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hill, he might have what he could get in this productive of excellent results, already, the prinway. He was glad of the job, and made good ciples of this art are not generally understood, wages. The rest were left to grow, and the pro- and consequently much valuable labor is lost for duce, notwithstanding the late planting, the

want of a natural dryness of the spot, (a gravelly knoll,)


proper and the fact that so much of the strength of the

Another obvious improvement is in the division manure was withdrawn by the stalks cut for fod- of lands. Instead of dividing fields into lots of der, was as handsome corn as you would wish to one, two, three, or four acres, farmers are taking

out fences, and giving themselves ample scope in Some potatoes planted with the corn, and in the same way, were among

best I raised.

extended fields, and thus cutting off the “unprof-

itably gay” furzes, and mulleins and burdocks,

that “hug the walls,” and find moisture and AGRICULTURAL PREMIUMS. warmth under their protecting sides. At the Every observing person, as he passes through

same time these generous fields give an air of amthe various sections of our State, cannot fail to

plitude and character to the homestead, which is notice that very important advances have been gratifying to the possessor, and pleases the travel

ler of taste as he passes along. made in the art of agriculture during the last ten years. Improvements are evident in many State shows that the teachings of the agricultu

The appearance of the rural gardens of the particulars; and a prominent one, observable everywhere, is the reclamation of low meadows,

ral papers and the farmers' clubs have not been

uttered in vain. heretofore sacred to frogs, flags and febrile diseases, partially inundated, and covered with a re

Better plowing, better modes of planting, and luctant growth of moss-enveloped trees, in a

harvesting, and a truer taste in the architecture state of decrepitude from their youth, and al- of the farm buildings, all attest that there is a ways appearing entirely too old for their

spirit of inquiry awakened among the people, and age.

that healthful Beyond affording a few berries in summer, a lit

will follow.

progress tle coarse herbage for cattle during extreme

But none of these were the particular points droughts, and sundry loads of black alders, hack- upon which we intended to remark when we matack or swamp maples for fuel, they were of began this article. In looking over some of the no use to the farmer, save as “a receptacle of premium lists of the present year, an unusual things lost upon earth.” They were an offence to liberality in the sums appropriated to premiums, the nostrils, a foul blotch upon the landscape, and

and a wider range of objects introduced, was noa plague to their possessors. But, lo! see what In- ticed, than we remember to have seen before. dustry, aided by the fair hand of Science has

It led us to notice how systematic and complete done. From this chaos of materials, and these

are the operations of our county societies, and Stygian rivers, we may see not only the

how their arrangements are calculated to reach

greenest lawns in April, and the full harvest in July, but everybody, the small farmer, remote from the the most delicate garden products, whose roots

large towns, as well as the amateur and exten

sive cultivator. find rich pasturage in the light, porous, and congenial soil, drained, lightened and penetrated by

These attempts by the farmers themselves to the cheering rays of the sun. Not only the more

"improve the soil and the mind,” incites good

mon to offer still further inducements to progress; hardy vegetables, but the delicate celery, broccoli, the strawberry and choice flowers of the garden,

so we find in Essex county that the Hon. Richfind a poeition and aliment which they like, and ARD S. Fay, of Lynn, has generously placed at from which they present their most perfect organ

the disposal of the Trustees of that county the izations.

sum of two hundred dollars, for the following Now, redeemed from their “reign of terror,”

» purposes, viz. thousands of acres of these bogs, once worth from ment with a mowing machine, operated by two

1. For the best and most satisfactory experifive to twenty dollars per acre, will sell at from horse power, on not less than fifty acres, on any fifty to two hundred dollars, according to the po- farm or farms within the county, $50,00. sition which they occupy. It is now ascertained

2. For the best and most satisfactory experithat they are among our most profitable lands;

ment with a one-horse mowing machine, on not that when once reclaimed and brought into “good within the county, $25,00.

less than twenty-five acres, on any farm or farms heart,” they will yield a fair profit, for a greater 3. For the best mowing machine, $25,00. number of years, than any other lands we pos

4. For the best and most useful agricultural sess.

implement, not being a mowing machine, $20. The Draining of uplands, has also brought Second best do., $15. Third best do., $10. many tracts of cold, springy land, into a warm best do., $10. Seventh best do., $5. Eighth

Fourth best do., $10. Fifth best do., $10. Sixth and friable condition, and capable of producing best do., 85. Ninth best do., $5. Tenth best the finest grain and grass crops. But though do., $5. Eleventh best do., $5.

