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33+ CONG....20 Sess.
Duty on Railroad Iron-Mr. Brodhead.
subordinate authorities) to treat the subjects of the English to be. She knows also the value, commercially, from Tennessee (Mr. Jones) has just presented. I
of such an acquisition to our southern Territory. cannot yield my assent to the measure. I think it ceedin: against one of the subjects of those nations, con
She is not ignorant of its importance to us in a is violative of principle, and of the settled revenue vincing proof of their guilt, and the degree thereof; always military point of view, and hence her fears, and policy of the Government. It is unjust and unaroiding measures which may call for indemnity of damages; her jealousies, and her half concealed hostility to generous—though not so intended by the Senator, for, needing in the present crilical state of affairs the powerfut uid of both these nations, it is just to accord them every
the American Union, and her underground diplo- and ultimately it will be injurious to the consumers consideration. The authorities are held strictly responsible macy with the Cabinet of Spain. England knows of railroad iron themselves. for the fulfillment of this order."
what nature, and nature's God has done for that Before proceeding, Mr. President, to sustain Will the gentleman from South Carolina point
western Eden. Rich in all the varied productions | these propositions, I have a few preliminary reto any incident, any expression of good will, which spring forth spontaneously from her soil- marks to make in reply to some points made by similar to this in the entire history of our relations
salubrious in climate-exhaustless in her natural my friend from Tennessee. For several years. with Spain? Think you,,sir, that if the gallant resources she needs but the influence of Ameri- past it has been evident that the railroad interest Crittenden, and his brave compatriots, could have
can institutions, and the progressive spirit of is one of the most powerful combinations of capreferred the Bulcher Concha to such a document in
American enterprise to raise her to a condition ital and energy in this country. I find that in
that would challenge the admiration of the world. New York there have been meetings of railroad favor of the United States, that their blood would have deluged the streets of Havana, and their
Under her present rotten and despotic system of gentlemen who propose to send committees here, 'bodies have been mutilated and mangled by: a Government-her industry paralyzed-her spirit and one of their committees has issued a circular
in whic) they call upon the different railroad combrutal and ferocious soldiery? No, sir; the mis. | galled and broken-her sons enslaved, and her soil creants who acted as Concha's executioners on
neglected, it is almost incredible that she could ) panies to furnish them with a contribution of $100
retain even a breath of commercial vitality. And each; and to give them five per cent. on the amount that revolting occasion would never have satiated their demoniac thirst for the blood of American yet her commerce, restricted and fettered as it is, of the duties which may be remitted,
At a meeting held in Richmond on the 5th and citizens—" the authorities would see to the fulfillmert exhibits annual returns perfectly
In 1851, her imports amounted to $32,311,430, 16th December, of all the State proxies, presidents, of the order." There are many other points in the gentleman's ports reached the sum of $29,780,242, and her and her exports to $31,341,683. In 1852 her im- directors, chief engineers, and superintendents in
the State, the following resolution, offered by a speech which I would desire to notice, did time
exports $27,453 936, and in 1853 she imported Mr. Garnett, was passed: permit. I will leave them to others, who, no
merchandise to the amount of $27,789,800, while « Resolved, That we do urge on our Senators and Repre. doubt, will do them ample justice. My main
her exports reached as high as $31,210,405. Of sentatives in Congress the propriety of taking prompt object in taking the floor is accomplished. I de
measures to secure the passage of an aci to refund to railthis latter sum the products of the island covered
road companies all duties paid by them on railroad iron sired only to afford the gentleman from South $30,328,320. The remaining $882,084 was the
since March 4, 1851, and to reduce thic duty on railroad iron Carolina an opportunity of revising his facts, and
amount of foreign products exported during that hereaster imported." of procuring some more reliable authorities than
year. Figures would fail to calculate the commer. those from which he derived impressions so mani- | cial greatness of that island, if she could only take Senators and Representatives to adopt "
Well, sir, these Virginia gentlemen request their festly at war with the realities of the past twenty- her rank in this great Confederacy of States. Na
measures" to take about $12,000,000 from the pubture has stamped upon her soil her long neglected lic Treasury and give it to railroad companies; At the opening of my remarks, I said that the
claim to this proud distinction, and the hour is and I would like to know in what part of the Conacquisition of Cuba, by the United States, was
hastening when that claim must be recognized. stitution they can find authority for so doing. demanded alike by our national honor and our The perfidy of her rulers, the duplicity of their || Money collected, and in the public Treasury, national safety. I need not, at this day, recapit- | advisers, and in the patriotic and eloquent language becomes the property of the people of the United ulate the grievances and the acts of official tyranny of President Pierce, in his inaugural address, i Slates, and we have no right to pay it out in the to which our citizens visiting Havana have been
when referring to this subject, "the preservation way indicated in the resolution. It is a most so long and so repeatedly subjected. I have been of the rights of commerce and the peace of the extraordinary resolution to come from a State informed that the documenus setting forth these world,” demand that no more time shall be lost in which has always advocated a strict construction outrages, now on file in the appropriate depart- useless diplomacy, or in fruitless efforts to vindi- | of the Constitution, and opposed anything like a ment of our Government would, of themselves, cate our rights.
