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y Yet Michael the arch- 9 Ο δε Μιχαηλ ο αρχαίο
φημιας, αλλ' ειπεν· Eπιτι-
compounded word, denotes the Sodomites committing whoredom out of the order of nature. They committed the unnatural crime which hath taken its name from them.
4. Are set forth, derypa, an example. See 2 Pet. ii. 6. - The burning of the cities of the plain, being represented here as an example, or type, of that punishment by fire which at the general judgment God will inflict on the wicked, 'the confideration thereof should terrify the un. godly, of every description, and bring them to repentance. For when God is about to punish them in that dreadful manner, will they be able to flee from him, or resist him? Ver. 8.- :-1. In like manner indeed, these also sball be punished. I
put a full point after the words xan Štor: and to finish the sentence, I sup. ply the words, ball be punished, from the end of the foregoing verse with which this clause is connected in the sense, being the reddition to the clause in the beginning of ver. 7.--'15 godouce xets youoppo fince, or, as Sodom and Gomorrha are set forth as an example, &c. ver. S. ojobs μεντου In like manner certainly these also shall be puni hed. - In the next clause of this 3th verse, a new sentiment is introduced, which there. fore should have been made the beginning of the verse.
2. Being cast into a deep sleep. This is the proper literal translation of the worri ESUTVIA LOjuevos, as Beza hath shewed. Besides in other paso fages of fcripture, the wicked are reprefented as fast afleep. See Rom. xiii. 11. 1 Thess. v. 6
3. And despise government, (see 2 Pet. ii. 10. note 2.) and revile dignities : došas da Paxofnusoi literally they revile glories, that is those who pofless the glory of the magistrate's office. This must be the meaning of Sokas, as ditinguished from xUÇOTATO, government. The Jews fancying it finful to obey the heathen magistrates, despised both them and their office. The ungodly teachers of whom Jude fpeaks, carried the matter till farther: They reviled all magistrates whatever, as enemies to the natural liberty of mankind.
Ver. 9. - s. But illichael the archangel. Michael is mentioned, Dan. X. 12. 21, xii. 1. as flanding up in defence of the children of Daniel's people. - Because it is said, Rev. xii. 7. That Michael and bis angels fought against the Dragon and his angels, Eftius conjectures that Michael is the chief, or prince of all the angels. But this argument is not conclufive.-- Because the book of Daniel is the first sacred writing in which proper names are given to particular angels, some have fancied,
9 (48) But Michael 9 But how different was the conthe archangel,' when
when duct of Michael the archangel, when contending with the de- contending with the devil he disputed vil he disputed about the about the restoration of the Jewish body of Moses, ? did not church and state by Joshua the high nttempt to bring against priest, Zechar. iii. 1. Though that him a reviling accusation, malicious spirit was clothed with no but said, The Lord re- authority of office, he did not attempt buke thee.
to bring against him a reviling accusation ; but mildly said, The Lord re. buke thee Saran.
that during the Babylonish captivity the Jews invented these names or learned them from the Chaldeans. But this seems an unfounded conjecture. For the angel who appear a to Zacharias, Luke i. 19. called himself Gabriel, which thews that that name was not of Chaldean invention.
2. When contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Mofes. In the passages of Daniel's prophecy quoted in the preceding note, Michael is spoken of as one of the chief angels who took care of the Ifraelites as a nation. He may therefore have been the angel of the Lord, before whom Joshua the high prielt is said, Zech. iii. 1. to have itood, Satan being at his right hand to reft him, namely in his design of re!toring the Jewish church and state, called by Jude the body of Moses, just as the Christian church is called by Paul the body of Christ. Zee chariah adds, And the Lord, that is, ihe angel of the Lord, as is plain from ver. 1. said unto Satan, The Loril rebuke thee, O Satan, even the Lord, that hath chofen Jerusalem, rebuke thee. — Le Clerc gives a different interpretation of this paffage. By Sntan in Zechariah's vision, and Abo; in Jude's epiftle, he underlands Tatvai and Shetherboznai, the king of Persia's lieutenants, who opposed the restoration of Jerusalem, and who on that account might be called Satan or the adversary of the Jews, in the fame manner that Peter was called Satan by his mailer, for opposing his fuffering at Jerusalem. According to this interpretation, Jude's meaning is, that the angel in Zechariah's vifion brought no reviling accusation against the adversaries of the Jews, but reproved them with modelty on account of their being ma. giltrates. This, Jude mentioned to thew the ungodly teachers who reviled the Roman magistrates, that they were culpable in doing what the angels who, as Peter obferveth, 2 Ep. ii. 11. are greater in power than they, did not attemt to do.
