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118. Gnaphalium plantagineum, form 134. Why admit yet Crotonopsis ! and our G. Disynanthus.
Oryzopsis ; instead of Leplemon and Di119. Many sp. of Conyza belong to the lepyrum ? substituted by Rafinesque. G. Gynema, Fl. Lud.
135. Why change Purshia into Ptilo120. The sub-genus Chrysopsis, N., phyllum ? (Inula, L. and Aster, L.) was named 136. Carya, N., was named Hicorius, Diplogon in Fl. Missurica, and adopted by Raf. in 1808 ; in 1817, no notice is by us as a N. G. ; that name is preferable, taken of it. Carya is inadmissible, besince some species have white flowers ! ing a radical Greek name, cootained in
121. Most of the sp. of G. Senecio be. Caryocar, Eucarya, Tricharia, &c. long to the G. Jacobea : the S. hieracifo- 137. Jatropha stimulosa is Bivonca, lius must form a sub-genus Plileris.
N. G. Raf. Mirr. Sc. 1814. 122. Starkea-pinnata belongs to the 138. Maclura, N., has been described genus Sideranthus of Fraser, unnoticed by us under the anterior and better name by Nuttall.
of loxylon, which must be retained. Two 123. Phaethusa, read Phaethusia; for fossil substances bave lately received the Tetragonotheca, insert Gonotheca. name of Maclurite, a shell and a mineral; 124. Leptopoda, N., is a wrong name;
this last will probably retain the denomithere is already a genus of fish of the nation, being more appropriate to the pursame name. Leptophora must be sub- suits of Mr. Maclure. stituted.
139. Sheperdia, N., was proposed by 125. Balduina, N., is in the same case;
us under the better and anterior name of we have proposed a genus of that name Lepargyrea ; and the gardener Sheperd already. Nuttall's genus must receive does not deserve the dedication of a genus, the new denomination of Endorima. by all accounts.
126. The natural group proposed un.. 140. Udora, N., (Elodea, Mx.) was der the name of Galardiae, must be styled named by us Philotria, a good significant Helenides, from Helemium, the oldest and name: we do not know what Udoza most euphonous name. 127. Rudbeckia columnaris is the type
141. To the unlucky names of Struthiof our genus Ratibida ; R. purpurea, of opteris, Scolopendrium, and Pteris, we our G. Lepachis : many other genera are
have substituted, long ago, Pterilis, Glosblended with Rudbeckia.
sopteris, and Phyllitis. 128. Actinomeris, N., ought to be
142. Myosotis scabra, N., app. appears shortened into Actimeris, so as to pre- to be our Lithospermum tenellum, discoclude any collision with Actinia. vered in New Jersey in 1803. 129. Lislera convallarioides, is proba
We have now concluded this elaborate bly the G. Diphryllum of Raf. in Med. survey of Mr. Nuttall's labours. We feel Rep. The sub-genus Microstylis is cer
an uncommon satisfaction in having pertainly his G. Achroanthes.
ceived tbat so much has been added by 130. Tipularia, N., is inadmissible, be. that worthy botanist, to our former knowing derived from T'ipula. We shall sub- ledge of our genera and species, while we stitute the name of Anthericlis.
regret that he has (through oversight pro131. Cypripedium arietinum, is our G. bably) left us so much to do yet. We Criosanthes.
advise every botanist that may attempt 132. Aristolochia sipho, must form a to follow his steps, to be very careful, lest peculiar genus, with all the sp. having they should fall into the same mistakes an uolabiate flower : we shall call it Iso- and inaccuracies which we have been trema, meaning equal opening.
compelled to correct. If they take the 133. The extensive genus Carex, must trouble of comparing attentively his laat least be divided, all the species having bours, with those already published or three stigmas, will form our G. Triplim7, announced by all the American and Fu.
