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Also in his Epitaph on the Marchioness of Winchester.

With thee there clad in radiant sheen,

As Milton is fingular in the usage of SHEEN, the word Sheen used as a substantive in a fonnet fupposed by Dr. Birch * to be written by Milton, ought to be admitted as an internal argument in favour of that hypothesis.

B. iv. c. iv, s. xii.

Against the turneiment which is not long. The same mode of speaking occurs in the verse which is the burthen of the song in the Prothalamion.

Against the bridale day which is not long.

i. e. “ approaching, near at hand.”

B. iv. c. viii. s. xxix,

More hard for hungry steed tabstaine from pleasant lare.

LARE signifies a bed. Junius interprets it cubile cervi; and the Lair of a deer, is a term of hunting Atill known and used. Thus Drayton,

Now when the hart doth heare The often-bellowing hounds to vent [scent ) his secret


* Life of Milton, prefixed to his Prose Works, vol. 1.

† Polyolb. Song. 13.

It is used by Milton,

Out of the ground uprose,
As from his LAIR, the wild beast, where he wons
In forest wild, in thicket, &c*.

Yet it here seems to be used for pasture or grass ; in which however a bed


be made. below, f. 51.

So again

This giant's sonne that lies there on the LAIRE
An headlesse heap.

B. iv., c. ix. ARG..

The SQUIRE OF Lowe degree releast

Pæana takes to wife.

The Squire of Lo Degree, is the title of an old romance, mentioned together with Sir Huon of Bordeaux ; which, as we remarked before, is spoken of among a catalogue of antient books, in the letter concerning queen Elizabeth's entertainment at Kenelworth.

It seems to have been a phrase commonly known and used about this time, by the following speech of Fluellen in Shakespeare. “ You called me yesterday Mountain-Squire; but I will make you to day a Squire of low degree *.”

* Paradise Loft. 7. 457.

« Mountain

B. iv. c. X. f. vi.

Did arise
On stately pillours framd afer the doricke guise.

Although the roman, or grecian architecture, did not begin to prevail in England till the time of Inigo Jones, yet our communication with the italians, and our imitation of their manners, produced some fpecimens of that style much earlier. Perhaps the earliest is Somerset-house, in the Strand, built about the

year 1549, by the duke of Somerset, uncle to Edward VI. The monument of bihop Gardiner in Winchester cathedral, made in the reign of Mary, about 1555, is decorated with ionic pillars. Spenser's verses here quoted, bear an allufion to some of these fashionable improvements in building, which, at this time, were growing more and more into esteem. Thus also bishop Hall, who wrote about the same time, viz.


There findest thou fome fately doricke frame,
Or neat ionicke worke t.

But these ornaments were often absurdly introduced

* K, Hen. V, act,


sc, I.

+ B. 5. 1. 2.

to any

into the old gothic style; as in the magnificent portico of the schools at Oxford, erected about the year 1613, where the builder, in a gothic edifice, has affectedly displayed bis universal skill in the modern architecture, by giving us all the five orders together. However, most of the great buildings of queen Elizabeth's reign have a style peculiar to themselves, both in form and finishing ; where, though much of the old gothic is retained, and great part of the new taste is adopted, yet neither predominates; while both, thus indistinctly blended, compose a fantastic fpecies, hardly reducible

class or name. One of it's characteristics is the affectation of large and lofty windows; where, says Bacon, “ you shall have sometimes faire houses, " so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to be

come, to be out of the sun, &c *.”

After what has been here incidentally said on this subject, it may not be amiss to trace it higher, and to give some observations, on the beginning and progressive state of architecture in England, down to the reign of Henry VIII. A period, in which, or thereabouts, the true gothic style is supposed to have expired.

The normans, at the conquest, introduced arts and civility. The churches, before this, were of

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* ESSAYES, xii.



timber, or otherwise of very mean construction. The conqueror imported a more magnificent, though not a different, plan, and erected several stately churches and castles *. He built more than thirty monasteries, among which were the noble abbies of Battel and Selby. He granted a charter to Mauritius, bishop of London, for rebuilding St. Paul's church with stone brought out of Normandy. He built the white tower, in the Tower of London. The style then used, consisted of round arches, round-headed windows, and round mafly pillars, with a sort of regular capital and base, being an adulteration, or a rude imitation, of the genuine grecian or roman manner.

This has been named the Saxon Stile, being the national architecture of our faxon ancestors, before the conquest: for the normans, only extended its proportions, and enlarged its scale. But I suppose, at that time, it was the common architecture of all Europe. Of this style many specimens remain : the transept of Winchester cathedral, built 1080: the two towers of Exeter cathedral, 1112: Christ-church cathedral at Oxford, 1180: the nave of Glocester cathedral, 1100: with many others. The most com

* Videas ubique in villis ecclesias, vicis et urbibus monafteria, NOVO EDIFICANDI GENERE exsurgere.” Will. Malmesbur. Rex Willa bolmus. De Geft. Reg. Ang. l. 3. p. 57. fol. Lond. 1596. ed. Savil.


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