system of internal improvement upon the part of make up a volume. No reparation has yet been Sir, I am opposed to any further half way the Federal Government. I might enlarge upon made, no apology offered, no indemnity for the
The repeal of the neutrality laws, this point, but do not think it necessary. I only past, and no guarantee for the future. It is not for would, in my judgment, belong to such a cale allude to the fact for the purpose of showing that me to ask what course our Government proposes gory. The effect of such a measure would be to there must be a very great outside pressure when to adopt, in view of this state of things. Should stimulate and legalize the spiric of filibusterism, such a resolution comes up from "Old Virginia." our late minister to Madrid, now on his return and bring, perhaps, merited rebuke upon our Such, Mr. President, is the powersul interest home, inform the country, as he doubtless will, Government. Our true course, indeed, the only which is formed throughout the country to put that Spain obstinately refuses to accord any satis
course we can adopt consistently with our pro down one great branch of American industry for factory reparation for sbe wrongs inflicted on our fessions, and creditably to our Governmeni, is the benefit of railroad corporations and railroad commerce, and the indignities offered to our flag
to send a sufficient naval force to the Island of companies; and these gentlemen, according to the by Spanish minions in Cuba; that the cabinet at
Cuba; blockade her ports; take possession of her New York circular, are to have five per cent. upon Madrid huris defiance at our Government, and territory in the name of justice, and hold on to all the duties they may succeed in causing to be haughtily plants itself upon the declaration of
it in the name of freedom. Providence will do remitted. Lord Clarendon, that the recent treaty between the rest. I am willing to trust to its wise and Mr. HUNTER. Does the Senator mean to England and France looked beyond the eastern beneficent dispensations. Then, sir, will Cuba say that the gentlemen who signed that memorial continent; what, it may be asked, under such
become what God designed she should be- are to have five per cent.? circumstances, will be the course of the Govern- tyranny, oppression, the lash, the dungeon, and Mr. BRODHEAD. By no means. I allude ment of the United States? I, sir, have too much
the horrible garrote will disappear, and peace, to the circular which is signed by five gentlemen confidence in the zealous and patriotic solicitude prosperity, the arts of civilized life, education, I in New York. I have it here. of President Pierce, in everything that can affect | public virtue, and universal happiness shall smile Mr. SEWARD. Read it. our honor abroad or our interest at home to enter
and reign throughout that Heaven favored isle. In Mr. BRODHEAD. The circularis dated New tain, much less express, any doubts on this sub- the language of one of her own gifted and patriotic York, March 21, 1854; and among other things, ject. There is only one fear that gives me uneasi
"Cuba will then find peace and consolation, || it says: ness, and that is, that our ardent and patriotic strength and protection, justice and freedom; and "To make provisions for the expenses unavoidably inyoung men of the South-animated by those noble resting upon these solid foundations, will, in a cident to the prosecution of the measure, it was agreed at and chivalrous impulses which ever lead them to short time, exhibit to the world, the portentous
the meeting that each company coming into the arrange. succor the oppressed, and justified by the unre
ment should advance for this purpose the sum of $100; and spectacle of a people rising from the most profound dressed insults which we have so long borne with degradation and passing, with the rapidity of the
that, in case of success, there should be paid by cach coma degree of forbearance almost amounting to dis- | lightning's fash, to the highest point of great
pany to the compilec, for the further expenses that may
be incurred, and as a compensation for their time and serhonor-may not longer brook the tardiness of
vices, (in addition to the above advance,) five per cent. on diplomatic forms, but, seizing upon the first favor
the amount of duty remitted, or which miay be saved to able moment, anticipate what, sooner or later, must
such company, on railroad iron heretofore imported by it, inevitably be the course—the only course which
DUTY ON RAILROAD JRON,
or which it may import or contract for prior to July 1, 1855,
by the passage of the law or laws repealing, remiuing, or our Government can adopt. We cannot, as a
suspending for a limited time, the duty on such iron." nation, if we desire to command the respect of the | SPEECH OF HON. R. BRODHEAD,
The circular is signed: S. F. Vinton, Noah S. world, submit much longer to Cuban insolence.
Wilson, John Stryker, Geo. Ashmun, H. V. It is needless for gentlemen to say that England IN THE SENATE, February 8, 1855.
Poor, committee. has no motive or desire to interfere in our diplo
It will be seen that I was correct in saying that matic relations with the Government of Spain.
The Senate having under consideration the bill She has every motive that national selfishness and granting to Railroad Companies three years in they are to have an allowance of five per centum commercial rivalry can inspire. She looks forwhich to pay the Duties on Iron imported for paid on railroad iron per annum amounts to be
on the amount that may be remitted. The duty ward to the day when that island, under the Railroad purposes
iween $3 000,000 and $4,000,000; hence these genpolicy which she has long been dictating to the
Mr. BRODHEAD said:
llemen will receive, if they succeed, about $200,000.. Spanish court, shall become thoroughly African- Although not very well prepared I feel it to be in alluding to this, I do not intend to intimate that ized; and well she knows how disastrous, how my duty to submit a few remarks on the subject any Senator, or member of the House of Reprefatal to the interests and institutions of the South, now under consideration, Notwithstanding the sentatives, would be improperly influenced. I'use such a condition of things would inevitably prove | able and ingenious argument which the Senator II it for the purpose of showing that there is a com
Duty on Railroad Iron-Mr. Brodhead.
bination of capital and energy for the purpose of tary of the Treasury to furnish the Senate, at its and other recently discovered deposits in England obtaining a suspension or the entire repeal of the meeting in December, 1853, with the amount of our can be found in Mr. Blackwell's lecture on the iron duties on railroad iron; and, Mr. President, say foreign indebtedness. He did no, and look at the making resources of the United Kingdom. The what you please about the measure now under fearful result which has been run up against us by lecture was delivered in 1853. With what extraorconsideration, which proposes to give a credit of these railroad companies, draining from us our dinary energy these resources have been turned three years upon the duties on railroad iron, it is gold and silver. Is it wise for an individual or a to account, the following extract of a letter writa proposition to take off the duty. The duties on nation to contract large debts? If a nation does ten to a friend of mine, hy Professor Wilson, who railroad iron for the last three years have been, and so, what is the resuli? An exportation of gold was in this country in 1853, and who has recently for the next three years will be, about $12,000,000; and silver larger than the importation. Does not been appointed Professor of Agriculture in the and that amount will be remitted under this bill, that lessen the ability to do business, and conse- University of Edinburgh, will show. His letter for, though bonds may be given, the amount will quently the productive power of the country? Is bears date the 5th of September, 1854: never be collected. We all know that. It is, there- not gold and silver the only basis for legitimate
"In the iron manufacture here, all is thriving and infore, a proposition to give a bonus of $12,000,000 banking? Is not a good currency the life-blood creasing enormously in production. The oolite beds have to those who are now engaged in constructing of the body politic?
