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For the New England Farmer. if the tree should not literally die, yet the sap CHOICE AND CULTURE OF APPLE
vessels would be so hardened and cramped by the TREES.
heat, as to render it impossible for the sap to
dow in sufficient quantities to give the top its Messrs. Editors :-As the season is fast ap- needed support; consequently, the limbs become proaching when most people purchase their trees stinted, and fail of having that healthy appearfor transplanting, I venture to make a few state- ance which so easily distinguishes a well cultiinents relative to my theories and practice in the vated tree. above line.
The sap which is thus obstructed, like a waterMuch credit is due to many enterprising indi- course must find outlet somewhere, which it acviduals, who have subjected themselves to great complishes by sending out numero 18 shoots at labor and expense in order to furnish the public the bottom of the tree, sometimes from below the with a supply of good trees; and, wbilst this surface of the ground, which with me, in many just meed of praise is cheerfully bestowed where instances, it is impossible to kill by frequent cutit is deserved, no false delicacy. will make me ting, as the more I perform this operation, the forbear to give vent to my feelings of contempt more is their name legion. To more fully suband indignation towards those nursery-men who— stantiate the correctness of this theory, let us not only in defiance of all law, both of God and follow nature in her training of the “wild apple man, but in direct opposition to their own pe- tree of the wood.” cuniary interests—have practised the grossest im- First, the seed of the apple germinates and positions on the ignorant and unwary. Justice, shows itself two or three feet above the ground ħowerer, demands it should be concluded that, in before the cattle think it worthy of their attenmany instances, where the fault has been charged tion to browse, when, for a number of years, a to the nursery-man, it really belongs to the one kind of running contest is kept up between them as who had the charge of setting out and subsequent to who shall obtain the mastery, which generally care of the trees.
results in the tree, shrub-like, increasing in width Much as I admire a good nursery, with its to such a degree that it is impossible for its foe clean and well-cultivated rows, candor and truth to reach the shoot, which is now ascending from com pels me to say that it is not the proper place the centre, and which soon forms a respectable to look for the best trees. First, because they top. The owner, making the discovery that it generally stand much too thick ; second, because will grow in spite of beast's browsing and man's their trunks have been entirely sheltered from the neglect, in the course of a few years cuts away sun, to which they must be inevitably, and, in the now useless shrubs and sprouts on and too many instances, fatally exposed ; third, be around its body, and finds that he has a tree as cause the soil in which they are thus far reared, hardy as the most sturdy oak, with which a tree is often richer than that to which they are trans- from a crowded nursery bear about as favorable planted can possibly be made. If it were pos- comparison to as would a Milk strzet clerk with sible so to do by statute law, I would not lessen a down-east lumber-man. the number of nurseries, but would rather in- A tree whose body can always be protected crease them. But if the process of depletion was from the rays of the sun, will invariably be much to be applied in accordance with my views, it more thrifty and prolific than one otherwise exwould be in the number of trees contained in a posed. I would recommend to those who are row, which should be not more than fifty per about setting out trees, to let them incline to the cent. of the number usually allowed to stand. southwest about two degrees, from a perpendicThis statement is not intended to lessen the profits ular position, as a protection to their bodies from of those engaged in this branch of business, but the direct rays of the sun. In ten years the difrather to enhance them, as it an opinion, founded ference in perpendicular appearance will not be on observation and experience, that one dollar is perceptible. not a high price for a good sized, thrifty apple tree. Should any suckers come out on the bodies of
But how shall I be able to select a good tree, trees newly transplanted, cherish them with all and how shall I test the correctness of your dia- possible care, as where two or more are allowed tribe against thick-set nurseries ? says the in- to grow up and down the trunk, I have never quirer of little experience in this matter. known it to perish by sun-blight. The second
In regard to the selection of a good tree, let spring these may be headed in one-half, and the the trunk be of as pyramidial form as possible, third entirely removed. Excepting this for the the bark smooth and of a dark green color, the first four or five years, if you are tempted to use top being well spread and divided into not less your jack-knife about them, throw it into the than three branches. Examine the twigs of the river immediately, that you may be delivered last year's growth, to see if they are not only of from evil.
