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mental shrines, so well calculated on account of the smallness of their plan to admit a multiplicity of delicate ornaments highly finished, afford exquisite specimens of this stile. The most remarkable one I can recollect, is that of bishop Fox, at Winchester which, before it was stripped of its images and the painted glass * which filled part of its present openwork, must have been a most beautiful spectacle. How quickly tomb-architecture improved in this way, may
be seen by two fumptuous shrines in the same church, which stand opposite each other ; those of bishop Waynflete, and cardinal Beaufort. The bishop's is evidently constructed in imitation of the cardinal's: but being forty years later, is infinitely richer in the variegation of its fretted roof, and the profufion of its ornamented spire-work t. The screen behind the altar, in the same cathedral, built 1525, far superior to that at St. Alban's, is also a striking pattern of this workmanship. We have some episcopal thrones
* It was broke and destroyed by the Presbyterians, 1643, as appeass by a passage in Mercurius Rufticus, pag. 214. It is not commonly known or observed that this Mrine was thus curiously glazed.
+ Waynflete died 1486. How greatly tomb-architecture within 150 years, continued to alter, appears from an expression in Berthelette's preface to his edition of Gower's Confeffio Amantis, 1554. pared for his bones a restynge place in the monasterie of St. Marie Overee, where somewhat after the OLD-FASHION he lieth right sumptuously buried.” Gower died 1402.
« Gower pre
bighly executed in this taste. Such is that at Wells, built by bishop Beckington, 1450 : and that at Exeter by bishop Boothe, who succeeded to the fee, 1466. The first is of wood, painted and gilded; the latter is likewise of wood, but painted in imitation, and has the effect, of stone. They are both very lofty and light. Most of the churches in Somersetshire, which are remarkably elegant, are in the stile of the FLORID Gothic. The reason is this: Somersetshire, in the civil wars between York and Lancaster, was strongly and entirely attached to the Lancastrian party. In reward for this service, Henry VII. when he came to the crown, rebuilt their churches. The tower of Glocester cathedral, and the towers of the churches of Taunton and Glastonbury, and of a parochial church at Wells, are conspicuous examples of this fashion. Most of the churches of this reign are known, besides other distinctions, by latticed battlements, and broad open windows. In this stile Henry VIII. built the palace of * Nonsuch ; and cardinal Wolsey, Hamptoncourt, Whitehall, Christ-church in Oxford, and the tomb-house, at Windsor.
* See a cutt of its front, perhaps the only representation of it extant, in Speed's Tbeatre of the Empire of Great Britaine, 1614. fol. pag. 11 Map of Surrey. In the same is a cutt of Richmond Palace, built by Henry VII. VOL. II.
I cannot more clearly recapitulate or illustrate what has been said, than by observing, that the seals of our english monarchs, from the reign of Henry III. display the taste of architecture which respectively prevailed under several subsequent reigns; and consequently convey, as at one comprehensive view, the series of its fucceffive revolutions : infomuch, that if no real models remained, they would be sufficient to shew the modes and alterations of building in England*. In these each king is represented fitting enshrined amid a sumptuous pile of architecture. Henry III. 1259, appears seated amidst an assemblage of arches of the round Saxon formt. So are his successors Edward I. and II. Edward III. 1330, is the first whose seal exhibits pointed Saracen arches; but those, of his first seal at least I, are extremely simple. In the seals of Richard II. 1378, and his successor Henry IV. we find Gothic arches of a more complicated construction. At length the seal of Henry V. 1412, is adorned with a still more artificial fabric. And lastly, in the seals of Edward V. Richard III. and Henry VII. we discern a more open, and less pointed Gothic.
I subjoin some general observations. The towers in Saxon cathedrals were not always intended for bells.
* See Speed's history, &c. fol. London, 1627. + See his fecond seal, Speed, pag. 547. | See his second seal, Speed, pag. 584.
They They were calculated to produce the effect of the louver, or open lantern, in the inside ; and, on this account, were originally continued open almost to the covering. It is generally supposed, that the tower of Winchester cathedral, which is remarkably thick and short, was left as the foundation for a projected spire: but this idea never entered into the plan of the architect. Nearly the whole inside of this tower was formerly seen from below; and for that reason, its sidearches, or windows, of the first story at least, are artificially wrought and ornamented. With this sole effect in view, the builder saw no necessity to carry it higher. An instance of this visibly subsists at present, in the inside of the tower of the neighbouring Saxon church of St. Cross, built about the same time. The same effect was at first designed at Salisbury; where, for the same purpose folely, was a short tower, the end of which is easily discerned by critical observers; being but little higher than the roof of the church, and of less refined workmanship than that additional part on which the present fpire is constructed. Many other examples might be pointed out. This gave the idea for the beautiful lanterns at Peterborough and Ely
Spires were never used till the Saracen mode took place. I think we find none before 1200. The spire
of old St. Paul's was finished 1221 *. That of Salirbury, as appears from a late survey t, and other proofs, was not included in the plan of the builder, and was raised many years after the church was completed. The spire of Norwich Cathedral, about 1278 1. Sir Christopher Wren informs us, that the architects of this period, “ thought height the greatest magnifi.
Few stones, adds he, were used, but what a man might carry up a ladder on his back, from fcaffold to scaffold, though they had pullies, and spoked wheels upon occasion; but having rejected cornices, they had no need of great engines. Stone upon stone was easily piled up to great heights; therefore the pride of their work was in pinnacles and steeples. The Gothic way carried all their mouldings perpendicular; so that they had nothing else to do, but to spire up all they could.” He adds, " they affected steeples, though the Saracens themselves used cupolas S.” But with submission to such an authority, I cannot help being of opinion, that, though the Saracens themselves used cupolas, the very notion of a spire was brought from the east, where pyramidical structures were common, and spiral ornaments were the fashionable de. corations of their mosques, as may be seen to this day,
* Dugdale's St. Paul's. pag. 12. | Willis's Mitr. Abb. v. 1. p. 279.
† Survey, &c. by Price. § Wren's Parentalia, P. 305,