proved most valuable. Indeed, already in the Cleveland railroads. If that is proper, why not return the The total amount of railroad stocks was district there are about seventy to eighty large furnaces
either in work or in progress, equal to a make of some$12,000,000 to those who have constructed rail- $309,893,967; the total amount of railroad bonds
thing like five hundred thousand tons per annum. roads within the last three years? Surely, sir, if was $170,111,552. The total amount of stocks and Staffordabire, too, where both ores and fuel were getting those who are now about to construct railroads, bonds was $480,005,519. Railroad stocks held scanty, large deposits of both have recently been hit upon when the price of railroad iron is from fifteen to by foreigners amounted to $8,244,000; and railroad
in Cannock Chase. These bave quite revived the midland
iron masters." (wenty dollars less per ton than it was last year, bonds held by foreigners amounted to $43,888,752; are to be relieved to the amount of $12,000,000, making stocks and bonds held by foreigners The annual production in Great Britain is about those who have paid the duty when the price was $52,132,752; and that is a mere approximation. two million seven hundred thousand tons. During high,
the last year, more than seventy new furnaces have justice to the amount which they have paid; and I This is the amount of foreign indebtedness upon
railroad account alone. The whole amount of been put up there, which will afford an addition those who have laid their roads with American foreign indebtedness is over $225,000,000, accord-i of over five hundred thousand tons. So that the rails will also have an equitable right to ask for ing to the documents to which I have before re- product in England is almost equal to the entire the amount per mile of duties on foreign iron ferred. Yes, sir, the amount of indebtedness demand of the whole world. When that market which will be given to other companies if this bill on railroad account is much larger than I have is pressed upon, the price of iron becomes high, Bhould pass.
stated, because many of the city and corporation and when that market is abslained from, it be The honorable Senator from Tennessee alleges bonds which were held abroad were issued on the comes cheap; so that whenever we cease to manthat, if the railroad companies are not relieved, railroad account for the purpose of constructing ufacture iron in this country under a proper the great railroad interests will be seriousiy affected. railroads. These railroad corporations, therefore, competition tariff, we have to pay more for ii in Now, sir, who are entitled to the most consider- have deranged the currency.
The honorable England. Since 1845, millions of dollars have ation at the hands of Congress—those 'who are Senator from Tennessee says, if you pass this been invested by our own citizens in the enterprise engaged in a great branch of Ameriean industry, bill, a thousand miles and more of railroads will of getting skilled labor, and carrying on the busior those who have been engaged in giving their be constructed than otherwise would be. Sir, ness of making railroad iron, and they now probonds in Europe for railroad iron? Those who we have been constructing our roads too fast; it duce one hundred and sixty thousand tons of a are engaged in the railroad interests of the coun- has withdrawn capital from other enterprises. first rate article, (and they will, in a few.years, try are not entitled to especial and particular favor We ought not to construct, in this country-lhe produce twice that amount, if not legislated out of at the hands of Congress, for they have brought legitimate wants of the country do not requirem existence,) which comes in competition with the the crisis upon us. They have given their.bonds more than twenty-five hundred miles per annum. English article. If this competition be broken in Europe for railroad iron, running up, to a fear- Mr. President, the bill does not propose that the down by such a measure as this, the effect can ful amount, the foreign indebtedness against us. credit shall be given on the railroad iron imported easily be seen. Thus, they have withdrawn our specie from other for first tracks only. It goes the whole figure, and Mr. President, I stated in the commencement legitimate branches of commerce; and now they extends to railroad iron, imported for second of my remarks that this measure was contrary to propose to issue other bonds, that they may pass tracks, for repairs, and spikes, and chairs con- | principle and the settled revenue policy of the Their iron through the custom-house without the nected with them. If it was confined to first country. It is a proposition not io relieve the payment of the duties. tracks, it would not be so objectionable.
people from laxation by a reduction of duties, but How is it with those who are engaged in the The iron interests of this country have now as io give a bonus to railroad corporations, and indimanufacture of iron, and especially of railroad hard times as those who are engaged in construct- rectly embark the Federal Government in a sysiron? This is the second proposition of this kind ing railroads. Will you interfere? If you do, I tem of internal improvement. It is a well-known which has been made. In 1844, it was made by claim special legislation for the great iron interest, || fact that most of our revenue is derived from the a then Senator from Maine, and why? Because apwell as for the great railroad interest. A nation duties imposed on iron, broadcloths, woolen there were no persons engaged in the manufacture is great, prosperous, and progressive, in propor- | goods, silks, and sugar. Wil any gentleman tell of railroad iron in this country. That was the tion to the iron which is manufactured and con- me why the duty should be taken off railroad iron, great argument then used; bui, sir, in 1845 that sumed. A classic German writer has said that, and not off woolen goods or sugar? You receive great enterprise was commenced here, It re- " The preparation of iron has become the most about the same amount of revenue from sugar quired skill, it required labor, it required great essential branch of industry by the immediate duties that you do from duties on iron of all kinds. energy, it required a large amount of capital, and benefit it gives to the producer, the general bene- Can any
one give a reason why the duty should be $10,000,000 have been invested in it. That is a fits it yields to society, and the advantages it offers taken off railroad iron, and retained on sugar, high sum to be invested in so brief a period in a to the consumer." But the honorable Senator which is an article of general consumption? Why new and hazardous business. In five years more from Tennessee informs us that this bill will not not extend the same privilege to the consumers of I have no doubt the amount will be doubled, be- injure the iron interest generally, because the woolen goods? Why do not those who use salt, sides the increased amount required to be invested manufacturers of iron will turn their attention to sugar and woolen goods ask this favor at our in furnaces.
making other articles, and will not engage in hands? It is because capital is not combined for The Senator from Tennessee says that ynless making railroad iron. How is that?