Pro Boxo PUBLICO. proper length, but of good circumference, with a N. Bridgewater, Feb. 3, 1855. good full bud at the top, and, all other things being right, it is of but little consequence whether PRESERVING FLOUR AND MEAL.—The patented the body is straight or crooked, although my plan of Thomas Pearsall, of Hooper's Valley, N. preferences are in favor of the crooked.
Y., for preserving flour, meal and grain, from As to the propriety of purchasing a tree from heating and souring, by having an open pipe runa thick-set nursery, common sense teaches that it ning through the centre of a barrel of four and is impossible for it to have a quantum sufficit of meal, or a number of such tubes in bins of grain, roots, and those must possess but a feeble nature, we have tested and found to be an excellent invenand who will answer for its trunk surviving the tion. A barrel of Indian corn meal put up in heat of such a sun as that of 1854? It would be May last, with one of his refrigerating tubes, is the height of folly to hope for such a result, for, now as sweet as it was on the day it was packed.
BY HENRY F. FRENCI.
This improvement must lead to a great saving to necessary in New England beyond what a Southour country, as it is calculated that no less than ern clime requires ? We will call it the rery $5,000,000 is lost annually by the souring of four small amount of thirty dollars for each family of and the heating of grain in piles,—much, if not all, of which may be saved by the application of
about five persons, and this gives us fifteen milthis invention, which is neither complex nor ex- lions more, making eighty millions a year in all. pensive, but simple and cheap. A barrel of corn Now when we consider all this, and the disadvanmeal, packed in one of Pearsall's patent tubular tages under which farmers labor, at the North, barrels, arrived in this city on the 7th of this month 'from Louisville. It was put up in July,
as to performing their labor-how we are hurand shipped to New Orleans, was kept several
ried and driven to do, our fencing, plowing and weeks in the hold of a steamboat, and afterwards planting in a very few days, while no farther housed in a warehouse until about the 1st of De- South than Maryland the plow runs every cember, and yet is now perfectly sweet.
month in the year—it is enough to make us pause Scientific American.
and consider, whether, indeed, our lines have fall.
en in pleasant places, and whether we hare a For the New England Farmer. goodly heritage. THOUGHTS ON CLIMATE.
It is true, we do pay, in New England, a tax,
an annual tax, equal to one hundred millions of It is strange to think how much we pay for the dollars, for the additional food, shelter and fuel privilege of living in a cold climate. The hay crop
necessary for subsistence in a cold climate. How of New England, in 1850, was about three-and-a- much additional labor we annually perform to half millions of tons, and was worth, when stored bring out from a hard and sterile soil our varifor use, about thirty-five millions of dollars. An ous crops, beyond what they would require to be this, with a trilling deduction for what was ex
raised by the same skill and thrift, from the deep ported, was fed out to our cattle, sheep and hors- and fertile valleys of the South and West, no man es, to sustain them during the winter months. In would dare to estimate, and the wonder, only, to the Southern part of our country, no such crop is a Southern man who visits New England, is, that raised, for it is not needed. Vast droves of cattle we undertake to cultivate such land at all. find abundant food, summer and winter, in the
A hundred millions of dollars a year is a large woods and on the prairies, with no care from sum to pay for sunshine merely—for what, in othman. Thus we pay in New England, for the er words, in another climate, the warmth of the privilege of keeping our very cattle in a cold cli- sun would render unnecessary. mate, thirty-five millions of dollars. And this is But, there is a law of compensation running by no means all. We feed out to them a vast through all nature. If we travel towards the amount of grain. We build for them expensive South, in our own country, as we leave New barns and stables, a luxury which Southern ani- England, we see as we go farther, less and mals neither enjoy, nor have occasion for. They less of the indications of comfort and refinement. are far more comfortable out of doors, under a The house is less and less like a Home. As warm sky.
the climate allows the members of the family We expend a great amount of labor and time in more freedom abroad, less is thought of the infeeding out three-and-a-half million tons of hay, ternal convenience and of the outward adornment a fork-full at a time, each winter.