ropean botanists, they will probably de- an unwarrantable conduct; and we shall tect a great number more, which have at all times deem ourselves at liberty to escaped our attention, or which we have stigmatise their proceedings with the apbeen obliged to omit, for sake of brevity. pellations that they will deserve. We repeat that we lay claim to all the We understand that Mr. Nuttall is now improvements and names which we have engaged in exploring some of our westnow, and at various former periods, pro- ern regions, particularly the Arkadzas riposed and published. We do not coma- ver, for botanical researches, in which pel any one to adopt them; when they do undertaking we heartily wish him all not, they prove merely their want of judg, the success imaginable. We bave , no ment and liberality ; but when they may doubt that he will continue to increase become convinced of the necessity of their our kpowledge of plants, and if he should, adoption, let them give us the credit to in some future works acknowledge and which we consider ourselves entitled; if correct the errors which we have pointthey should not, and should endeavour to ed out in this, we shall then consider his conceal them under different names, they ingenuousness equal to his knowledge. must abide by the consequences of such
C. S. R.
Art. 4. Musica Sacra: or, Springfield and Utica Collections uniled: consisting of
Psalm and Hymn Tunes, Anthems and Chants; arranged for two, three, or four Voices, with a Figured Base for the Organ or Piano Forte. By THOMAS HASTINGS and SOLOMON W ARRINER. 8vo. pp. 276. Utica. William Williams. 1818.
The Musical Reader, or, Practical Lessons for the Voice ; consisting of Phrases,
Sections, Periods, and entire movements of Melody in Score. To which are prefired, the Rudiments of Music. Compiled principally for the use of Schools, by one of the Editors of the “ Musica Sacra.” 8vo. pp. 80. Ulica. William Williams. 1818. HE
. is sufficiently apparent from its title. unfolded in the Musical Reader is in some Although principally intended as an in- respects new; and we think it decidedly troduction to the “ Musica Sacra,” it is preferable to that generally adopted by also bound in a separate form, for the ac- our musical teachers and compilers, in commodation of schools and singing socie- which, after a few lessons for tuning the ties at large. The practical lessons, voice, the beginner is immediately carried which constitute three-fourths of the forward to a promiscuous collection of work, are judiciously selected, and ar. psalınody. In this way he prematurely ranged in such a manner as to conduct fancies himself an adept in musical notathe learner, by progressive steps, from tion; the idea of returning to his rudithe simplest intervals of melody, through ments becomes irksome; and if he does all the varieties of time and modulation, not continue ever after in that stage of to those refinements in yocal execution musical childhood which requires the aid which complete the education of the cho- of leading strings, and can make its way ral performer. These lessons are inter- over a page only by spelling ball the spersed with entire pieces of harmony, words, he at least remains ignorant of chiefly selected from the best authors, those nicer details, to the knowledge of which correspond in difficulty to the pro- which music owes its highest effects. Congress made by the learner, and exemplify șidering how large a portion of the comsuccessively whatever is requisite to the munity prize this art as the source of some correct and expressive performance of of their most innocent and refined plea
sures, and its importance as an auxiliary of musical notation. These, as the work. to public and private devotion, the preva. is not designed to supersede oral instruclent neglect of musical rudiments is too tion, are given with brevity; yet, in geserious an evil to pass unnoticed. It neral, with sufficient clearness to be intel. places the most refined productions of ligible without such instruction. As it is foreign composers beyond the reach of intended for the use of those who are our vocal performers; it impairs the style merely desirous to qualify themselves for in which the rest is executed; and it oc- the correct performance of sacred music, casions a totally unnecessary waste of it cannot be expected to contain a comtime. As our singing societies are now plete account of the subject. We are generally managed, every new tune, if at not so unreasonable as to look for any all difficult, is either learned by rote from thing more, in a publication of this nature, the leader, or is decyphered at the ex- than corresponds with its original desigo ; pense of much time and labour. A fifth get there are several particulars in which part of the time frequently employed in we think, that without any sensible addithis way, if judiciously directed to the tion to its bulk, it is susceptible of consielements of musical notation, would ena: derable improvement; and we suggest ble the performer to read music al sight. them chiefly with the hope that a work
Mr. Hastings does not profess to have which is to circulate as extensively as we discovered any royal road to the art of trust this will, may be rendered as comsinging. He makes no pretensions to the plete as possible in a future edition. secret of those notable handicrafts-men, The subject of modulation is not treated who manufacture finished French scho- suficiently at length, and, we fear, in lars in thirty lessons--turn off fifty-two some respects, not with sufficient distinctsets of well-made penmen in a year-and ness. In the practice of singing by note, want but a process of six months standing the names become so closely associated to produce complete proficients in all the with the degrees which they denote, that arts and sciences. Far humbler than when accidental sharps or flats occur in these are the claims of our author. On the course of a strain, it becomes indispenthe contrary, it is the object of his lessons sable that the names should be changed, to keep the young musician in the atti- in order that such sharps or flats may be tude of a learner much longer