the purpose. There are no large corporations, this relief be granted, the great railroad enterprise In the year 1854, about one hundred and sixty such as these railroad companies, to press such a will have to stop. I tell him, sir, that the great thousand tons of railroad iron were manfactured measure with the influence of capital. When you enterprise which has been engaged in this country in this country. In that business there was a get the duties taken off these articles, how are you in making railroad iron will have to stop if he capital invested of $10,000,000. They consumed to get your revenue? succeeds. What will be the effect? He informed over two hundred thousand tons of pig iron, eight I know, sir, there are many gentlemen who are the Senate that, from 1824 to 1844, almost all the hundred thousand tons of coal, and over two hun- for absolute free trade, or for the lowest duties; but railroads in the older States were constructed. dred thousand tons of limestone; so that there is they are the men who always vote the largest That is true, but they paid much higher for their a large annount of iron used in the manufacture of appropriations; and that is a very good way to get iron when there was no duty on it than the honor- the rails. The iron business of this country will popular. During the war of 1812 there was a able Senator can purchase it for now. They were have a hard time of it for years to come. I doulent member of Congress who voted for the war, who pioneers in this great enterprise; those who are whether it will ever be a money-making business. | voted for the largest supplies, the largest number now engaged in it are mere imitators. Those who Railroad companies make much more money, as of men, and the highest pay; but who would never engaged in it in my own State, at an early day, I can show by statistics which I have on my table, vote for a dollar of taxation. “Liberal appropripaid down their money and their capital; they than those who are engaged in the manufacture of ation and no taxation" was his motto. li is very risked it all; but how is it now with those who are iron, and it will continue to be so; because, in easy to become popular by proposing not to tak engaged in making railroads? Why, sir, they | 1852, it was supposed that all the available spots the people at all; and give them all the money attempt to do it by “kiting" on bonds given for for making iron in Great Britain had been occu- they ask. their railroad iron, on bonds given at the custom- pied. Here is an important fact, to which I wish Sir, this is a proposition for class legislation, to house, and on bonds given to contractors. That io call the attention of the Senate: In 1852, it was build up the railroad interest at the expense of one is what has produced this state of affairs in the supposed that all the available spots for making 1 of the great manufacturing interests of this councountry.
iron in Great Britain had been occupied, but in try, which, it seems to me, is not sustainable on in the spring of 1853, I undertook, in a few that year a new discovery of ore was made on the any ground of justice or policy. It is violative of remarks which I then submitted the Senate, to east coast of England, where heretofore no iron one great principle of taxation to impose the bur. foretell the present state of things, and to arrest industry had existed. In the oolitic formation of dens of the Government on all alike. Why should the railroad mania by exhibiting the balance sheet. the Cleveland Hills, an immense deposite of iron you make the poor man who wears broadcloth or I submitted a resolution calling upon the Secre- stone was found. A minute description of these lI woolen goods pay duty on those articles, and not
35 00 41 25 55 00 62 50 51 75 55 50 53 50 59 37
0 0 0
tax the gentleman who rides on railroads? This 1*32.
£6 175. 6.-$31 73 view to obtain information which would enahle proposition is unjust to those who have heretofore
him to recommend a revision of the act of 1946,
1831... constructed railroads; because it will enable those
he held this language: · who construct inem now to derive advantages
“The existirg tariff having been designed, generally and which have not been extended to others. Iron can
substantially, for revenue, and for a fair and equal operation
boib as beween the various sections of the country and the now be obtained for a less price than formerly.
varinus branches of industry, the same objects should unThe duiy has not heretofore varied the price, it
doubedly be kept in view, and the reductions, il' any shall has been supply and demand. From 1832 to
be made, should be so arrangedus la afford an equal portici. 1842, when there was no duty, the iron was higher
At the present time the best rails can be bought pation in the benefit to ccery interest and to every section.” than it is now, with a duly of thirty per centum. for fifteen or twenty dollars per ton less than at
And upon the information thus obtained, in his Railroad iron was never so cheap as under the this time last year. Is not this a large decline in
annual report he makes the following wise sug. thirty per centum act of 1846, and never so high one year? Does not this reduction weigh heavily gestion, upon which I hope we shall be able to as when it came in free of duty. upon our manufacturers, without adopting a meas
come to some compromise between the producer Mr. WELLER. I wish to ask my friend from ure like this the effect of which will be ruinous to
and consumer: Pennsylvania a question. He seems to have them?
“It is not proposed to change the principle or ad valorem devoted a good deal of time to the examination
I have intimated that the manufacture of railroad
duties, but it is for the consideration of Congress, whether of this subject, and he has no doubt acquired all
iron in this country is not only a great enterprise, a specific duty on iron, made from the average of the last
tion, the information that is necessary to put the Senate | and, if not broken down by adverse legis three or four years' ad valorem duties, might not give in possession of the facts. Now, I desire to know would become a great branch of industry alike
greater stability to the iron business, and more satisfaction
io consumers, and, at the same time, prove equally benefifrom him how many manufacturers there are in
beneficial to the producer and consumer. On the cial to the revenue." the United States of railroad iron, and how many
first day of January, 1855, there were twenty-one I consider it unnecessary to adduce further evi. persons are employed in its manufacture? My thousand three hundred and ten miles of railroad
dence to show that this bul is a violation of the object is to get at the number of persons interested actually constructed and open for public use in
settled revenue policy of the country as adopted in keeping up the present high duty upon railroad
che United States. Upon most of the roads, Eng. in the act of 1846. The evidence which I have iron.
lish rails of an inferior quality have been used. Mr. BRODHEAD. I will endeavor to accomThe number of miles opened for public use during that point.
already presented is, in my opinion, conclusive on modate my friend from California. In 1854 there
the last four years, is as follows: In 1851, one The honorable Senator from Tennessee, as a were sixteen rail-making manufactories, and they
thousand two hundred and seventy-eight were reason for the passage of the bill, said, that we made that year about one hundred and sixty thou- | opened; in 1852, two thousand two hundred and
have now a redundant Treasury. I admit we sand tons, according to the best information that I eighty.iwo; in 1853, three thousand nine hundred have obtained from those engaged in that trade. and sixty-four, and in 1854, three thousand five in that condition. I whink the probability is, that
have a full Treasury; but we shall notlong remain But my friend should remember that rail manu
hundred and ninety-nine. It takes about one much of it will be got rid of by legislation; and facturing establishments consume large quantities hundred tons of railroad iron to make a mile of besides, there is a great falling off in the revenue. of pig iron, and the manufacturers of pig iron conrailroad. About one thousand miles of old road
I have tables from the Treasury Department, sume large quantities of coal. So that this measper annum will have to be relaid, and the wants
showing a very large decrease of 'revenue within ure will affect injuriously the whole iron and coal of the country will require about two thousand
few months. It is not wonderful that it trade. The reciprocity treaty takes the duty off five hundred or three thousand miles of new road,
should be so. The railroad corporations have of all foreign coal which can come in competition
so that the demand for railroad iron will be about brought a crisis on the country. They have run with our own, and yet that measure is not half so
three hundred and fifty thousand tons per annum. injurious to the owners of coal mines and those Great as is the productive power of England, is
up a fearfulamount of foreign indebtedness against
Our gold and silver are sent abroad to pay en yaged in the coal trade, as this. Iron manufac- it wise for us to depend upon that market when this indebtedness. This withdraws from the coun
we have the raw material in such abundance? I turing establishments are the great consumers of
try part of the capital necessary for its business, coal in Pennsylvania. Put the question to those who wish now to dis
and acts injuriously on all branches of industry, Mr. CLAY. I wish to ask the Senator whence criminate against manufacturers of railroad and
I do noi intend, as I have already suggested, he derives the information which he has just stated other iron.
to go into a discussion of the tariff policy of the to the Senate?