of the dwelling. Living apart, and not in villaAgain, there were in New England, by the ges, there are less advantages for education and census of 1850, a few more than a half-million of social intercourse. families, occupying nearly half-a-million of dwel- Even in Old Virginia, in 1850, there were by lings. I think it would be a fair estimate, that the census, seventy-seven thousand free white nathe annual average cost of keeping up every tive adults that could not read or write! No dwelling to the necessary point of comfort in New wonder one of her politicians recently expressed England, above the cost in the Southern States, great surprise at a recent proposition in the Mason account of cold merely, is thirty dollars, or in sachusetts Legislature, to limit the right of all fifteen millions of dollars. To this, add for voting to citizens who can read and write ! the extra fuel the like amount of fifteen millions, The lavish expenditure of human labor strikes and we have already, for merely hay for our cat- every New England man who travels Southward. tle, and additional shelter and warmth for our That human toil is to be saved, seems nerer to families, a tax of sixty-five million of dollars a have been thought of. Where the man himself year, for the luxury of cold weather.
must do the work, the head will do its part, and But again, they say the dog-day costume of a save the hands; but where the head of one didandy in New Orleans is, a clean dickey and a rects the hands of others, the labor is nerer skilpair of spurs! We must not forget the matter of fully applied. rlothing. What additional clothing is really Slavery accounts for many of the facts to which
Satin vests could do no more.
we refer. Slave labor produces less than any being generally a little cheaper than other kinds, other, and where the slave esists the master nev- ard pretty good eating late in the season.
The er works, while in New England every man la- Black Chenangoes seem to impr.ve every sucbors with his own hands, and is proud to do so.
ceeding year, and are now in this neighborhood
esteemed one of the best kinds for cooking, and Yet, back of these considerations, as all histo- owing to the fact that they never suffer from rot, ry shows us, there is a law of compensation as to are more cultivated, I think, than any other climate which seems universal. A cold climate kind.
Amasa WALKER. is most farorable to the development of an active
North Brookfield, March, 1855. and energetic character. This is, after all, the grand secret of the whole matter. The New Eng
SOULS, NOT STATIONS. land youth sees before him a rugged country, of| Who shall judge a man from manners ? forest-covered hills, cut through by rushing
Who shall know him by his dress ?
Paupers may be fit for princes, streams, with the winter snows drifting deep
Princes fit for something less. about them. But he feels the power within him Crumpled shirt and dirty jacket to sell the forest, to dam the river, to break the
May beclothe the golden ore snow-paths to build mills, to grade the hills and
Of the deepest thoughts and feelingsvalleys for railways. Everything gives way be
There are springs of crystal nectar fore an energy and a will of which he, whose
Ever welling out of stone ; cheek is fanned by a Southern breeze in his youth,
There are purple buds and golden knows nothing.
Hidden, crushed, and overgrown.
God, who counts by souls, not dresses, Often the Northern man, trained to active life
Lores and prospers you and me, at home, finds himself, by a short residence at the While he values thrones, the highest, South, enervated and weakened by the climate,
But as pebbles in the sea. and ceases to wonder at the different habits of
Man, upraised abore his fellowsthe people.
Oft forgets his fellows then;
Masters-ralers-lords remember We may speculate and theorize as wo will, it
That your meanest kinds are men ! is true at this very hour, that the sun in his Men by labor; men by feeling, whole course around the earth does not now
Men by thought and men bg fame,
Claiming equal rights to sunshine search out a people of the same number occupy
In a man's ennobling name. ing a like amount of territory, so well supplied There are foam-embroidered oceans, with the necessaries of life, so well educated, so
There are little weed-clad rills,
There are feeble inch-high saplings, moral, so free and so happy, as those of New
There are cedars on the hill; England.
But God, who counts hy souls, not stations, What we might be with a warm and genial
Loves and prospers you and me ; climate and a mellow soil we cannot tell. What
Are a 3 pebbles in the sea. we are, with the rough north winds, and our
Toiling hands alone are builders rocky hills, and a free sky bending over us, let us consider well and be thankful.
