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eyed and trembling feebleness. The fort is one of the strongest in the Deccan, and there are various handsome buildings, musjids, and palaces, within and about it. A huge tree on the glacis of the fort is honoured by the much-believin that under which the Great Captain of his age conducted operations against the enemy; but if the Duke ever did honour to its peepul shade, it must have been after, and not during, the siege; or, like Rustum, he must have borne a charmed life. The fort of Nuggur, however, hath a stirring history attached to it; a true tale of life romance, that affords an interest quite equal to that which Rhine-ascending tourists feel for Nonensworth and Rolandseck. It is the history of Salabat Khan's tomb, which is a favourite place for picnics, and a residence during the hot weather; it is about four miles from Camp, and on a considerable elevation. Fifty persons have dined together in the lower apartment of the tomb, which gives a very fair idea of its size, when it is remembered that the four compartments have an equality of extent, a regal space for the "eternal habitation” of a camptrained soldier. It is fortunate for modern travellers and sojourners in the East, however, that the Mahomedan conquerors of India and their descendants had this taste for handsome mausolea, as it supplies many with houses in a style of architecture not to be met with at present, as well as substantial shelter, at the expense of driving out the bats, and fitting in a few doors and windows. The few feet of earth with the conical masonry, Occupied by the original tenant, neither seems to be considered as an objection nor an inconvenience : it forms a seat or a stumbling-block, as the case may be, but the last only literally, and is never considered as a subject for reneration or troublesome respect. Then, again, the situations these true believers chose for their mau
solea are so attractive, the trees that shade them are so bright and waving, the mounds where they are raised so dry and clean, and the gardens about them so cool and fresh-looking, that the living may well envy the dead their possession. It must be remembered that these Moslems were characteristically very capable of appreciating the luxuri. ous and agreeable. No people ever knew so well how to live in India as they did in their days of glory, proofs of which we have in their underground apartments for the hot season, their water-palaces, thickwalled under-rooms, and descriptions of well-cooled sherbets; and, as it was their custom to pray, meditate, and spend hours in the tombs of their departed friends, it is but probable that these handsome mausolea had some reference to the comforts and convenience of the living, as well as to the secure resting of the dead. Eight miles from Nuggur is the Happy Valley, a favourite spot for sportsmen, newly-married couples, and Parsee amateur travellers. Its situation is as remarkable as its scenery is attractive. After riding over a wide plain, here and there studded with villages, sheltered by thick clumps of mangoe-trees, a rock appears more desert than the rest, flanked by arid hills. On approaching it, however, the tops of palms, cocoa-nut trees, and all the chief varieties of Indian foliage, attract attention just peeping above its edge;. and a flight of granite steps cut in the rock, lead down into this fairylike glen of natural beauty. The Hindoos have a deserted temple there, but the spot was evidently selected as a Moslem pleasureground, a fact which now affords travellers the advantage of a good bungalow, built in true Mahomedan taste, which means, with a flat roof, on which to smoke, sleep, and pray, in accordance with the uses made of such places by their original de
signers; small, square, slate-coloured rooms, with arched roofs, for the occupation of bats, and little recesses for the reception of oil-lights; with doors that do not close, or if closed, do not open; tri-sided, underground apartments, looking into the valley, and arches instead of windows. This last peculiarity is here, however, an advantage, for the view commanded is most lovely. The valley, indeed, is the mere gorge of an isolated hill, but the foliage is dense and beautiful-originally well cultivated, but now having the appearance of the wildest nature; huge masses of rock are piled amongst it, and a fair stream, every here and there taking the form of waterfalls, or a rapid torrent, as the nature of the ground may cause, makes its way onward to the lower plain. The fine banian, with its columned shade, is here seen in peculiar grandeur, its daughter-stems stretching widely, and descending deeply into the ravine, the parent branches forming noble studies of forest foliage, so noble, indeed, that Hindoo travellers have even been attracted by the beauty of one, that owns some dozen pillars all around