This bill, in my judgment, is violative of the Mr. BRODHEAD. I obtained it from a newsplighted faith of the Government. By the pledges hold it to be a sound rule that no other or higher
country; but I will make this general remark: I paper publication, which has never been contra
given when the tariff act of 1846 was adopted, the duties should be laid than are both necessary and dicied, so far as I know.
manufacturers of railroad iron were encouraged proper for the purposes of revenue. In the impoMr. CLAY. It is an anonymous one. I have
to go into the business; they are now engaged in sition of such duties it is wise so to select iho geen it myself.
it after the expenditure of a very large sum of objects that, while the original intent is secured, Mr. BRODHEAD.. I could read over the money; and this bill will be destructive to them.
the interest of the manufacturer may be regarded names of the mills which it states, and show, if it
I have some evidence as to the principle on which as an incidental consideration. To attempt more were necessary, that they are in blast, or have
the act of 1846 was founded. Mr. Robert J. is to go out on the wide ocean of uncertainty, been in blast, that they were built for the purpose; | Treasury, in December, 1845, said:
Walker, in his annual report as Secretary of the guided by false lights, emanating from the selfishthat they are struggling along, and that, when you
ness alone of those who tender them, and which strike down these establishments, you have to de
“Whilst a due regard to the just and equal rights of all never can be relied upon for purposes of wise
classes forbids a discrimination in favor of the manufacpend entirely on the English market, which, when lurer, by duties above the lowest revenue limit, no disposi
legislation. I reject alike the free trade and the pressed upon, becomes very high. It appears, tion is felt to discriminate against them, by reducing such
protective theory. Neither can be carried into from official tables, as I shall presently show, that duties as operate in their favor below that standard." successful effect. I do not believe human wisdom we paid more for railroad iron when it was ad
Is not this a proposition to discriminate against
can make a tariff law which will stand against the mitted duty free than we do now. This is the
the manufacturer in favor of the consumer? Is it designs of Providence, and overrule the natural effect of depending on England for our supply. In
laws of trade and commerce. not, therefore, a violation of the principle on which
When the act of 1845 the manufacture of railroad iron was comthe act of 1846 was based? Again, when the bill
1846 was adopted, it was supposed to be a rash menced in this country. It is a new branch of of 1846 was presented to the country as a revenue
measure; but ihat act was aided in a manner which industry in the United States, requiring great capital, much skilled labor, and great energy; Why the following language: measure, Secretary Walker, in his report, held
was not expected by those who designed it. In
1947 there was a famine in Europe, and we reshould it be stricken down by railroad jobbers ? 'I
ceived $20,000 from abroad for our breadstuffs. say this is pressed by railroad jobbers. They are
“ Stability in the tariff and currency is what the manufacturer should most desire. Let the tariff be permanently ad
In 1849, gold was discovered in California. Both the leaders in the movement. However much
justed by a return to reasonable and moderate revenue du- these circumstances operated in favor of the act of railroads may be desired by honest people, they lies, which, when imposed truly andein good futh for that 1846, and contributed to swell the revenue under are frequently pushed forward by jobbers. You purpose, will yield sufficient advantage to afiord reasonable it. The great reason urged now for a reduction
profits; and let this permanent system (and none other can cannot properly construct more than two thousand be permanent) be established, and the manufacturer, in a
of the tariff' is, that we received too much revenue. five hundred miles a year. When you go beyond series of years, will derive the greatest benelits from the
I think that in a year or eighteen months from this that, you press upon the English market, and of system. The tariff has been changed and modified abiity tine, we shall not complain of a redundant Treascourse the price of iron becomes high.
times since the first bill, being inore than once on an aver- ary. But admit the force of this argument; admit Mr. WELLER. I asked what was the num
age for every Congress since the Government was founded;
that it is proper to reduce the duties for the purber of persons employed in this country in the revenue tarifl. Stability is what the inaructurer should pose of lessening the revenue; I say it should be manufacture of railroad iron?
desire, and especially that the question should be taken out done generally and impartially: You ought not Mr. BRODHEAD. I do not know how many of the arena of poliucs by a just and permanent seiuement.”
to take off the duty on railroad iron, and retain it persons the mills employ, but the number must be Thus, it appears that, in 1846, we were promised on sugar and woolen goods. You cughít not to very large; and besides the number of those di- by the Secretary of the Treasury, who had a large sustain the railroad-making interest at the expense rectly employed, you should take into consider- share in the preparation of the tariff act of that of another great branch of American industry. ation the persons who raise breadstuffs for them, year, that it was to be a permanent measure. The Are not those engaged in the manufacture of iron and those who produce the coal, iron ore, lime same promise was made in the House of Repre. as good and enterprising citizens as those who stone, and pig-iron necessarily consumed in the
sentatives, by the gentleman who reported that bill, wish to purchase and use rails, or those who proproduction of iron for rails. I have before re
(Mr. McKay) It was supposed that a permanent duce sugar? marked that the price of railroad iron has been system would suit the manufacturers better than Mr. President, I do not fear the passage of this highest when it has come in duiy free. Here is li the fluctuating policy which had before prevailed. | bill, but I do fear the result of an effort which I an official table showing the price of railway iron i The same idea is to be found in the reports of Mr. expect will be made to amend the civil and diplofrom 1832 to 1840 when no duly was imposed on Guthrie, the present Secretary of the Treasury. || malic, or some other appropriation bill, by insert
In his circular issued nearly a year ago, with a ing a proposition to take off the duty on railroad
33D CONG....2D SESS.