Note.-In regard to the operation of mowing erately warm soil, and a copious and sustained machines, the competitors will not be restricted supply of forest leaves and scrapings. A comto their own farms, but

may go from farm to post formed of these, with a small quantity of farm. A statement in writing will be required of the working of the machine, any accidents oc- gypsuin, and frequent hoeings to lighten the soil, curring to it while at work, the number of horses and prevent the radiation and growth of weeds, employed, and the number of hours in actual op- will almost invariably secure success in the cultieration. All entries of mowing machines must vation of this valuable fruit. The original cultibe made with the Secretary, in season for the vator of this fruit in this country, is Mr. J. S. committee to view them in operation before the day of the Show, and they must be exhibited at NEEDHAM, of Danvers, Mass., and "Needbam's the Show that the public may have an opportu- White Blackberry," of which a very good enuity to examine them.

graving was published some time since in the T'he Trustees reserve the right of withholding New England Farmer, is probably the most proall or any of the above prizes, to be carried for- lific and valuable variety of the fruit to be found. ward to another year, at their discretion, and no award will be made for any agricultural imple

The White Blackberry and Black Raspberry are ment which is not of the best workmanship, and both valuable fruits, and should have a place in of such a character as to commend it to the far- every fruit and kitchen garden in the land. mers of the county. The Middlesex Society has offered nearly a

FISH. thousand dollars in premiums, and the Norfolk It is a well known fact that there are some varie 80 much that we cannot spare time to add them ties of fish which are able to live and propagate up-probably much more than the Middlesex. their species both in fresh and salt water. Among The State Society has also appropriated most lib- them are the smelt, the perch, the salmon and

trout; and it is probable that many of our most erally for the purpose of the special improvement valuable salt water fish might be transported to of the dairy, as the following will show from the our inland ponds, and raised in abundance for Essex bills.

marketable purposes. Smelts particularly, thrive The following are offered through the liberality

well in fresh water, and often grow to a very of the “Massachusetts Society for the Promotion large size ; and it is not impossible that cod, of Agriculture.”

haddock, founders and even mackerel might, For the best dairy of cows, not less than six in with proper care and training, be made to do as number, and which shall have been owned by the

well. — Boston Journal. exhibitor and kept within the county not less

The above suggestion in valuable, both to the than five months previous to the cattle show, people of the sea-coast and upon the interior riv$75,00. For the second best, $50,00. For the ers, lakes and ponds. Fishes can be transplanted third best, $25,00.

and transported along the same shores, and from NOTE:--The competitors must exhibit their salt to fresh waters, or the opposite. Why then dairy of six cows, for which they claim a premi- should there be any bay, or stream, or pond, that um, at the show of the present year, and accom- will not afford food for man? Why should not pany the entry by a statement in writing, of their fishes be domesticated, increased in size, and immanagement on the farm, and their product dur- provod in quality, hy bringing them under culing the season of trial, with all such particulars ture, and furnishing, where it cannot be bad as will enable the committee to decide satifacto otherwise, with proper food? The fowl and the rily not only upon the relative claims of the sev- beast have thus been turned to better uses than eral competitors, but upon the management and otherwise they would have had, and the dominion absolute product weight and profits of each dairy of the sea, as well as of the earth and air, is givrespectively, whether in butter, cheese or milk, en to man. through the period of trial, viz., for five months Gradually the fishes of our streams and shores before the show.

