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Such then has been the change in dering on land, and the terin murder public sentiment, that a traffic, or to the homicides of war? Will not practice, which 50 years ago was the abominations of the War-trade generally deemed just and necessary, and its promoters be held in more is now ranked among the most flagi- abhorrence in fifty years to come, tious crimes, as deserving the severest than the Slave-trade and its agents penalty.

are at the present time? Does it no: We shall not stop to show the then behove those who are anxieus consistency of this law with another for posthumous fame and the grateful of nearly the same date, nor attempt respect of posterity, to adopt some to illustrate the difference between excellent way, than either trading in foreign human flesh and trafficking in human beings, or prothat of domestic growth ; but we con- moting the games of public war

? gratulate the friends of justice on the As the inhuman Slave-dealer is now actual progress of light and philan- regarded with horror, as an enenıy to thropy.

the best interest of his species ; so it More light will yet arise on the will fare with the boasting Warsubject of the Slave-tradeand slavery; .dealer in a still more enlightened age but our object is to encourage the of the world. In respect to the fanie friends of peace.

The War-trade is of all barbarous and sanguinary custhe father of the Slave-trade, and its toms, old things will pass away, and crimes and mischiefs are of greater a more philanthropic scale of glory extent. From the progress of senti- will be established, --a scale by which ment in respect to the child, we may the promoters of peace and happiness infer what will hereafter be the public will rise, and the promoters of war ad opinion in regard to its more abomi- mischief will sink in public estimation,

It is now clearly seen that those governments were awfully deluded,

Grecian Stories. who supposed they had a right to

[By Maria Hack.] authorize the Slave-trade. How hor- Tie business of Education, at rid do those acts of government now Sparta, was not so much to teach appear, which licensed subjects to go a variety of things, as to form the to the coasts of Africa, to buy or steal character. Of learning, the young human beings, to tear them from all Spartans had just what was absothey held dear on earth, transport lutely necessary: all the rest of their them to a foreign land, and sell them, education was calculated to make like beasts, into a state of slavery! them subject to command, to endure What

, then, in a future day will be labour, to fight and to conquer. The thought of those rulers, who instigate, qualities for which they most highly encourage, and make war-who au- valued themselves, were patience, thorize wholesale murder and depre- courage, and a keen sensibility to dation—who call into the field vast applause, and to shame. Education armies of men, and excite them to was to make the Spartan boys bold, butcher one another, and who spread watchful, skiiful, and obedient soldesolation and ruin among innocent · diers; for unfortunately, Lycurgus, people who never did them any though he had himself experience harm? Will not posterity deny the that the greatest difficulties may be right of rulers in these cases, as en- surmounted, and the most bitter enelightened men now deny their right mies subdued, by prudence, kindness, to make human flesh an article of and reason, was so infatuated as to commerce! Will they not also apply imagine that the Spartans could neither the term piracy to all maritime de- be prosperous nor happy, unless they predations, the term robbery to plun- became a nation of warriors. For

nable parent.


this reason, he directed them to be them for no úseful purpose. Instead brought up with the greatest hardi- of making them free, their whole life ness and simplicity. They were to was passed in the most cruel bondage wear only one garment after they to the spirit of ambition, and to false were twelve years old, and this was ideas of glory. Instead of making to serve them in winter as well as them independent, they were, in all

They were to sleep on no the useful and necessary arts of life, better bed than rushes, gathered by as helpless as children; depending tleiselves. They were allowed the for even the coarse and scanty acsame plain food as the men, but in comodations they were permitted to very small quantity, unless they could enjoy, on the labour of others. Besteal it. If they could rob a garden, sides this, they were doomed to ignoor the kitchens and larders of the rance; for as in the time of Lycurgus nen, they were allowed to enjoy the books were scarcely known, and the plunder, as a reward of their boldness spirit of his laws forbade any alteraand skill, unless they were discovered tion, when literature was improving making the attempt: in that case, and flourishing in the other Grecian they were punished severely, not for states, Sparta was left behind. the theft, but for awkwardness in What then were the blessings en allowing themselves to be surprised. joyed by this nation of warriors ?

Education among the Spartans They were cut off, by the nature of could hardly be said to end; when their institutions, from all the pleasures hove approached manhood, their dis- of domestic life. But, at least, were cipline increased in strictness. Nor they not safe! They could carry dewas there


remission, except while solation and misery into every surengaged in military service; then rounding country, when they pleased ; many indulgencies were allowed them, and who would dare to attack them, so that the camp was a scene of ease trained as they were, from infancy, and luxury, compared to the dis- to all the hardships and stratagems cipline of the city. There they were of a military life? Alas! these highobliged to engage in earnest conflict, minded warriors, these daring sons with blows among each other; to of liberty, had often cause to tremble stand still, while they were cruelly in the presence of their slaves ! beaten, without altering the least ex- All the Grecian states allowed of pression of pain ; to endure heat domestic slavery. Some of these almost to suffocation, and to bear ex. slaves were purchased foreigners, treme cold, travelling all over the others were the descendants of subcountry barefoot, in the depth of dued Greeks. The Spartan slaves winter. Even cleanliness of person were of the latter class. There are was discouraged in the city, but in different accounts of the origin of these the camp, not only neatness was miserable men, who were distinguished required, but even ornament was from all other slaves by their name, approved. All these regulations had as well as by the hardships of their a natural tendency to make them fond lot. It is said, that Helos, a town of a military life.