Pacific Railroad—Mr. Geyer.
iron, or refund $10,000,000 or $12,000,000, paid of the select committee by which both the original tion provides for them; the second directs adverheretofore by railroad companies. I am aware of and the substitute were reported; and the subject tisements to be published inviting proposals for the fact that gentlemen plead instructions to justify | is one in which my consiituents take a deep in- the construction of each or either of them; and, themselves in voting for such a proposition. The terest; and, therefore, I feel called upon to submit by the third section, when proposals are received,. honorable Senator from Virginia, (Mr. Hunter,) | the reasons which govern my vote.
the Secretaries of War and the Interior, and the when it was offered two years ago, as an amend- We are all anxious to form, as early as possible, Postmaster General, are, under the direction of ment to the civil and diplomatic appropriation bill, an easy and rapid communication beiween the Aca the President, "au:horized and directed to contract alleged that he was instructed by his Legislaturelantic States and our Pacific poseessions, so as to with the party or parties whose proposals, as to support it. My friends from Alabama tell me bring them readily within supporting distance, in aforesaid, for said lines respectively, for the full that they are instructed to vote to take off the duty case of any difficulties with a foreign Power, and and complete construction and keeping up of either which is now imposed on railroad iron. Well, for the purpose also, of carrying on the commerce line or each of said lines of road and telegraph." sir, suppose the Senators from Michigan, and || of our own country, on our own soil, and by our This clause, standing alone, would seem to vest from Pennsylvania, had yielded to such instruc- own people. But, sir, we must look at this prop- || in the Secretaries and Postmaster General the tions in regard to the Wilmot proviso, and the | osition as practical men, look at it with reference | authority to select one road, and reject the proMissouri compromise, where would have been the to the means and the hope of accomplishment, and || posals for the others, if made; but the eleventh adjustment measures of 1850, and the Kansas- with reference to its effect, also on other portions section provides, that in the event that any one of Nebraska act of last year? 1 resisted the Wilmot || of the country.
these roads shall not be proposed for, new adverproviso, notwithstanding the instructions of the In order to make the few remarks which I shall tisements shall be issued, and continue to be Legislature of my State. I do not think gentle | submit, in explanation of my objections to this issued annually, until contracts for all the roads men here should now yield to instructions for a bill, perfectly understcod, I ask the attention of are made. The bill, therefore, contemplates the measure like this, which are got up by the agency the Senate, for a moment, to some statistical facts construction of three roads, if proposals for them of those who have a deep interest in the question. | which I deem worthy of consideration. Sir, there can be obtained upon the terms prescribed. For my own part I recognise instructions coming are now in operation in the world more than forty But, while it in terms authorizes the Secretary from my own party-not always those from the thousand miles of railway, requiring a large supply and Postmaster General to reject such proposals opposition.
of iron annually for the purpose of repair, and for any one of the roads, it makes no provision hope, sir, this measure will not be pressed || involving a large expenditure of money: of the for receiving future proposals or contracting for the upon us. Its friends have no assurance that, even railroads in operation, there are in the United construction of such road. The eleventh section if it be succesaful here, it will be taken up in the States twenty-one thousand three hundred and ten applies only to the case where proposals are not House of Representatives. They have declined | miles, constructed at a cost of $621,316,000. We received, under the first advertisement, within the to consider a bill proposing a general revision of have now in course of construction sixteen thou- time prescribed, and not to cases of such prothe tariff policy of the countty; and surely such a sand nine hundred and seventy-five miles. If the posals received and rejected. Suppose proposals measure as this should be considered only as part construction of these roads shall cost the same should be received for the northern and southern of a general proposition to reduce duties. This is amount and no more per mile, on the average, than routes, or the whole three, and the Secretaries and partial, class legislation, for the benefit of a par- was paid for the construction of those now in use, Postmaster General accept the proposals, and coniicular set of individuals. In this respect, it comes there will be added, in the course of a few years, to tract for the southern road, and reject the others, before us in a most objectionable form. If this the expenditure on railroads nearly $500,000,000. as they may, by the terms of the third section, they bill be passed, it should be accompanied by a Of the cost of the roads already constructed, there would not be required or authorized to receive new proposition to refund these duties to those compa are, perhaps, $300,000,000 of debt outstanding; | proposals, and contract for any road for which pro, nies who have heretofore paid them, and to give and now it is proposed, under these circumstances, | posals, within the terms of the act, had been received to those who have used American iron a sum to undertake three railroads between the Missis- and rejected. The bill, therefore, rests in the three equal to that which they would have paid as sippi and the Pacific ocean, adding six thousand heads of Departments named a very large and duties, if they had used the foreign article. In | miles more, at a cost of from $300,000,000 60 dangerous power, which I am undisposed to con. every point of view in which I look at this bill, it $400,000,000 for the roads alone, exclusive offer. The bill is, however, evidently framed with strikes me as exceptionable.
depots, stations, rolling stock, and equipments. a view to the construction of three roads; and its Mr. President, old Pennsylvania has been a These facts, about which there can be no dis- friends maintain that there is no discretion vested faithful member of this Confederacy, and why, | putė, should, 1 think, induce us to pause before in the Departments, and they say that the three therefore, should the representatives of other States we commit ourselves to the measure before the roads must be contracted for, if proposals within attempt to legislale against two of her great inter- | Senate. We consume now, annually, in the the terms prescribed are at any time made, and in ests? Why not place those interests upon the United States about three hundred and fifty thou- that view, if that is the interprétation of the bill, it same footing with the interests of other States ? sand tons of railroad iron for purposes of repair, 1 is, in my judgment, extravagant and unpracticaWhy impose a duty on cotion goods and not on for additional tracks on roads in use, and for the
ble. jron, &c.? Where do southern men look for and construction of new roads. We have been en. After the proposals are received and contracts get votes to maintain their constitutional rights | abled to obtain from Europe two hundred and entered into, there are certain preliminaries to the against abolition fanaticism? And I beg to re- eighty thousand tons, and about one hundred commencement of the work, which I propose 10 mind gentlemen and Senators from the eastern thousand tons are manufactured in the United examine. In the first place the contractors are to manufacturing States, that the fate of Pennsyl- States, making three hundred and eighty thou- fix the termini of all the roads except the central, vania's interests to-day may be theirs lo-morrow. sand per year. There will be, without the roads which is to have its western terminus at the bay And I call the attention of western Senators to the contemplated by this bill, a large addition an- of San Francisco. It will be seen, in the sequel, fact that large grants of land have been made to nually to the consumption of iron by the con that this is a very large discretion; and it is one them for the purpose of aiding in making rail- struction of new roads and repairs of the old ones, which, if the proposed contracts are made and roads, &c.