Titled laziness is pensioned,
Fed and fattened on the same,
By the sweat of others' foreheads,
Living only to rejoice,
While the poor man's outraged freedom
Vainly lifteth up its voice.
But truth and justice are eternal, probably in New England generally, was uncom
Born with loveliness and light; monly fine last year, and altogether the most
And sunset's wrongs should never prosper
While there is a sunny right; profitable crop raised. Of the Black Chenangoes, which I have raised for more than ten years
And God, whose world-heard voice is singing past, without any rot in a single case, I last year
Boundless love to you and me, obtained 320 bushels to the acre. They are now
Will sink oppression with its titles,
As the pebbles in the sea. worth at my door 65 cts. per bushel — 320 - 05 =$208,30. This on land just broken up, and with a moderate quantity of stable manure, say SHEEP.-Lawrence Smith, of Middlefield, has 25 cart-loads to an acre, plowed in, gives a nett been testing the respective merits of the Merino profit greater by far than any I know of in ordi- and Oxfordshire sheep, and finds that the latter nary agriculture.
are at the same time the most productive and the Of the Jenny Lind potatoes, of which kind I least expensive ; they are also very prolific, usualplanted only 8 equare rods, I raised 24 bushels, ly giving birth to twins, and Mr. Smith has ciisor at the rate of 480 bushels to the acre-worth covered that while the receipts on ten Merinos now 624 cts. per bushel, equal to $300 to the amounted to $32, the profits on nine Oxfordacre.
shires was $60,90. He also states that the lamb This last is a huge, coarse
, potato, but well of the latter species often attain the weight of worth raising, owing to its wonderful productive- 100 lbs. on nothing hut the milk afforded by the ness; they are used for table purposes by many, dam, and says that he has had a seven-month
For to Him all vain distinctions
of a nation's wealth and fame;
lamb in his flock weighing 104 lbs.—Springfield present law. But as he who breaks into a house Republican.
and takes property either day or night is made
to feel the rigor of the law, and that justly, so For the New England Farmer.
let him who will break into or enter a garden, LEGAL PROTECTION TO FRUIT TREES. made to feel a like deserved rigor.
yard or orchard, and take fruit day or night, be “How does it happen that there is so little Will not our Legislature now in session think of choice fruit cultivated in this place ?" I asked of these things ? Let them give us a chance to try a resident, last fall. “There are,” I continued, what virtue there is in something beside turf **no early or fall apples, no pears, good or bad, and grass... Give us something that will bring very few peaches, no grapes ; in fact, though the boys” down from the apple-tree and pearpossessing every advantage for the successful cul- tree too in double quick time, and make them stay tivation of the very choicest fruits, there is in down !
ICHABOD HOE. the place scarcely a thing grown worthy the name of fruit!”
THE GREATEST GRAIN MARKET IN “Well, I can tell you the whole and only
THE WORLD, cause, and it is all told in one single word, • Boys." Boys, big and little, will manage in
In the progress of our city and of the West spite of you to get the best of your fruit, and generally, facts of the most astounding character most likely break down and destroy your fruit not unfrequently come upon us unawares, and trees; and it is more vexatious and provoking to before we are prepared for them. If any one had raise the fruit and have such scamps get it and asked us, two days ago, which of the great grain ruin your trees to boot, than it is to have noth- depots of the world, (depots at which grain is ing;.. I tried it till I got sick of it, and gave it collected directly from the producer,) was the
largest, we probably would have named half a
If the same The manner in which this response was utter- dozen before hitting the right one. ed, showed it was no "fancy sketch,” but “real question were put to each of our readers, we life." The man felt what he said.
doubt if any one of the whole number could “But," I replied, "put the law on such fel- answer it correctly, nor do we believe that any lows!"