than has correctly sounded. If, for example, in a been generally done. At the same time, strain on the natural key, major, a sharp he is willing to indulge the impatience occurs on the 4th above the key-note, the which learners naturally feel to become key now becomes that of one sharp, the performers, and to relieve the tedium of key-note is a 5th higher than before, and a dry series of lessons, in themselves un- the pote before called sol, now becomes meaning, by an occasional movement of faw. If the names are not shifted, it will harmony, adapted to their proficiency. be just as difficult to change the key with We do not mean to imply that in all this the voice, as to perform a piece which is there is any thing very original, or any wholly set to the key of one sharp, when thing which would not naturally enough the key-note is called sol, the note below occur to a person of ordinary experience it faw, &c. Let any one who wishes to and reflection. An analogous system has be satisfied of this, take a melody to the been long in use for teaching music on sounds of which he has not been familiarkeyed instruments. We only wonder ized, and attempt to sing it by shifting that the same plan has not been applied the names so as to make the key-note sol, more effectually to the teaching of vocal or mi. He will soon find himself involved music; and that a work as well adapted in inextricable confusion. The difficulty to the object as Mr. llastings' has not is preciscly the same in singing modulatearlier appeared.
ed passages of any length, if the names To the lessons, are prefixed rudiments are continued unchanged. It is impossible to sing correctly a modulated passage made by all the parts, although no acciwhich is at all protracted, (especially if dental should occur in more than one of the key and mode are both changed toge- them. Another method, which we bave ther, or if digressions to more than one occasionally seen recommended, and related key take place before the priuci- which is adopted by Mr. H., without pal one is resumed,) without knowing the changing the whole scale, merely calls a. key-note of that passage, and referring flatted note faw; and in case of a sharped tbe other notes to it as a standard. But note, changes the end of its name into i; if the names are not so arranged as to in imitation of the syllable mi. Thus an make fat the key-note when the mode is accidentally sharped faw is to be called major, and law w beo it is minor, it will be fi, a sharped sol, si, &c. Mr. H. recomequally difficult to retain any distinct im- mends in general terms the other method pression of the key.*
in certain instances; but declines enter The necessity of a change of names ing into it “with minuteness,” on the being acknowledged by all who under- ground that it “would be a work of stand the subject, it becomes important much time, labour, and difficulty," and that a uniform method of doing it should that “ a perfect knowledge of modulation he universally adopted. Two methods is not requisite to a mere performer." fiave been recommended by the most in- We infer from what he remarks in antelligent compilers of rudiments in this other place, (p. 8.) that he considers the country, which in some respects differ. explanation of this subject as most proTIolyoke and Hill, among others, treat a 'perly left to the instructer. Here we change of key by accidentals srecisely as tbink Mr. H.'s work somewhat deficient. is the new key were the original one; or Not to insist on what we fear is the fact, as if it were expressly denoted by a new that many of our “instructers” need insignature. However transient the modu- structing on this subject, the ablest inlation, they would call the new key-note, structions will not supersede the necesif of the major mode, faw, and if of the sity of a more definite and complete series minor, law; and shift in a corresponding of written directions than our author has inanner all the other namas of the scale. furnished. He has, indeed, recommended They even require this change to be that the names of the whole scale should
sometimes be changed; but has given'no For this reason, among others, we are de- directions by which these cases may be cidedly of opinion that the new musical notation readily distinguished ; por (which we introduced by Mr. A. Law, and partly copied think the principal defect) has he given by Little and Smith,
can never come ivio general use. That it afiords some facilities for the any examples in his Lessons by which acquisition of the plainest psalmody is admitted;
the babit of making these changes may be although its relative simplicity is much overrated by its author. Bun by furnishing distinct acquired. He has, indeed, introduced characters for the several names of the notes, it two or three specimens of composition creates a still stronger association, if possible, between the names and the intervals, than the which afford a considerable variety of mocommon notation, while it makes no provision dulations; but this variety should have for any change in them when a modulation of been made greater, and in all cases, the curs; and, iudced, (at least when lines and spaces are dispensed with,) scarcely admits of place of the new key, together with the any such provision. How, for example, would Mr. Law indicate a modulation to the second
new name of the first note in that key, ascending or descending? If the new key-note should have been written over the stave. is denoted by his character for Firm, without Mr. H. seems to us to have overrated the which the passage could not be correctly per: formed, nothing would remain, in his systein of difficulty of this subject. So far as it is notation, to indicate even thie existence of a di- necessary to the perusal of any sacred gression from the original key. Much as we respect the motives which have armazed the ex- music which has been published in this crtions of this gentleman, we are fully convinced country, even to the oratorios of Handel that they have been direcies to the support of a and Haydn, it appears capable of being system which is nolenable, and must scoa share the fate of inost incovations.