which will bring it up, perhaps, to four hundred executed, will operate very beneficially to your
the amount required for the roads now contem. of the roads are to be be made under the direction
greatly beyond the supply, producing an injurious contractors will obtain the information necessary
effect upon all the local enterprises in the United to a judicious location of the roads in two years,
States. According to the laws of trade, the price which Congress, with all the resources of the Gov. SPEECH OF HON. H. S. GEYER, of iron will advance when the demand shall be ernment at command, have not been able to ob. OF MISSOURI,
made to exceed the supply. The tendency, there- tain? This is now the fourth session that I have
fore, of this bill is to effect injuriously the oper- had the honor of a seat in this Chamber, and the IN SENATE, February 19, 1855.
ations on the roads on this side of the western subject has been before the Senate at every session, The Senate, as in Committee of the Whole, boundary of the organized States. It will have I believe. Two years ago, Congress made provihaving under consideration the bill for the con- that effect, if the roads contemplated by this bill sion for surveys or explorations of several routes. struction of a Railroad from the Valley of the Mis- are undertaken.
We have not yet received all the reports, and it is sissippi to the Pacific Ocean, as amended by the Mr. President, there has been some difference only within a few days that we have had access adoption of the substitute of Mr. Gwin
of opinion among Senators whether this bill con- to any; and now we propose to call upon the con. Mr. GEYER said: Mr. President, when this bill templates three railroads or one. It is supposed tractors to exercise the power and perform the was before the Senate a few days ago, I expressed by some that it will be submitted to the discretion | duty which belongs to us. We assume that they · a hope that I should be able to vote for it, although of the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the will have information that we cannot obtain. We I preferred the original bill reported by the com. Interior, and the Postmaster General, to contract commit to them a discretionary power over a mittee at the last session. I have, since, had an for one or more. Others think that they will be subject of great public interest, acknowledging opportunity (which I had not before) to examine obliged to contract for the three roads, if bids are ourselves incompetent or unwilling to perform the into the provisions of this bill, as amended, and offered within the terms proposed. The bill is not duty devolving upon us; a power, which will the result is, that I cannot reconcile it to my sense very clear on that subject, but my impression is doubtless be exercised by the contractors with of duty to vote for it. I should be content to that they are to go on and receive proposals until reference to their own interest, and little or no give my vote in silence, but that I am a member II the three roads are contracted for.' The first seco Il regard to the interest of the public.
330 CONG....20 Sess.
Pacific Railroad - Mr. Geyer.
Well, sir, let us advance one step further, and stands anything of the nature of the country, the fifteen years from the completion of the road, and see whether the scheme proposed would carry us. privations and the dangers to which the settler is while in the course of construction, for the portion When the contractors have designated their routes, exposed, will setile in the wilderness, occupy your
in use. Yes, sir, they are to make a contract to there is to be surveyed for each road a tract of || lands, and reduce them to cultivation upon the || carry the mails, military and naval stores, and eighty miles in width, for the whole extent through || terms prescribed by this bill?
other property, while the road is under constructhe territories of the United States to the waters Sir, the man who goes upon these lines of road tion, upon so much as is finished, and they are to of the Pacific. Estimating the average length of and cultivates the land is a public benefactor, and leave them at the end of the road, to get forward the lines at twelve hundred miles, the quantity of he ought not to be taxed ai the rate of $2 50 an in the best way they can. land to be surveyed will be two hundred and acre for the land he reclaims. It is very proper, Mr. President, I have thus taken a general view eighty-eight thousand sections, involving an ex- doubtless, in countries which are settled, such as of the provisions of this bill, so far as it affects the pense of between one and two millions of dollars, Illinois and Missouri, in which railroad grants country at large. I now propose to consider it if the surveys can be obtained at the rates now have been made, to hold the lands reserved at with reference to its effect on particular States. paid.
double the minimum price; but in those cases, The bill proposes to give to the contractors-not But no one supposes, I apprehend, that the sur- the settlement and cultivation of the land is not to the State--welve sections of land per mile of veys can be made in the Rocky mountains or even necessary to the construction of the road, but the road in the State of California; but contains no on the plains, at the rate now paid for surveying | enhanced value is given to the land by the road, such provision for the road within any State west public lands. One of your engineers describes the before the purchase. Not so along the lines of or east of the Mississippi. Ilinois applied for a country from the meridian of 970 to the base of road provided for by this bill, the settlement and grant of land for railroad purposes, and it was the Rocky mountains, over six hundred miles, cultivation of the lands, to a considerable extent, hard work to obtain alternate sections for six miles for the whole distance north of the parallel of 340 | is indispensable to the success of the enterprise, in width. So with Missouri and Arkansas. lowa north latitude.
to furnish supplies and shelter to those engaged in has not been able to obtain even such a grant to Mr. GWIN. If that is true they will not select the construction of the work, and protect the road this day. If, as I suppose it may be intended, that route.
when built. This bill does not afford the necessary one of these roads shall go through Iowa, I think Mr. GEYER. The honorable Senator from encouragement to settlers, and practically, its pro- it would have been bui fair to provide twelve California says
they will not select that route." visions tend to defeat the construction of any road. sections per mile for the road through that State. Well, sir, then there will be no road north of 341h0 Mr. President, I have before adverted to the We have a grant in Missouri of six sections per of parallel. The description given by the engineer | probable cost of the roads proposed, and the large | mile, to be selected within fifteen miles of the road, embraces the whole country from that parallel to increase of our liabilities, but I wish again to call and not fifty, as in California. our northern boundary, and if his description || the attention of Senators to that subject. Debtors I do not complain of the proposed grant in Calis accurate, it will be next to impossible to con- as we are to the amount of $300,000,000 on || ifornia, becayse that State is eventually to become struct or maintain a railroad anywhere between account of roads in use, having under contract, the owner of the road within her limits, but of the the 34tho and 49cho of parallels. I refer to the and in process of construction, nearly seventeen discrimination made in her favor against the other report of Captain Pope, page 9:
thousand miles of road, to cost in round numbers land States. Minois, Missouri, and Arkansas, in The great deserts, commencing about the meridian of $500,000,000, 1 submit it as a financial question, consideration of six sections of land per mile, are 97o, extend over a distance of six hundred miles, to the whether it is wise or prudent to invite, encourage, required to transport the mails at such price as eastern base of the Rocky mountains.”. this whole extent they are badly watered by a few sluggish
and promote so large an increase of the demands | Congress shall prescribe, and the troops and propstreams which intersect them, many of which disappear
upon our resources? It is true the money is not erty of the United States free of charge. In Cali. altogether in the dry season, and are destitule absolutely oi to be paid out of the Treasury, but it adds to the fornia we propose to appropriate twelve sections timber, except a sparse growth of dwarf cottonwood along
burdens of the country, and a pressure upon the of land per mile to pay for carrying the mails, the streams." « From the northern frontier of the United States, at the
people is as carefully to be avoided as the embar. ||$300 per mile, and for troops and property a full parallel of 40°, this immense region of desert country ex.