one of the whole number would credit the correct "Law !” he repeated, with a scornful leer. “I answer to the query, unless it was sustained by tried law once, to my satisfaction. I found
an array of figures, the truth of which could not
be of the vermin on one of my trees one night, and
questioned. Our attention was called to this made a complaint against him before a justice of subject yesterday, by a gentleman engaged in the the peace, who found him guilty, and fined him grain business in this city, and with his assisone dollar and costs! From that time my gar: the result of which, greally to our surprise
tance, we have given it a thorough investigation, den and fruit trees found no peace till the first
and was ruined and the latter broken down and gratification, establishes the supremacy of Cucago killed. That's the beauty of the law. If the fel- as a grain port over all other ports of the world! low got into my house, at the same time, and That there may be no ground for incredulity, we stolen a crab, or had passed a counterfeit one
proceed to lay before our readers the statistics, dollar bill on me designedly, he would have gleaned from authentic sources, which confirm fetched up at the States prison ! But he could this statement. In the table which follows, we trample down my garden, and break down my in wheat, estimating five bushels of the latter to
have in all cases reduced flour to its equivalent fruit trees which were worth beyond price to me, and yet the law would fine him only a few dol- one of the former. The exports from the Eurolars, and let him off to run riot in his mischief !” pean ports are an average for a series of years,
Well, thinks I to myself, must these things those of St. Louis for the year 1853, those for be so ? Must we be deprived of the inestimable Chicago and Milwaukie, for the current year, blessing of having abundance of choice fruit, a
and those for New York are for the past eleren blessing great as it is which every man in the months of the same year. With these explanacommonwealth with only a half-acre lot may en
tions we invite attention to the following table : joy, because, forsooth, vagrant boys, grown and
Wheat. Ind. Corn. Oats, Rye, ungrown, will steal it? Nothing conduces more
Odessa... to the enjoyment of the family than abundance Galatz & Ibrelia. 2,400,000 6,600,000 of good fruit, and no good can be had with less Dantzig..........3,050,000
1,325,000 St. Petersburg..
all kinds espense. If every family which has the means, could
2,000,000 have the most tempting fruits of the varieties
...3,082,000 918,584 1,031,078 5,091,468
841,630 • which flourish here, how greatly would family New York.......5,802,452 3,627,888
9,450,335 expenses be reduced ! Tens of thousands of dol- Chicago........2,946,922 6,745,533 5,031, 216 13,726,728 lars that are now sent abroad for supplies and By comparing the exports of the different for foreign fruits would be saved at home and places mentioned in the above table, it will be added to the wealth of the commonwealth. seen that the grain exports of Chicago exceed
It is not the straggling, moss-grown tree that those of New York by 4,296,393 bushels, those stands on the open common or by the road-side of St. Louis by more than two hundred and fifty tempting, every passer by to "pluck and eat,” per cent., and those of Milwaukie nearly four that needs or inerits protection. If a man has hundred per cent. Turning to the great granano more wit than to expose his treasures openly ries of Europe, Chicago nearly doubles St. Peto the public, thus daring them to violate the law, tersburg, the largest, and exceeds Galatz and let him suffer loss under the mild pressure of the Ibrelin combined: 5,406,727 bushels.
bush. 7,010,000 8,320,000 4,405,000 7,200,000 2,528,000
For the New England Farmer.
Twenty years ago Chicago, as well as most
MR. EDITOR :-Humanity has the first claim flour and meat for home consumption—now she
upon our nature. It is the first natural lesson is the largest primary grain depot in the world, and she leads all other ports of the world, also, in
we teach the child; it daily admonishes offending
man ; it asks your forbearance to do wrong. It the quantity and quality of her beef exports !! We because it cannot be denied that New York, Liv- wants your cherries, mount the tree and sing and say the largest primary grain depot in the world, says to the Spring birds, come and sing your
joyous songs around my dwelling. If the robin erpool, and some other great commercial centres, eat together ; so with the beautiful cherry birds ; receive more breadstuffs than Chicago does in make them your daily guests. If you have but the eourse of a year, but none of them will com- few, plant more trees and invite
" familiarity; pare with her, as we have shown above, in the When the fruit is gone, the canker-worm and amount collected from the hands of the pro-lother insects are their food. Don't shoot these ducers.