are disappearing. The little brooks and ponds of the country were once alive with them—and

the pickerel, the perch, and the trout were very THE WHITE BLACKBERRY. handy when it did not cost more time to take The White Blackberry is a most vigorous shores, we had an abundance of cod-fish, shad,

them than they were worth. So, too, on the seagrower, often attaining a height of ten feet. It salmon, herring, and others covered with scales is a much more prolific bearer than the common or shells; but gradually they have decreased and variety, or field blackberry, the buds being set on some of them almost disappeared. In both inthe stalks in the immediate vicinity of each stances we have disturbed and destroyed them ; other--there being generally not more than the

we have paid no regard to their wants, and the

ways and times of their increase ; and hereafter distance of two inches between them, and each we shall suffer their loss, or by proper attention bud having two spurs instead of one, as in the and provision just secure their continuance. case with the latter. The berries are of large By changing fishes from one locality to another size, amber colored, and possessing a flavor re

we can habituate them to new homes where they markably rich and sweet. There is no difficulty this done with oysters, lobsters, and other shell

may turn to pleasure and profit. We have seen whatever attending its cultivation ; all that is fish; and just as well it has been and may be essentially requisite being a rich, light, and mod- done with other species. You can seed the wa

ters with what they are fitted for, as well as you move about without coming in contact with it; can the land. We have an example of this in these minute breathing holes become filled, and the tautog, which is highly prized about Ply- they die. When the remedy is properly applied, mouth. They were unknown in Massachusetts Bay till 1790, when a fisherman took a load from we have never known it to fail. It requires but Narraganset to Boston to sell ; but as they had a very little oil, but the application may be necesnot been in the market before, nothing could be sary two or three times. WILLIAM BETHEL, of obtained for them, and they were finally loosed Quechee Village, Vt., will find his inquiries from the well of the boat near Charles River answered here. bridge, and have since that time stocked the coast. In the same way any fishes may be trans

For the New England Farmer. ported from one shore to another adapted to their habits; and where they will live in fresh

MONTHLY FARMER FOR MARCH. water, from the oceans to the ponds. The rivers Why is Farming Despised ?-A clear-headed a hundred miles in the country might be filled statement here of six reasons, -one of which is with bass, or others that line the running wa- thus expressed : “There is a seemingly natural, ter; and ponds, like Winnipisseogee for instance, innate repugnance--common to almost every inmight furnish cod, pollock, haddock and macker- dividual—to daily manual labor." To which the el. It were certainly worth the experiment. It editor appends this remark : “All the result of would be an easy thing for the farmer, if he education.” My recollection of the process could run to his little brooks for his dinner, as he through which I passed in learning to endure does to his barn-yard; and so it would be to per- daily manual labor, my considerable experience Sons or the sea-coast, if they had their live fishes in training boys to habits of continuous industry, where they could always be taken. In the Sand- and my reading and observation, are decidedly in wick Islands the natives form fish ponds all along favor of the innate theory. We may naturally the shores, and they are a source of revenue to love play and activity, but it seems to me that the owners. They leave a channel for the fishes we as naturally hate drudgery and steady, hard to enter that would spawn, and then close the work. The Indian glories in the chase, but he mouth so as to retain the big ones and let the scorns to labor. Can it be “the resu of educasmall ones go free. Those retained, become by tion” that his "untutored mind,” and body too, care large and feshy. If, however, fishes could revolts from daily toil with a repugnance too not be transplanted from the oceans to the ponds, intense to be overcome by any system of educathey could from our western lakes, and thus the tion, or by any amount of rewards or severity of whole country might be supplied without going punishments? "Slavery and the slave-trade," abroad.— Newburyport Herald.

says Bancroft, “are older than the records of human society." But, why was there ever a

slave in the world, or, if slaves, why the lash For the New England Farmer.

and whipping-post, if this repugnance were not LICE ON CATTLE.

innate and common alike to both master and serIf not now, the time is near at hand when ver- vant? “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat min will trouble our cattle. T'he extra keeping

bread,” was pronounced as a curse, and as a of six quarts of oats per day, will not keep the curse it has ever been regarded by the human flesh good when the skin is covered with these race.