rassment of the Treasury. Already the demand | compensation. To this inequality I object, and, iende, without interruption, as far south as the parallel of created by the roads in process of construction is | I may ask, why were the States west of the Mis. 34°; at this parallel its continuity is suddenly and remark- ascertained to be beyond the available resources sissippi, through which one of the roads may ably interrupted.”
of the country, and many of the works are stopped pass, altogether overlooked by the framers of this He seems to entertain the opinion that the only altogether, or prosecuted feebly and despondingly: || bill?' Why not make the eastern terminus of the practicable route is that explored by himself be- The pressure in the money market has reduced central route (so called) on the west bank of the iween the parallels of 320 and 340. The engineers railroad_securities to almost a merely nominal | Mississippi, appropriate the same quantity of land who explored the routes farther north report them | value. Is it wise to create by a single act a de- || per mile within the State through which it may to be practicable, and their description of the coun- mand for three or four hundred millions more? pass, and afford the same inducements for the try examined by them is far more favorable. But | Ought we can we afford to expend eight or nine construction of the road as in California? Cer. when interrupted, I was inquiring into the prob-hundred millions upon railroads, within the next | tainly there were no constitutional scruples to be able expense of the survey of two hundred and ten years?
overcome. If the provisions of this bill are wise eighty-eight thousand square miles of country, As an inducement to persons to undertake the and constitutional in respect to California, they most of which is uninhabited, and a large portion construction of the proposed roads, the bill pro- would be no less so if extended to lowa or Mismountainous and scarcely practicable, and another vides for a contract by which the Government is souri. The objection to the discrimination in large portion of plains, which, though not in hos- to pay for the transportation of the mails daily, li favor of California does not, of course, address pitable deserts, are infested by roving bands of not exceeding $300 per mile, and for the transpor- itself to Senators from the Atlantic States, and predatory or hostile Indians. Every one must tation of troops and property at the rates now paid || perhaps may not be appreciated by any but the see that the surveys cannot be made at the ordi- on other roads. That is, the bill contemplates Representatives from Missouri, and other States nary rates, and the country will be involved in an three daily mails between the Mississippi and the immediately interested. To my mind, it is deenormous expense for surveys, preparatory to the Pacific, and the transportation of troops and prop- cisive against the bill. construction of the roads.
erty upon all the roads. The contracts are to be Another, and to me an insuperable objection to Another objection which I take to this bill is, carried into effect, and payments made for trans- the bill is, that it presents inducements to form -even if it provided for only one road—it by | portation of the mails, iroops, and property upon combinations against the interest of the State its terms interposes obstacles to its construction. Il the road while in the course of construction, 'for which I in part represent, so that there is scarcely I took occasion the other day to say that it is in- | the portion, from time to time in operation. a remote possibility that the eastern terminus of dispensable to the construction of a road at all, Now, let us see how this will work. A road either road shall be on her border. Ostensibly that you should-have established military posts may be commenced at either or both ends, or any | the bill fixes only the western terminus of the and advanced the settlements. In my judgment where along the line, and whenever any 'portion central road, and that at the Bay of San Francisco. that is not only not provided for in this bill, but it is in use" the mails are to be transported upon it | But, in reality, it also determines the eastern ter. interposes obstacles which will prevent the settle- or whether transported or not, nayment is to be minus of the southern road. The western" border ment until after the road is commenced or perhaps | made at the contract price, $300 per mile. The l of Texas "on the Rio Grande, above the north nearly finished. No settlement is to be allowed, mails and property are to be carried by railway | boundary of Mexico, being only about thirteen nay, it is positively prohibited by the terms of the from the beginning to the end of the portion in miles long. The contractors are to select the bill, until after the surveys are made. No grant use," and then other means of transportation routes and fix the western terminus of the southern is to be made to the contractors until they shall must be provided for the residue of the way across road, and the eastern terminus of the central. have constructed one hundred miles of road, and the prairies and the mountains. The place of || The southern road is to “commence on the then only three fourths of the quantity of land due | transfer will be advanced as additional portions of western border of Texas, and pursue the most to that portion of the road is to be conveyed to the road are put in operation, but there must be at eligible route to the navigable waters of the Pacific, them by patent.
least one on each road until it is completed. in the State of California.” The contractors for You will observe, then, Mr. President, that this You may refuse to deliver the mails and prop- this road will have a large discretion which will bill provides that before there shall be any settle- || erty for transportation, but you cannot withhold be used to their best advantage. Now, when the ment or sale of the lands granted to the company || payment. You must adopt other means of trans- most valuable, if not the only valuable lands to the road shall be made. Now, how is it with re- portation, the whole distance, or you must furnish be appropriated to that road are in California, Epect to the reserved sections? Is it true you ihem at the end of the road in use, in whatever there can be no doubt that the city of San Frangrant preëmptions by this bill, but you do not part of the prairies or the mountains that may be. cisco will be the western terminus of the southern allow a man to go upon the land until after the In either case you must perform your contract, | road. The contractors will have the power to fix survey is made, and you grant preëmptions at and pay the price agreed on. I do not misinterpret that point, and will have no inducement to select $2 50 per acre. That is the price demanded for the bill. The second section contains the terms any other. I hazard nothing in predicting that land on the prairies where there is no timber, and of the contracts to be made; the third clause pro- | the undertakers of the road will find “the waters on the Rocky mountains, where there is only a vides for the contract for carrying the mails and of the Pacific" mentioned in the bill, al or very small portion fit for cultivation. Who that under. Il property of the United States " for the period of it near the city of San Francisco.