birds ! What a practical illustration the above facts
Build houses for the martin, the wren, the afford as to the wonderful, the scarcely credible, swallow, the blue bird; make the entrance holes progress of the West—what an index it furnishes small for the wren,
and according to size for the to the fertility of her soil, and to the industrious other birds. Severe battles are fought for the and enterprising character of our people—what a prophecy of the destiny that awaits her, when mastery of the house, but the size of the hole
decides who shall occupy it. The swallow and erery foot of her long stretches of prairie and her martin are sallying forth for musquitoes and rich vallies shall be reduced to a thoroughly sci- other insects, while the little wren is picking entific tillage! How long, at this rate, will it be before the centre of population and of wealth will and late they regale you with their music. Have
over your fruit trees for bugs and slugs ; early have arrived at the meridian line of our city, and
you a heart to shoot these birds? Chicago will have vindicated her right to be recog
Few know the value of the woodpecker, who nized as the great commercial metropolis of the constantly seeks for noxious grubs beneath the United States? We verily believe such is the des- bark of your orchard trees, and so dexterously tiny that awaits her.- Free Press.
does its work. Will you shoot this bird? There
is the golden robin,” that hangs her reticule" For the New England Farmer. on the limb of the graceful elm, ingeniously b2
yond your reach. She opens her voice with the ABOUT RAISING STRAWBERRIES.
dawn of the morning in rich notes ; she lives on I find that my neighbors who cultivate straw-worms and insects ; give her thrums to weave berries in a very rich piece of garden ground, are her nest. Don't shoot this beautiful bird. 80 overwhelmed with weeds that they feel com- There is the thrush—he perches upon the treepelled to make a new bed every ye:ır or two. I top and directs you to "plow it,” furrow it,” have had a bed in the same spot, a part of it for "drop it," and "cover it up," as a true monitor sis and a part for five years, and for the past of seed time. Will you shoot him for this good three years have had comparatively very little advice ? The merry boborlink, the lark that trouble with the weeds; the hoe and hand, three whistles, and that little Bible bird, the "spartimes in the season, being sufficient, including row,” that chirps around your door, seeks a few therein once late in the autumn. I take poorer crumbs of bread, and becomes the pet of children. land and a larger piece--a piece where nothing Will you shoot these innocent birds ? but grass or strawberries will grow, unless it be The hawk dashes into your brood of chickens Weeds, owing mainly to the close proximity of with a relish for uncooked poultry, and carries two large elins, whose roots draw largely on the off his victim before the eyes of its terrified, besoil, and partly to the soil being a gravelly loam, seeching mother; yet his principal food is snakes, which has never received much that was enrich- mice and lizzards. So he is an expert fisherman, ing. Sometimes I have given the bed a dressing but there is plenty of fish in the sea for you. of well-rotted compost, sometimes of leaves in the Don't shoot the hawk. fall, and sometimes nothing whatever. Last sum- The crow pulls up your corn, (soak it in copmer it produced 105 quarts of strawberries. The peras water as a preventive,), but he is your comdimensions of the bed I cannot now give, but mon scavenger, removes carrion and other offal, should suppose it would contain 1000 or 1200 eats worms, and is highly beneficial in his departsquare feet. I would not exchange it for one of ment. His music—any thing but agreeable to balf the size, in rich soil, if I had to take the us—is heard by Him who hears the young weeds also.
ravens when they cry.” Will you shoot this As strawberries do not grow on bushes to ac- raven ? commodate tall people, and as the sun always It was my intention to have merely sketched shines its hottest rays when they ripen, and it is these birds, that surround every New England a busy time, I find it advantageous to have a home. Wanton is the hand and wicked the bed sufficiently large to pay for the picking, by heart that revels in this destructive, indiscrimallowing my neighbors' children or wives to pick inate sport. Legislation is too tame upon this them on phares, giving me one-half, which half subject; law is disregarded ; and, as conventions is sufficient for my family's present consumption, are the order of the day, why not have a great and for their preserve jars, and for the supply of national bird convention and decide whether, in several quarts to friends.
God's providence, birds were sent to curse or to Yours, &c., LEWIS S. HOPKINS.
H. Poor. Northampton, Feb. 15, 1855.
New York, March 15, 1855.