Submission to this decree may prove to be destructive insects. I will give my method for the wisest course for us, as submission to the killing the lice, which may be beneficial to the sentence of earthly tribunals is for transgressors readers of the Farmer. Sprinkle your stable of human law, and yet the sweat of thy face" door with charcoal dust, (which is easily pro

and the “óhard labor in prison” remain punisheured at any blacksmith's shop,) put four quarts


These remarks are made in the conviction that under the fore feet of every creature, and if the lice are very plenty, sprinkle some on their backs,

the question is one of the highest practical imthen apply the card faithfully, and in a few days portance. If we look upon repugnance to daily you will find you have conquered the enemy.

manual toil as the result of education, then it Canaan, Vi., 1855.

may be cured by education ; and agricultural

colleges may be just the things to inspire that REMARKS.—Excellent suggestions, for several love of hard work, to impart that gift of conreasons. The charcoal will not tan the living habits of enduring industry, which shall give to

tinuance in daily toil, and to establish those hide, as some people do with ashes and ley, nor the scythe and axe, the hoe and manure-fork, poison the animal as others do with unguentum. even stronger attractions than the yard-stick and If the charcoal does not kill the vermin, it will gold-pen now have for our aspiring youth. But prove an excellent absorbent in the manure heap, he innate, —"bred' in the bone," --natural, then

if, on the contrary, we believe this repugnance to Let this little fact be remembered and practised shall we hope to overcome it only by such course upon, and no one need to be troubled with ver- of training as shall finally, by force of habit, min on their cattle or poultry. “Insects do not establish the love of industry as a "second nabreathe through their mouths, but through little ture.' This of course requires time. Not only holes, called spiracles, generally nine in number, from day to day, but from year to year, must the along each side of the body.” Now, if the skin love of it shall sweeten our toil. It is a long

"daily manual labor” be continued, before the and hair are oiled or greased, and carefully process, but good Yankee farmers can be manurubbed all over the animal, the insects cannot factured in no other way, either in New England

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or Kanzas, as, I fear, many a soft-handed emi- of the moon, whether it is not better for people grant to the plains of the far west will learn by to have a particular time for particular work, sad experience.

than to have no time at all. I hardly believe the Criticisms."--Here are three objections to the moon was made in vain ; and until a better time Farmer. 1. Articles are published unseasonably. is discovered for cutting bushes, for instance,-2. No reviews wanted. 3. Articles are repeated and I have never found any, let us have faitli, in the same number." In addition to the re- and slash into them “in the old of the moon" marks of the editor in reply to the first objection, next August, and see if that old wall and tl e I would say that, to my taste, the Monthly Far- lower corner of the “mowing” as well as the old mer, something like the Baldwin apple, though “cow-pasture," does not look more tidy. Some good to look at and answering passably well for farms do look as though they had lost all faith in immediate use, is not really ripe for study till the moon ! about January, when the index furnishes the Farming in Iowa.--"Nemo" may be assurei means of readily comparing the ideas and prac- that we down-eaşters have a very great intere: t tices of different men on particular subjects. But in people away out on those prairies. The very there are all sorts of readers. And the Monthly thought of planting in a soil that will give á Farmer seems designed especially for that plod- good crop without manure, makes the nerv. s ding class who read a book or an article over and twitch among those who are in the habit of over, and still like to know what other people paying seven dollars a cord for it. And it is net think of it, before they fully adopt or reject its very strange that some of our boys should be teachings, while the Weekly Farmer, more prompt talking of going west, though you get but three, and seasonable, better meets the demands of those and-a-half for pork. If it is possible for you to strong-minded people who study books by their keep your "gravity” long enough to give us : title-pages, and whose comprehensive minds few more "items,” please do so before the grasp the minutest details of elaborate disserta- shakes” shall carry you. from “gay to grave,” tions by a single glance, and with whom an arti- and never bring you back again. cle once read is read, “and that's the end ont.”