of Peloponnesus, having been conIn considering the institutions of quered in ancient times by a Spartan Lycurgus, it is impossible not to be king, the inhabitants were, according struck with the great waste of power.

to the custom of those barbarous ages, Possessing, as he did, the most as- reduced to slavery: they were distonishing intluence over the action, persed in such numbers through

, the manners, the very thoughts of the Laconia, that the name of Helot in people, who, from the lour of their that country, had the saine meaning

, , birth, were accustomed to obey every

as slave. impulse of his will, he educated These Helots cultivated the ground,




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and exercised the few mechanical arts conquered by these oppressed slaves, that were necessary, in a country from than even by its foreign enemies. which wealth and luxury were en- Such was the happiness, and such tirely banished. Though the Spartans the security, of a Military Governprided themselves on their attachment ment. to liberty, they proved the most cruel

[In our next Number, we purpose to and tyrannical of masters. Their

give a very interesting and striking contreatment of the Helots was a disgrace versation on War, from the same work.] to humanity: every possible method was taken to degrade them; even vice was commanded to them. They

On Duelling. were compelled to drunkenness, in We cannot Christians and order to show the young Spartans to Friends of Peace too severely conwhat a ridiculous and contemptible demn all those works which have state men are reduced by that vice. a tendency to produce in the youthful Every Helot was watched by thou- mind a passion for War.- It is true sands of jealous masters ; for, knowing that the general view of this subject how much their minds must be ex

may be entertained without the base asperated by the shameful treatment passions of revenge and cruelty being they experienced, the Lacedemonians called into exercise. The skilful were continually apprehensive of their movement of the Tactician may be resentment. Could the people who regarded as the ingenious operations lived in perpetual fear, lest the slaves,' of a chess-player; and the same whom they employed in every do- mind that is actuated by noble and mestic office, should rise and revenge humane feelings towards individuals, their cruel injuries, be a safe or a

may direct this vast engine of human happy people ? Of what use was their destruction and misery upon a grand military spirit? Against private trea- scale, without feeling that he violates chery, could it protect thema moment? the doctrines and duties of Chris

· Notwithstanding the cruelties to tianity. What a sad delusion is this! which the Helots were subjected, And how true is the declaration, that their numbers increased so as to in-' in the opinion of the World duce their apprehensive masters to

The murder of one man makes a villain, adopt a precaution which never could While the slaughter of thousands makes a Hero. have been used by a people possessing The work from which the following good or honourable feelings.

quotations are taken upon the subject The most active and intelligent of of Duelling is professedly written for the young Spartans were occasionally young men entering on a military sent into the country, carrying pro- career; and if such a kind of life visions, and armed with a dagger. were really honourable and dignified They dispersed, and mostly concealed for a man and a Christian, he must themselves during the day; but when approve many of the observations the darkness of night favoured their which ‘it contains. But we hope abominable design, they sallied forth, Christians are becoming more enand murdered any Helots they might lightened, and that the day is not far happen to meet : they also selected distant, when the bare sight of the those who were the strongest men, or garb and instruments of death will in whom any superiority of character produce detestation and horror. had been observed.

It is worthy of remark, that even “ The principle of Duelling is very this shocking precaution did not an- far from constituting an essential and swer the intended purpose. Laconia necessary part of true courage.

The was oftener in danger of being entirely ancient Greeks and Romans never

wore swords but in war; nor were lenges sent him ; all of which he put any duels ever fought among them. into his pocket, without further notice: If they challenged one another, it was but being soon after commanded upon either a contest between rival princes, a desperate attack on some part of and to prevent a greater effusion of the fortifications, he sent a note to blood ; or else it was to fight singly each of the challengers, acquainting against enemies of their country. them that he had received their Cesar has given us a remarkable papers, which he deferred answering instance of this kind of challenge, in till a proper occasion offered, both his Commentaries. Two centurions of for them and himself, to exert their high birth, T. Pulfio and L. Varenus, courage for the king's service ; that having with great animosity long con- being ordered to assault the enemy's tested which was the braver man, or works the next day, he desired their more worthy of preferment, and be company, when they would have an ing present at Cesar's camp when opportunity of signalizing their own assaulted by the Gauls; the former, bravery, and of being witness of his. in the heat of attack, called aloud to Of marshal Saxe's courage no one the latter, in these words : “ Why could ever doubt; yet his friends said should you remain in doubt, Varenus ? of him, that he would never fight a What fairer opportunity can you duel. There are many who

suppose desire for the proof of your valour! that their military career ought to be This, this shall be the day, to decide begun with an immediate proof of our controversies.” Immediately on their bravery, either by quarrelling