reduced to a few simple cases. The fol
lowing paragraphs, we apprebend, would nór,) the key is depressed a 5th, or what place it in a clear and definite point of is the same, raised a 4th; the flatted mi is view, if they could be accompanied by to be called faw, and the names of all the proper examples.
other degrees changed accordingly. The last of the two methods above men- These two changes, with the exceptioned we would adopt in the three follow- tion of transitions to the relative major ing cases :
or minor mode mentioned above, occur 1. When the modulation is momentary, much more frequently than all others. or but a single note is flatted or sharped. Whenever one of them takes place, the Almost all the modulations in plain psalm other must follow it, to restore the origitubes are of this character; and the nal key. change of faw into fi, and mi into faro, 3. When the sharp of the 1st case, without changing the other names, and major mode, is attended by a sharp on without making any change whatever in the 2d above the key-note, the key bethe parts which contain no accidental, is comes the 3d above, minor mode; and equally effectual, and far less perplexing the last-mentioned sharp is the sharp 7th to the beginner, than a transposition of of the new key. The change of Dames the whole scale.
is the same as in case 1st. 2. In chromatic modulations, (where 4. When the flat of the 28 case, major one or more of the parts regularly ascends mode, is accompanied by a sharp on the or descends by semitones,) as the key is key-note, the key becomes the 2d above, continually changing, this method will be minor mode, and the last-mentioned found the only advantageous, if not the sharp, the sharp 7th of the new key. The only practicable one.
change of names is the same as in case 3. The 6th and 7th ascending, in the 2d. minor mode, are best sharped in this way. 5. When the sharp of the 1st case, If these notes be not called fi and si, the major mode, is accompanied by a sharp names can be changed only by consider- on the key-note, the key is raised a se. ing them as forming a part of the major cond; the sharped faw must be called scale, and calling the four upper notes mi, and the names of the other degrees sol, law, mi, faw; the inconveniences of changed accordingly. which will be obvious-on the least reflec- 6. When the flat of the 2d case, major tion. Under this head are to be included mode, is accompanied by a flat on the 3d those modulations to the relative minor above the key-note, the key becomes the mode a 3d below, which so frequently second below, the flatted mi must be occur in major-keyed music, and are called faw, and the names of the other produced by sharping the sol a 5th above degrees changed. the key-note.
The two last modulations seldom occur. In all cases except these three, we They are most frequently produced by a think it decidedly best, (and in most others successive application of the two accidentindispensable,) to transpose the names of als, or by modulating totbe 5th above or the the whole scale. These cases are the 5th below twice in succession. In a very following:
few cases, the mode, as well as the key, 1. When a sharp occurs on faw, a 4th will be found changed; producing, in the above the key-note of the major mode, former case, a minor passage on the 20 (or a 6th above that of the minor,) the below, and in the latter, a minor passage key is raised a 5th; the sharped faw is on the 5th above. Of the latter, an exto be called mi, and the names of all the ample inay be seen in tbe Lock Hosp. other degrees changed accordingly, Col. p. 162., at the words, “ With various
2. When a flat occurs on mi, the se- ills,” &c. cond below the key-note of the major 7. When three sharps are added to the mode, (or the second above that of the mi. minor mode descending, or a single sharp