Training Grapes.-A tip-top article with bran To such readers all reviews are alike stale and new cuts illustrating plain directions for begin. unprofitable, while to another class they are interesting in proportion to the ability with which they are executed. If this second objection, in- ele I have yet seen of this grape. The writer

The Concord Grape. The most laudatory artistead of questioning the wisdom of the plan, had thinks it has been sufficiently tested to warrant been based upon the incompetency of the writer the assertion that “every one who has a house of the reviews, I should not have answered him a and garden, may have just such vines to sit word. But the more experience I have on the under” as he saw in Concord. I have seen the subject, the more heartily do I approve of the Concord grape on exhibition, and think highly plan, and the more ardently do I hope the right of its promise, but is it not possible for the fancy man will soon be found for its execution. De- of the enthusiastic to run a little wild on grape's voting more hours to daily toil than fall to the average lot of laboring men in New England, heen tested much longer than the Concord grape,

as well as hens? The Northern Spy apple has with few books and no “study" but the family, but can it be said that the “reputation and room, if I had the ability, I lack the time and value” of that apple is yet "established ?" means for such investigation as is necessary for the accomplishment of a task which was com

"Pruning Fruit Trees again."-If not entirely menced unawares and unintentionally, and which settled, it is no fault of W. D. B.,” whose artiwill be gladly relinquished when Mr. Stone will cles are as brimful of good sense as of good furnish "something more interesting to those nature. We shall try to learn our letters” in who have read the previous number.” The third the great alphabet of which he speaks, and with advice, to avoid the repetition of articles in the such teachers as himself and other writers for the same number, has all the force of a caution Farmer, it must be a dull scholar that makes no against any other class of typographical errors, - About 'Pear Trees,” remarks on producing new

progress, for in this number we have articles that printers are probably much more sorry to make than Mr. Stone is to discover.

varieties from seeds, on the effects of climate and A short Lecture on Extravagance. It does cultivation, on preserving fruit, with reports to seem to me that if our lectures on this subject

the Pomological Convention, from several States.

&c. are short, they ought to be thick. If, under the rigid economy of our fathers, who made their own

Legislative Agricultural Meetings.-Full reports clothing and most of their implements, their of the discussions at four of chese meetings of

A READER. farms run out,” what will become of our soil our law-makers. when it is tixed with the purchase of every thing

Winchester, March, 1855. ready-made and far-brought? Take care of your Cattle.-Just the right kind

REMARKS.-The language our correspondent of directions to make them "chew the cud of employs, shows how the boy is educated—that is, contentment."

through drudgery, and steady, hard work.And Morigages on Farms.-Friend Durand and my- therein lies the secret—it is not only drudgery, self have now had our say on this subject, and but steady, hopeless drudgery! And this conpeople hereafter will do as they please, or as they straint is imposed upon young and healthy boys can, about following our advice.

Lunar Influences. - It looks wise to talk and girls, impatient of long-continued effort in “prejudices," I know, but I wish to ask those any thing, as it would be unnatural if they were who are now disposed to make a laughing-stock not. No, no! God has not so constituted his in






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telligent creatures as to hate the labor by which making them roost on the rack ; I simply drove their bread is to be produced. The well-fed them from all other places, just before dark, and horse and ox enjoy the labor to which they are

they soon learned where to go to roost to be let alone.

S. TENNEY. applied, and so would the boy if he were tanght

West Poland, And. Co., Me., 1855. it as judiciously as is the colt! “Steady drudgery and hard work,for a boy whose limbs are as lithe as an antelopes, and whose mind springs

For the New England Farmer. from object to object, as though resting on the

RECLAIMING SWAMP LANDS. wings of a bird! No wonder he has a prejudice against regular employment.