it, among which have sprung the aloe, and various lesser shrubs, giving to each stem the semblance of its being an independent tree. Every stone round which the rivulet rushes is smeared with red pigment, and no traveller passes along the little footpath on his way to the distant village, but raises his hand in reverence to this natural temple of the grove. Trees, and shade, and water, are sure attractions to the natives of the East, and varied travellers, hour by hour, arrive at the Happy Valley. Many are pilgrims, with scrip and staff, who eat, bathe, beg, and smoke, and then, without paying the slightest homage to the temple, or to the huge stone Nandi that form its chief ornament, although supposed to be on religious service all intent, go their way, laughing and chatting
through the valley. Nuggur was a scene of many of the worst cruelties, and also highest triumphs, of the great conqueror Aurungzebe; he is said to have died there, and a little tomb on the left of the fort is considered as the depository of his heart. The mausoleum commands a very beautiful panoramic view of Nuggur, with its palaces, musjids, gardens, and flowing streams; while a pretty Protestant church rising amongst them, together with the “compounds” in the artillery-lines, gives it, to the English sojourner, a refreshing “home” look. The gardens of Nuggur are celebrated throughout the west side of India, for their beauty and produce; thick hedges of myrtle four feet high, vines that rival the south of Italy, and English vegetables in abundance,
their characteristics. The native gardens are also rich in produce; but a native garden is, after all, but a mere orchard; and, amongst rubbish, weeds, and stony roads, and large fruit-trees, one looks in vain for the neat enclosures, the well-kept paths, trim borders, and perfumed parterres of an English shrubbery. Utility appears the only object in the Eastern gardener's view; acres of rose-bushes are cultivated only that the blossoms may be cropped at sunrise to produce rose-water; and jasmine is grown in abundance, but merely for decorations on festivals, and in offer. ings at the temples. At Nuggur, the Mootee Bhaug,” or Garden of Pearls, is an exception, having been formed in English taste, and being rich in beautiful shrubs, bearing Oriental flowers of every hue; yet, even here, jowarree is sown amongst the plants, and the song of bulbul is lost in the cry of the cornwatcher, as he whirls his sling aloft, to scare away the feathered plunderers. There is the 65 Behiestie Bhaug,” too, or Garden of Paradise, with the ruins of a palace at its entrance, about which the dry old historians are very voluminous in their accounts, of how one khan built it, and another added to it, and a third advised about it, and a fourth seized it. A water-palace of considerable size, still remaining in the neighbourhood of Nuggur, is said, with great probability, to have been the residence of Aurungzebe, and is situated in the remains of an extensive garden, known as the “Furruh Bhaug,” or Garden of Happiness. Considering the palace was commenced in 1006 of the Hegira, it is yet in remarkably good preservation, and must have been, in its day, a very substantial and handsome building. The centre-room, which is of huge proportions, is lighted and ventilated by two open balconies, running round the ceiling at small distances from each other; and the interior architecture of the arched recesses and roofing is, in many cases, ornamental, and finished with much skill. The prince who commenced its erection, did so, it appears, as a matter of state policy, to show the Delhi nobles his opinion of the stability of a possession on which it was considered wise to expend so much; but the water which surrounds the palace was not thought of until his successor brought it from the hills at some distance by means of aqueducts, the remains of which may still be seen in all directions about Nuggur; and this prince, with much good taste, built round the palace a reservoir of some forty acres in extent. Soon after the rainy season, the waters on every side bathe the palace walls to some feet in depth, and the garden immediately around it would be unapproachable for foot passengers, but for a raised vallade carried out from the western side of the garden. In the early morning, few effects of light and shade can be more beautiful than those which adorn the water-palace of the Furruh Bhaug, for the most perfect and handsome portion of it receives the first rays of the morn