Beza, Eftius, Tillotfon, and others. by the body of Mofes about which the devil contended with Michael, understand his dead body, which they suppose the devil contended should be buried publicly, on pretence of doing honour to ses; but that his intention was to give the Israelites an opportunity of railing his body and worshipping it : That Michael knowing this, rebuked the devil in the words mentioned by Jude; and to prevent the Israelites from committing idolatry,
10 But these speak evil 1ο Ουτοι δε όσα μεν εκ of those things which they codaccu Braconusoivo ora de know not: but what they know naturally, as brute Cutixws Ws sa adora Ewa beafts, in tlhole things they επιςανται, εν τετοις φθειρονcorrupt themselves. II Wo unto them! for
ΙΠ Ουαι αυτοις ότι
τη they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran greedily
Καιν επορεύθησαν, after the error of Balaam και της πλανη τ8 Βαλααμ for reward, and perifhed in μισθε εξεχυθησαν, και τη the gainsaying of Core.
αντιλογία το Κορε απωλονο. .
buried Moses's body so privately that none of the Israelites ever knew where his fepulchre was.-- Vitringa, instead of the body of Moses, proposes to read, the body of Joshua ; but without any authority whatever. The first mentioned account of this transaciion, which was given long ago by Ephraim the Syrian, (See Lardner, Canon iii. c. 21. p. 345, 346.) is now adopted by many.
3. Did not attempl to bring against him. In the common English translation it is, durft not bring, as if Michael had been afraid of the devil, which certainly is an improper idea. The translation of ex ITUNJICE, which I have given, is supported by Blackwall, Sacr. Classics, vol. 2. p. 155:- Tillotson's remark, (Pofthum. ferm. 31.) on this text deferves place here. Michael's " duty restrained him ; and pro" bably his discretion too. As he durft' not offend God in doing a “thing so much beneath the dignity and perfection of his nature, so 66 he could not but think that the devil, would have been too hard for “ him at railing ; a thing to which, as the angels have no disposition, “ fo I believe they have no talent, no faculty at it: The cool con“ sideration whereof should make all men, eļpecially those who call " themselves divines, and especially in controverfies about religion, or ashamed and afraid of this manner of disputing.”
4. A reviling accufation ; XEITWY ET EVEYSU Braconuuce;, literally to bring againfi bim a sentence of reviling ; a form of exprellion founded on this, that whoever reviles or speaks evil of another, doth in effect judge and condemn him.-Doddridge thinks the trat:llation might run, did not venture to pass a judgment upon his blafphemy, but referred him to the judgment of God by saying, the Lord're ruke thee. But this translation requires the addition of two words not in the text; and without any necessity. That author in his note on the passage faith, “ gels do not rail even against the devil, how much less ought we șr against men in authority, even supposing them in some things to “ behave amiss. Wherefore, to do it when they beliave well, must “ he a wickedness much more aggravated.”
Ver. 10. What things they know naturally as animals void of reason, by these they defiroy themselves. Here Jude insinuates, That these una
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10 (4€, 100.) Yet these Jo Yet these ungodly teachers, notMEN revile those things withstanding their pretensions to fuwhich indeed they do not perior illumination and knowledge, know. But what things revile laws and magistrates, whose they know naturally as origin and usefu:lness indeed they do not animals void of reason,' by know. But the use of the members of thife they destroy them their body, which they know only by selves.
instinct as animals void of reason, by perverting these to gluttony, drunkenness, and lust, they destroy both their
soul and their bocły. U Wo Is' to them ; 11 Wo is their portion ; for in for they have gone in the destroying the souls of their breway of Cain, and have thren by their false doctrine, they run far’ in the error of have followed Cain in the murder of Balaam's hire, and have his brother; and by misrepresenting perished in the rebellion the oracles of God for the sake of of Korah.