This subject is beginning to arrest the attention of New England cultivators.

No subject For the New England Farmer.

connected with farming can more properly occu

py the thoughts of the farmer, who has such PROFIT OF HENS.

land, still unreclaimed, upon his farm. The MR. EDITOR :-I send you the following ac- frequent droughts to which we are subjected, are count of the management of a flock of hens, 36 teaching us to set a higher value upon such lands, in number. They were allowed to roam where than we have hitherto done. Experience is showthey pleased, with the exception of a few weeks ing us that they are the most productive and the in the first part of the winter, when they were most reliable lands which we cultivate. It was confined to a pen 12 x 16 feet, with the privilege formerly supposed that potatoes grown upon such of going out doors occasionally. In June, they lands were more liable to disease, than those were confined to the barn most of the time, to grown upon uplands. But I think the experiprevent their depredations on my growing corn.ence of the last two years has shown that potaCorn was kept by them most of the time. The toes grown upon peat lands, are as little liable to account stands thus, commencing with December, rot, as those grown upon any kind of soil what1853, and ending with November, 1854: ever, while the yield was much larger than upon

any other soil. December, 1853, by.

$ 00 00 One of my neighbors, the past season, realized January, 1854.. February,

a clear profit of ninety dollars an acre from a March, “ 9 doz, eggs, at 15 cents per doz.....1 35

peat swamp cultivated in potatoes, which three

years ago would not have sold for 20 dollars per April, * 171..“.

Now the land is worth a hundred dollars “ 304..“. June,

per acre.

One of the finest pieces of reclaimed

land which I have seen is situated near the cenJuly, " 224 doz, eggs at 14 cents per doz....3 15 August,

tre of Carlisle, on the road from Concord to September, "17}....“.

Lowell. I think it contains not less than 20 October, November, “5 hens killed..

A few years ago, it was an unsightly " 6 hens kept.

swamp, filled with stumps hassocks and bushes.

The water stood upon a large portion of it, most Total income......

of the year. It was the favorite resort of bull.$28 82

frogs and tortoises. The bluberries were the only December, 1853, to 2 bushels corn.

product of any value that it yieided. The only January, 1851,....2..

pleasant memory associated with it is the song February, March,

of the blackbirds that sported and whistled April, 1}.."

around its margin in the spring time. By skilMay,

ful and indefatigable labor, it has been convert

ed into one of the most level and beautiful July, ".........".

meadows to be found in Massachusetts. It alAugust,

..1...“. September, ". ........".

ways rivets my attention when I pass by it, and October, “......1..“.

I don't cease to look at it, while any portion of November, ".

it is in sight. Immense quantities of roots have

been extracted from it, which have been used for • $18 62 fuel. Its surface has been smoothed by the bog

hoe and the plow. It has been dressed with a compost of barn manure, and gravel mixed to

gether upon its margin. Small portions of it have

$10 20 been reclaimed annually in this way, principally Income per head..


by the labor of the owners, until it has now been The above does not show a great profit, yet it converted from an offensive blotch upon the boshows a fair one.

I am convinced that a much som of mother earth, into a spot of beauty, that greater profit might be made by providing a good delights the eye of every beholder. I have been poultry house and yard, and a variety of food. informed that a portion of it cultivated the two · Mine had a full supply of lime, and occasionally past years in potatoes yielded a clear profit of a little raw meat. They were provided with a $100 per acre.

Most of it is in grass,

and rack to roost upon, madě by boring holes in two yields from two to three tons per acre of fine hay. poles, six inches apart, and inserting slats four l'his land, a few years ago, was not worth $10 feet long. The rack was laid on poles, about per acre, now it is worth $200. The secret by three and a half feet from the boards laid re- which $100 has thus been converted into $4000, ceive the manure.

I found no great difficulty in is through draining. The fuel which the owners

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+ 2 bbls. manure.

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...0 75 ...100 ...200


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