ing sun, which, lighting up its Gothic-looking architecture, separate it vividly from the masses of fine trees clustering round its base, while they again are reflected, leaf and branch, and stem, in the deep, clear waters that surround and bathe their roots; and these, contrasted in their depth of richest shade, by the crimson turbans and orange-coloured scarfs of the native groups, who wend hither daily to enjoy the pleasures of the spot, the cool bathing beneath the trees, or the social chit-chat meal. Wild ducks may occasionally be seen in flocks upon the surface of the lake, affording considerable attraction to the denizens of the Camp; but even when the sportsman is disappointed of his spoil, the eye of the lover of the picturesque may be always gratified by the number of snow-white, graceful birds which rest upon the banks, or seek their food among the beautiful aquatic plants that adorn these fair waters, where the rich green rushes throw into fine relief the tender tints of the lovely lotus, and a hundred blossoms, red and yellow, blue and purple, are distinctly mirrored upon this charming lake, which, barbarian as he was in some matters, Shah Tiah certainly showed infinite taste in forming. The dream of Moslem grandeur, however, and the luxurious indulgences of its princes, are now at an end, and the beautiful Furruh Bhaug has long been subservient to supposed purposes of utility and improvement. A grant of its acres having been made to a medical officer of government, mulberry-trees were planted in great quantities for the growth and cultivation of the Italian worm and silk. The plan, to a certain degree, failed; perhaps in consequence of the sanguine enthusiasm of its originator, as expenses were entered into that the results of the early trial could not justify, and debt became the consequence. Feebleness and dis
couragement followed, and as the NUMAZ, stated prayers, which good world generally takes some advan- Mussulmans perform five times a tage of misfortune and disappoint- day. ment in the plans of others, so a NUMMUD, carpetting of felt, much number of private mallees set about used in Persia. digging up the young trees and sell- NUNGASAKI, a town situated on ing them for a trifling remunera- the western coast of the island of tion to the amateur garden cultiva- Kinsin, in the empire of Japan, in tors of the Camp. The collector, how- Lat. 32 deg. 48 min. N., Long. 132 ever, interfered; fortunately for the deg. 35 min. E. It is the only seadelightful shades of the Furruh port to which Europeans are allowed Bhaug, the trees were restored, and to resort. the system still works in a trifling NUT-CUT, roguish, mischievous. A degree; the fine foliage becoming term of reproach, good-naturedly every day more luxuriant from the applied in India to vauriens. abundance of sweet water, while the NUTTS, gipsies, an Indian term. worms slumber in the chambers of NUWANUGGUR, a town in India, kings.
in the province of Guzerat, situated NUKTA, the barrel-headed or painted on the western coast of the penin
goose; the Anas Indui of Indian au- sula, in Lat. 22 deg. 55 min. N., thors. During the night they rob Long. 70 deg. 14 min. E. It is a the corn-fields, and, in the day, the large town, the capital of a tribuflocks join and locate together in tary chief, styled the Jam of Nuwaprodigious numbers on a solitary nuggur, and is noted for various sand-bank in the river. It is sup- cotton manufactures. posed they come from Thibet, and NUWARA ELIYA (City of Light), their flesh is free from the rankness a new settlement formed in the which attends wild-fowl in general. mountainous parts of the interior of The black-backed, or Nukta goose, the Island of Ceylon, about fifty is the Anas Malanotos of authors. The miles south-east of Kandy. In the male weighs about five pounds. It is months of December, January, Feplentiful in the rainy season, in the bruary, and part of March, there is vicinity of Delhi. The comb on the little rain, and the air is pure and male in some specimens, is large and healthy, the thermometer being more handsomely marked with white sometimes at night below the freezspots than others, and their size and ing point; and in the day, in these plumage also differs a good deal ac- months, seldom rising higher than cording to their age. There is an sixty-six or sixty-eight. All kinds obtuse horny process on the bend of of European vegetables common in the wing. The nukta frequents gardens, grow here, and it is delightmost places where there is not much ful to see the healthy and thriving water, and subsists on the seed of appearance of peas, beans, strawgrasses. The female is much smaller, berries, cabbages, &c. It has been being about the size, and having found by the experience of ten or nearly the same plumage as the twelve years to be an excellent stacommon duck; it has no comb, but tion for invalids. Companies of there is an appearance on the upper several of the English regiments part of the bill as if nature had at serving in Ceylon are stationed there; one time intended to place one there. and the men, their wives and children, The upper part of the upper mandi. look as healthy and fresh-coloured as ble is red, and the point of the bill in England. The Cingalese resident and the legs are yellow.
