall be included outline and explain all power-plant lio tations (see $ 3.744) and to pero marking the instruments as required $ 3.759.

$ 3.777-4 Performance data and flight

tests for ski intsallations on airplanes
of this part (FAA policies which ap-

ply to $ 3.777).
See $ 3.780—3.
[Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3296, Apr. 14, 1951)

(c) Weight. The following information shall be included:

(1) Maximum weight for which the airplane has been certificated,

(2) Airplane empty weight and center of gravity location,

(3) Useful load, (4) The composition of the useful load, including the total weight of fuel and oil with tanks full.

(d) Load distribution. (1) All authorized center of gravity limits shall be stated. If the available space for loading the airplane is adequately placarded or so arranged that any reasonable distribution of the useful load listed in weight above will not result in a center of gravity location outside of the stated limits, this section need not include any other information than the statement of center of gravity limits.

(2) In all other cases this section shall also include adequate information to in. dicate satisfactory loading combinations which will assure maintaining the center of gravity position within approved limits.

(e) Maneuvers. All authorized maneuvers and the appropriate air-speed imitations as well as all unauthorized naneuvers shall be included in accordince with the following:

(1) Normal category. All acrobatic naneuvers, including spins, are unauhorized. If the airplane has been deminstrated to be characteristically inapable of spinning in accordance with 13.124 (d), a statement to this effect hall be entered here.

(2) Utility category. All authorized naneuvers demonstrated in the type light tests shall be listed, together with ecommended entry speeds. All other naneuvers are not approved. If the airilane has been demonstrated to be charicteristically incapable of spinning in ccordance with $ 3.124 (d), a statement o this effect shall be entered here.

(3) Acrobatic category. All approved light maneuvers demonstrated in the ype flight tests shall be included, toether with recommended entry speeds.

(f) Flight load factor. The positive mit load factors made good by the airlane's structure shall be described here a terms of accelerations.

(g) Flight crew. When a flight crew f more than one is required to oper. te the airplane safely, the number and

functions of the minimum flight crew shall be included. $ 3.779 Operating procedures.

This section shall contain information concerning normal and emergency procedures and other pertinent information peculiar to the airplane's operating characteristics which are necessary to safe operation. $ 3.780 Performance information.

(a) For airplanes with a maximum certificated take-off weight of more than 6,000 lbs., information relative to the items of performance set forth in subparagraphs (1) through (5) of this paragraph shall be included:

(1) The stalling speed, Vsn, at maximum weight,

(2) The stalling speed, Vå, at maximum weight and with landing gear and wing flaps retracted,

(3) The take-off distance determined in accordance with $ 3.84, including the air speed at the 50-foot height, and the airplane configuration, if pertinent,

(4) The landing distance determined in accordance with $ 3.86, including the airplane configuration, if pertinent,

(5) The steady rate of climb determined in accordance with $ 3.85 (a), (c), and, as appropriate, (b), including the air speed, power, and airplane configuration, if pertinent.

(b) The effect of variation in paragraph (a) (2) of this section with angle of bank up to 60 degrees shall be included.

(c) The calculated approximate effect of variations in paragraph (a) (3), (4) and (5) of this section with altitude and temperature shall be included.

(d) The best climb/minimum descent speed with one engine inoperative for multiengine airplanes shall be included. (21 F.R. 3339, May 22, 1956, as amended by Amdt. 3-5, 24 F.R. 7067, Sept. 1, 1959) $ 3.780–1 Calculated effects of tempera

ture and altitude variations (FAA

policies which apply to g 3.780). Section 3.780 requires that the calculated effects of variations in temperature and altitude on the take-off distance ($ 3.84(a) (2)), the landing distance ($ 3.86), and the steady rate of climb ($ 3.85 (a), (b), and (c)), shall be included in the Airplane Flight Manual. The following ranges of these variables

will be considered acceptable by the Administrator:

(a) The altitudes and temperatures for which performance in take-off distance, landing distance, take-off climb and balked landing climb shall be calculated are sea level to 7,000 feet and 0° F. to 100° F. respectively, except that take-off and landing distances for a seaplane need not show temperatures below 30° F. at altitudes above 1,000 feet.