gain, they have run far in the error which Balaam followed for hire ; and, on pretence of superior illumination opposing the apostles of Christ, they Mall perish, as the men who perished in the rebellion of Korah.
godly teachers, notwithstanding they made high pretenfions to know. ledge, had no knowledge, at least concerning the use of their body, but what they derived from natural instinct, as brute animals : That they made their lusts the only rule of their actions : That they coupled with women promiscuously like the brute beasts: and That, instead of using the knowledge they derived from instinct rightly, they there i by deftroyed both their soul and their body. In this passage the apostle strongly condemned the lascivious practices of the Nicolaitans, and of all the ungodly teachers who defended the promiscuous use of women; and confuted the argument taken from natural appetite, by which they vindicated their common whoredoms. If these teachers had had any true knowledge, they would have known that reason is given to enable men to restrain the excesses of their natural appetites, and to lead them to the right use of the members of their body, as well as of the faculties of their mind.
Ver. 11. -- 1. Wo is to them. The substantive verb wanting in this sentence
may bé taken either from the present of the indicative, or from the present of the optative mode. In the second way Eat AUTOmust be translated as in our Bible W’oe be to them, and is a curse. But in the first way it should be translated as I have done Wo is to them, and is only a declaration of the misery which was to come on them. Ac. cordingly, the phrase is thus nféd by our Lord, Matth. xxiv. 19. W. unto them who are with child, and to them who give fuck in those days. For ,
are spois in 12 Ουτοι εισιν εν ταις αyour feasts of charity, when they feaft with you feed. γαπαις υμων σπιλαδες, συνing themfelves without fear: ευαχεμενοι, αφοβως εαυτες clouds they are without wa.. ποιμαίνοντες νεφελαι ανυter, carried about of winds: doo, ÚTO
δροι, υπο ανεμων περιφεροtrees whose fruit withereth, without fruit, iwice pevect* δενδρα φθινοπωρινα dead, plucked up by the ακαρπα δις αποθανοντα" εκ
certainly this was no wish of punishment, since to be with child and to give fuck' in those days, was no criine. But it was a declaration of the misery which was coming on persons in that heipless condition. See Luke vi. 24. for another example of this use of you
2. And have run far in the error of Balaam's hire. The word ittxu ngay which I have translated have, run far, literally signihes, tff:1 Junt, vagantur, in allusion to the running of liquors, which follow no certain course when they are poured out. The apostle's meaning is, tbey have gone far in the fin which Balaam comınitted for hire, when he counselled Balak to tempt the Israelites to commit fornication and idolatry. - The ungodly teachers in the first age, ftrongly actuated by Balaam's passion for riches, drew money from their disciples by allowing them to indulge their lults without retraint. Hence what is here called the error of Balaam's hire, is called], Rev. ii. 14. his doctrine : And 2 Pet. ii. 15. bis way: And the ungodly teachers are there said to have followed in it. See notes 1, 2. on that passage of Peter.
13. And have perished. Here, as in many pafiages of fcripture, a thing is faid to have happened, which was only to happen. This manner of expression was used to shew the absolute certainty of the thing spoken of. Have perisbed, therefore, means ball certainly perish. See Eff. iv. 10. 2.
4. In the rebellion of Korah. Literally, artidoyas fignifies contradiction. But when princes and magistrates are contradicte.], it is re, bellion. Wherefore artihoysa here, may very properly be translated rebellion ; And aaov artideyourd, Rom. x. 21. a rebelling people.--By de. claring that the ungodly teachers were to perish in the rebellion of Korah, Jude infinuated that these men, by opposing the apostles of Christ, were guilty of a rebellion timilar to that of Korah and his companions, who opposed Mofes and Aaron on pretence that they were no more commiffioned by God, the one to be a prince, the other a priest, than the rest of the congregation, who were all holy, Numb. xvi. 3. 13.-By comparing the ungodly teachers to Cain, tó Balaam, and to Korah, Jude hath represented them as guilty of murder, covetoufness, and ambition.
Ver. 12.-1. These men are, onidadesSpots. The word ominades, properly signifies rocks in the sea, which when they vise above its fur