there are chiefly persons who have NULLA, Hindostanee. A streamlet, gone from the maritime provinces rivulet, water-course.
for the purpose of trade. There are a court-house, as it is the station of called by Sir William Jones the moan assistant government agent, a ther of the Vedas, and in another rest-house, and, in addition to the place the holiest text of the Vedas, barracks, several English gentle- is expressed by the tri-literal monomen's residences. The plain of Nu- syllable, AUM, aud meaning that wera Eliya is about four miles in divine light of knowledge dispersed length, and varies in breadth from by the Almighty, the sun of righthalf a mile to a mile and a half. eousness, to illuminate the minds of Roads have been made round the created beings. plain; and neat wooden bridges in OMERKOTE, a town in India, in the several places have been thrown province of Scinde, situated on the across a small river that runs through eastern frontier, about eighty-five the middle of it. For a few months in miles to the eastward of Hyderabad. the year, it is one of the most delight- This was formerly the residence of ful places in the island.
an independent Rajpoot chief, and is NUZZER, Hindostanee. A vow, an noted as being the birth-place of the
offering; a present made to a su- Emperor Acbar. perior.
OMLAH, officers; the civil officers of NŪZZERI DURGAH, literally, an
government. offering at a sacred place for main- ONGOLE, a small town in India, in taining places of worship.
the province of Northern Carnatic, situated near the coast, about 150
miles north of Madras. It is small, 0.
and irregularly built.
OOCH, a city in India, in the province ODALISQUE, the female tenant of a of Mooltan, situated at the junc
Turkish seraglio. The Odalisques tion of the rivers Sutlej and Beya usually consist of Georgian, Ar- with the river Chenab. It stands menian, or Circassian slaves. The in a fertile plain, four miles from the Sultan generally has a great number left bank of the river. It is an anin his service, six or seven however cient city, much noted during the (called Kaddives), have alone the first invasions of the Mahomedans. privilege of producing an heir to the It has now about 2000 inhabitants. throne.
OODAGHERRY, a town in India, in ODEYPORE, a city in India, the pre the province of Travancore, has a
sent capital of the province of Aj- small fortress, thirty miles south of mere, situate in Lat. 24 deg. 35 min. Trivanderam, formerly one of the N., Long. 73 deg. 44 min. E. It principal military stations of the stands on the border of a large lake, province. Adjoining is the town or which on the other sides is enclosed village of Papanaveram, where the by ranges of wild and rugged hills. rajah has a palace. The palaces and garden residences OOJEIN, a town in Hindostan, in on the borders of the lake are all of the province of Malwa, situated on marble, highly sculptured. Images, the right bank of the river Seepra, in toys, and a great variety of articles Lat. 23 deg. 11 min. N., Long. 75 deg. of marble and rock-crystal, are sent 35 min. E. This is one of the most from this place to the neighbouring ancient cities in India, and is partiprovinces.
cularly noted in Hindoo geography, O’M, a mystic syllable, signifying the as being on the first meridian, called
supreme god of gods, which the Hin- the meridian of Lunka, which somedoos, from its awful and sacred mean- times also takes the name of this ing, hesitate to pronounce aloud; and, city, and is called the meridian of in doing so, place one of their hands Oojein. The ancient city, which before their mouths. The gayatri, was greatly celebrated as one of the