(b) For multiengined aircraft, the climb with the critical engine inoperative shall be calculated for an altitude range of sea level to absolute ceiling and a temperature range from 60° F. below the standard temperature to 40° F. above the standard temperature at the altitude involved. (Supp. 1, 12 F. R. 3488, May 28, 1947, as amended by Amdt. 1, 14 F. R. 36, Jan. 5, 1949) $ 3.780—2 Performance data for altered

airplanes of this part (FAA policies

which apply to $ 3.780). Performance data for altered airplanes of this part must be changed in the Airplane Flight Manual if the alteration decreases the performance below that given in the existing manual. If performance can be shown to equal or exceed original values then a statement in the manual to this effect is sufficient. (Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3295, Apr. 14, 1951) $ 3.780–3 Performance data and flight

tests for ski installations on airplanes of this part (FAA policies which ap

ply to $ 3.780). (a) Take-off and landing distances. It will not be necessary, in complying with $ 3.780(a) (3) and (4), to make take-off and landing distance tests on skiplane installations where landplane distances are given in the Airplane Flight Manual. The following, or similar, statements should be given in the performance information section of the Airplane Flight Manual.

(1) Take-oj. Under the most favorable conditions of smooth packed snow at temperatures approximating 32° F. the skiplane take-off distance is approximately 10 percent greater than that shown for the landplane.

NOTE: In estimating take-off distances for other conditions caution should be exercised in that lower temperatures or other snow conditions will usually increase these distances.

(2) Landing. Under the most favorable conditions of smooth packed snow

at temperatures approximating 32° I the skiplane landing distance is approxi mately 20 percent greater than tha shown for the landplane.

Note: In estimating landing distances fc other conditions caution should be exercise in that other temperatures or other snoi conditions may either decrease or increas these distances.

(b) Climb performance. In case where the landing gear is fixed (boti landplane and skiplane), where th climb requirements are not critical, ani the climb reduction is small (30 to 50 fee per minute), the FAA will accept a state ment of the approximate reduction in climb performance placed in the Air plane Flight Manual performance infor mation section. For larger variations ir climb performance, or where the mini. mum requirements are critical, or wher the landing gear of the landplane wat retractable, appropriate climb data should be obtained to determine thi changes, and new curves, tables, or a noti should be incorporated in the Airplan Flight Manual.

(c) Flight and handling tests. At least a general flight check should be made prior to approval. This should include more than one landing to determine the ground handling characteristics as well as take-off and landing characteristics Note should be taken of ski angle at landing contact during tail high and tail low landings to avoid having the sk dig in or fail from localized stress Ground control should be sufficient to satisfactorily complete a landing run with a turn off at slow speed in cases where brakes are not provided. In flight the ski should ride steady with no unusual drag and produce no unsatisfactory flight characteristics. Spin checks should be made on all aircraft in which spins are an approved maneuver. When spins are approved under $ 3.124 (a), investigation with ski installations need not be made unless the spin characteristics of the type are known to be marginal. (Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3295, Apr. 14, 1951)

Subpart H-Identification Data $ 3.791 Identification plate.

A fireproof identification plate shall be securely attached to the structure in an accessible location where it will not likely be defaced during normal service.

The identification plate shall not be placed in a location where it might be expected to be destroyed or lost in the event of an accident. The identification plate shall contain the identification data required by $ 1.50 of this subchapter. $3.792 Airworthiness certificate num

ber. The identifying symbols and regisration numbers shall be permanently uffixed to the airplane structure in compliance with $ 1.100 of this subchapter.

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PART 40-AIRPLANE

AIRWORTHINESS NOTE: Current applications for airworthiless and type certificates are not processed under this part, but are processed under Ither airworthiness parts in this subchapter. At present this part primarily governs modiication of aircraft which were originally ertificated under this part. Unless otherrise provided, all references to other parts f this subchapter are those provisions in ffect on September 29, 1947. Subpart A-Airworthiness Requirements

GENERAL ec.

Scope. 2.2 Airplane categories.

AIRWORTHINESS AND TYPE CERTIFICATES 8.15 Requirements for issuance. 2.16 Data required for airworthiness cer

tificate. B.17 Data required for type certificate. 2.18

Inspection and tests. 3.19 Flight tests. 1.20 Procedure for type certification.

CHANGES 2.25 Continued compliance. 1.26 Minor changes. 1.27 Major changes. 2.28 Changes required by the Adminis

trator. PPROVAL OF MATERIALS, PARTS, PROCESSES, AND

APPLIANCES 1.31 Specifications. 1.31-1 Approval of aircraft components

(FAA rules which apply to $ 4a.31).

Subpart B-Definitions 37

Weights.
38 Structural terms.
-39
Air density,

p.
Speed.
Design gust velocity, U.

Dynamic pressure, q. -43

Load factors. 1.44

Aerodynamic coefficients, CL, CM,

CP, etc. 1,45 Standard atmosphere (standard air). 1.46 Primary structure.

AIR SPEEDS 4a.73 Air speeds.