” this spirited call, Pulfio went out of with, or challenging some of their the camp, and rushed upon

the enemy. companions. Hence, they assume a Varenus followed his rival, who, with tone and air of insolence and selfhis javelin, slew the first of the Gauls sufficiency, which disgusts; and even that engaged him; but being attacked compels officers of the best natural by a shower of darts, one of them temper and disposition, to humble and pierced his shield, and stuck after chastise the insulting and disdainful such a manner in his belt, as pre- manners of these heroes.-- -A ludi. vented him from drawing his sword. story is told of one of this The enemy presently surrounded him, description. Colonel Guise, going thus encumbered and unable to de- over to Flanders one campaign, obfend himself. At this instant Varenus served a young raw officer, who was came up to his assistance, slew one, in the same vessel with him ; and and drove the rest before him; but with his usual benevolence, offered pursuing them too eagerly, he stum- to take care of him, and conduct him bled and fell. Pulfio who had now to Antwerp, whither they were both disincumbered himself from the dart, going : which he accordingly did, and and drawn the sword, came very sea

then took leave of him. The young sonably to the rescue of Varenus ; fellow was soon told, by some whom with whom, after having slain many he happened to fall in company with, of the Gauls, he returned in safety that he must signalize himself by and glory to the camp. Thus this fighting some man of known courage, warlike nation did not, in their pri- or else he would soon be despised in vate quarrels, sheath their swords in the regiment. He replied he knew each other's breasts : contests-of valour no one but Colonel Guise; and from among them were only calls and in- him he had received great obligations. citements to exertion of public and That made no difference, they said, patriotic deeds.

in these cases; the colonel was the Turenne, when he was a young fittest man in the world, as every body officer, and at the siege of a fortified knew his bravery. Soon afterwards, town, had no less than twelve chal- therefore, the young officer addressed

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colonel Guise as he was walking up impressed with a sense of religion, and down in the coffee-house; and having once received a challenge, began, in an hesitating manner, to answered: “I fear sinning, though tell him how much obliged he had you know I do not fear fighting." been to him, and how sensible he was The Turks suffer no duels. Busbeof his kindness; “Sir," replied Guise, quius tells us of a reproof given to an "I have done my duty to you, and no officer by a bashaw of Constantinople,

a more."

* But colonel," added the for boasting that he had challenged other, faltering, “ I am told that his enemy, which is well worth the I must fight some gentleman of known notice of every thinking man. " How courage, and who has killed several durst thou,” said he, “ challenge thy persons : and that nobody- Oh, fellow creature to a duel! What! Sir!” replied the colonel, your was there not a Christian to fight friends do me too inuch honour; but with? And yet you must go about to there is a gentleman,” showing him take each other's lives! Do not you a fierce-looking, black fellow, that know, that whoever of the two hail was sitting at one of the tables, " who died, the emperor had lost a subject?” has killed half the regiment.” On The challenger was then ordered to ibis the young officer approaches the prison, where he lay many months ; person pointed out, and tells him he is and was at last with difficulty released, well informed of his bravery, and that and even then with the loss of his for that reason, he must fight him. reputation. He, says the accomWho, me, Sir ?” replied the gentle plished Addison, who has no other

Why, I am an apothecary.” recommendation than bravery, is ill It is nearly always an officer's own qualified to make an agreeable figure fault, if he is led into disputes ; and in the world; for he will not know there is scarcely any one that will how to employ the talent which sets take the pains to examine the ground him above others, without creating or of these disputes, but will be forced finding for himself enemies." In fine, to acknowledge that he might have do not forget, my son, that as the avoided them without any injury to coward exposes himself to ridicule his reputation. They all originate and contempt, so the duellist, the either from defects in ourselves, or murderer, perhaps of his dearest from those which we fancy in others. friend-is the object of every unIt is almost invariably a trifling in- social and disgraceful sentiment ; of discretion, a severe remark, a false fear, or of hatred, detestation, and rumour, a sudden vexation, some fact abhorrence. either invented or asserted without The most cogent argument that proof, or some idle display of vanity can be urged against modern honour, or pride, which gives occasion to and its favourite principle the spirit dueis. There are surely few injuries of duelling, is its being so diametriof such a nature which a little pru- cally opposite to the forgiving meekdence might not prevent, or which ness of Christianity. The gospel might not be repaired by a portion commands us to bear injuries with of mildness and condescension. I am a resigned patience: Honour tells us, fully persuaded that a young man who if we do not resent them in a proper discovers discretion, modesty, and at manner, we are unworthy of ranking the same

time true courage, will in society as men. Revealed religion always find his comrades to take his commands the faithful to leave all part against the bully that seeks to revenge to God: Honour bids perinvolve him in fruitless quarrels. sons of feeling to trust their revenge

Colonel GARDINER, who was killa to nobody but themselves, even where ed at the battle of Preston Pans, in the courts of law might exercise it for the year 1745, and who was deeply them. Christianity in express and


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