LOAD FACTORS 4a.74 General. 4a.75 Maneuvering load factors. 4a.76 Gust load factors. 4a.77 Factors of safety. SYMMETRICAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS (FLAPS

RETRACTED) 4a.78 General. 4a.79 Condition I (positive high angle of

attack). 4a.80 Condition 1. (positive high angle of

attack modified). 42.81 Condition II (negative high angle of

attack). 4a.82 Condition III. 49.83 Condition IV (negative low angle of

attack). 4a.84 Condition V (Inverted flight). 4a.85 Condition VI (gliding). SYMMETRICAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS (FLAPS OR

AUXILIARY DEVICES IN OPERATION) 4a.86 General. 4a.87 Condition VII (positive gust, flaps

deflected). 4a.88 Condition VIII (negative gust, flaps

deflected). 4a.89 Condition IX (dive, flaps deflected).

UNSYMMETRICAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS 4a.90 General. 4a.91 Condition : 4a.92

Condition IIIy: 4a.93

Condition V

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40 41 42

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will be considered acceptable by the Administrator:

(a) The altitudes and temperatures for which performance in take-off distance, landing distance, take-off climb and balked landing climb shall be calculated are sea level to 7,000 feet and 0° F. to 100° F. respectively, except that take-off and landing distances for a seaplane need not show temperatures below 30° F. at altitudes above 1,000 feet.

(b) For multiengined aircraft, the climb with the critical engine inoperative shall be calculated for an altitude range of sea level to absolute ceiling and a temperature range from 60° F. below the standard temperature to 40°F. above the standard temperature at the altitude involved. (Supp. 1, 12 F. R. 3438, May 28, 1947, as amended by Amdt. 1, 14 F. R. 36, Jan. 5, 1949) $ 3.780—2 Performance data for altered

airplanes of this part (FAA policies

which apply to $ 3.780). Performance data for altered airplanes of this part must be changed in the Airplane Flight Manual if the alteration decreases the performance below that given in the existing manual. If performance can be shown to equal or exceed original values then a statement in the manual to this effect is sufficient. (Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3295, Apr. 14, 1951) $ 3.780—3 Performance data and flight

tests for ski installations on airplanes of this part (FAA policies which ap

ply to $ 3.780). (a) Take-off and landing distances. It will not be necessary, in complying with $ 3.780(a) (3) and (4), to make take-off and landing distance tests on skiplane installations where landplane distances are given in the Airplane Flight Manual. The following, or similar, statements should be given in the performance information section of the Airplane Flight Manual.

(1) Take-of. Under the most favorable conditions of smooth packed snow at temperatures approximating 32° F. the skiplane take-off distance is approximately 10 percent greater than that shown for the landplane.

NOTE: In estimating take-off distances for other conditions caution should be exercised in that lower temperatures or other snow conditions will usually increase these dis

at temperatures approximating 32° E the skiplane landing distance is approximately 20 percent greater than that shown for the landplane.

NOTE: In estimating landing distances for other conditions caution should be exercised in that other temperatures or other snow conditions may either decrease or increase these distances.

(b) Climb performance. In cases where the landing gear is fixed (both landplane and skiplane), where the climb requirements are not critical, and the climb reduction is small (30 to 50 feet per minute), the FAA will accept a state. ment of the approximate reduction in climb performance placed in the Air. plane Flight Manual performance information section. For larger variations in climb performance, or where the mini. mum requirements are critical, or where the landing gear of the landplane was retractable, appropriate climb dats should be obtained to determine the changes, and new curves, tables, or a note should be incorporated in the Airplane Flight Manual.

(c) Flight and handling tests. At least a general fight check should be made prior to approval. This should include more than one landing to determine the ground handling characteristics as wel as take-off and landing characteristics Note should be taken of ski angle a landing contact during tail high and tail low landings to avoid having the sk dig in or fail from localized stress Ground control should be suficient to satisfactorily complete a landing rup with a turn off at slow speed in case where brakes are not provided. In fligh the ski should ride steady with no un usual drag and produce no unsatisfac tory flight characteristics. Spin check should be made on all aircraft in which spins are an approved maneuver. Whe spins are approved under $ 3.124 (a), in vestigation with ski installations nee not be made unless the spin character istics of the type are known to be marginal. [Supp. 10, 16 F. R. 3295, Apr. 14, 1951)

Subpart H-Identification Data $ 3.791 Identification plate.

A fireproof identification plate she be securely attached to the structure i an accessible location where it will no likely be defaced during normal servic

tances.

(2) Landing. Under the most favorable conditions of smooth packed snow

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