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self to the best advantage in the common intercouse of men; and let an imitation of these be your model, with care, however, that you" d'erstep not the modesty of Na


The tone of the voice expresses the various emotions and passions, more emphatically than mere words. Lamentation and sorrow are expressed by a low tone; a spirited command by a much higher; when a pathetic address is made, the tone of the voice must be on the middle key, not too low, nor too high, but in a manly, firm, and yet plaintive tone.* Finally, in reducing every part of a just delivery to practice, guard against every appearance of affectation, as a certain ruin of good reading or speaking. Let your manner, whatever it is, be your own; whatever is natural, though accompanied with defects, is likely to please, because it has the appearance of coming from the heart. To attain a graceful, forci ble, and persuasive manner, is in the power of most persons, if they will follow nature, and will speak in pub-lic as they do in private, when they speak in earnest and from the heart.


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THE use of punctuation is designed, first to assist the reader to discern the grammatical construction, and next to regulate his pronunciation † The several stops, as they are used in printing, shall be mentioned, with particular reference, however, to the observations under the fifth Rule.

The points are the comma, the semicolon, the colon, the period, the note of interrogation, and the note of admira

tion or exclamation.

A comma [,] denoting, especially in long sentences, a little elevation of the voice, is the shortest pause, and may be held while you count one.

A semicolon [] denoting for the most part an evenness of the voice, may be held while you count two. A colon [:] marks a little depression of the voice, and • See Chapter XII. for Examples. † See Rule V.

requires a pause while you count three. The colon and semicolon are often used promiscuously.

A period [.] is a full stop, denoting a greater depression of the voice, than the colon, and may be held while you count four.

A note of interrogation [?] is used when a question is asked, and denotes an elevation of the voice, attended with a forcible pronunciation.

A note of admiration [!] is used after a sentence expressing surprise or emotion, and denotes a tone of voice suited to the sentiment. This and the note of interrogation require a pause while you count four.

A quotation - or "-"] includes a sentence, taken from an author.

A parenthesis)] (to be avoided as much as possible) includes a sentence, which may be omitted without injuring the sense, and denotes a depression of the voice, and a quick pronunciation.

A caret [A] denotes an interlineation, and shows where to bring in what was omitted in the first writing. A hyphen joins the parts of a word together, especially such as are written partly in one line, and partly in another. The word in this case must be divided according to the most approved rules of a good pronunciation*

An apostrophe ['] is a sign of the possessive case, and contract words; as, lov'd for loved.

A paragraph -new.subject.

is sometimes used to distinguish a

A diaresis [] divides two vowels which otherwise would be sounded together; as Raphaël.

A section [] divides a discourse, or chapter into less parts.

An index or hand [] poits out a remarkable passage, or something that requires particular attention.

An asterisk or little star [*] directs the reader to the margin, or to the bottom of the page. Two or more asterisks generally denote the omission of some letters in

* The best and easiest tale for dividing the syllables in spelling, is to divide them as they are naturally divided in a right pronun ciation. See Staniford's Grammar, second edition, page 8th.

a word, or of some bold or indelicate expression, or some defect in the manuscript.

An ellipsis [-] is also used, when come letters in a word, or some words in a verse, are omitted; as, "kg" for king.

An obelisk [+] parallels [1] and the letters of the alphabet, and figures, are used to refer the reader to the margin, or to the bottom of the page.



IF the mind is well cultivated, it produces a store of fruit; if neglected, it is overrun with weeds.

A wise man carries all his treasure within himself. What fortune gives, she may take away; but a wise man does not depend upon her mercy, and is therefore beyond her reach.

"Tis education forms the common mind,

Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclin d.

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; but fools despise wisdom and instruction.

A great, a good, and a right mind, is a kind of divinity within us, and may be the blessing of the slave as well as the prince,

A good concience is both the testimony and reward of a good life.

Human society resembles an arch of stone; all would fall to the ground, if one piece did not support another.

Of all the felicities attached to human nature, that of a firm and tender friendship ranks the first; it sweetens cares, dispels sorrows, and is an antidote against the severest calamities.

To know how to support adversity, is to deserve prosperity. Afflictions are sent for the exercise of virtue.

We are all surrounded and beset with evils; and as they cannot be avoided, the mind ought to be prepared to encounter them.

Beautics in vain their pretty eyes may roll,

Charms strike the sight; but merit wins the soul.

Beauty, as a flowery blossom, soon fades; but the divine excellencies of the mind, like the medicinal virtues of a plant,remain in it when all those charms are withered.

The desire of pleasing may be termed the happiest of all desires, because it seldom fails of attaining its end, when not disgraced by affectation.

'Tis a fair step towards virtue and happiness, to delight in the society of the good and wise; and if those cannot be met with, the next point is to keep no company at all.

It requires time to deliberate upon friendship; but the resolution once taken, my friend is entitled to the secrets of my heart; and I look upon my thoughts to be as safe in his breast as in my own.

Never condemn a friend unheard, without letting him know both his accuser and his crime.

Ingratitude is more baneful than a pestilential vapour, and more destructive to society than a band of robbers. Ingratitude is so dangerous to itself, and so detestable to others, that one would imagine that nature had sufficiently provided against the practice of it, without the necessity of enforcing it by law. Not to return one good office for another, is absolutely inhuman; but to return evil for good, is diabolical.

When a man loses his integrity, he loses the foundation of his virtue.

There is so wonderful a grace attached to virtue, that even the worst of characters, acknowledge its power though they are incapable of feeling its effects.

So powerful is the influence of virtue, and so gracious. the designs of Providence, that every man has a guide within his own bosom for the practice of it.

A contented mind is a continual feast; and the pleasure of the banquet is greatly augmented by knowing that each man may become his own entertainer.

Our passions are a disease, which, by frequency and neglect, becomes fatal.


IT costs us more to be miserable, than would make us perfectly happy. How cheap and easy is the service of virtue; and how dear do we pay for our vices.

*See Rule V, page 17,

There is nothing honourable, that is not innocent; and nothing mean, but what has guilt in it.

Anger may glance into the bosom of a wise man; but rests only in the bosom of fools.

The temperate man's pleasures are durable, because they are regular; and his life calm and serene, because it is innocent.

A good conscience is to the soul, what health is to the body. It costs more to revenge injuries than to bear them. It often happens, that those are most desirous of governing others, who are least able to govern themselves.

When much gratitude is found in a poor man, it may be taken for granted there would be as much generosity if he were a rich man.

When you see the anger of a friend begin to kindle, if you would do good, throw water thereon to cool, not wood to inflame it.

Virtue is the greatest ornament; it is necessary to the young, comfortable to the aged, serviceable to the poor, an ornament to the rich, an honour to the fortunate, a support to the unfortunate. She ennobles the slave, and exalts mobility itself. In short, let it be remembered, that none can be disciples of the graces but in the school of virtue and that those who wish to be lovely, must learn to be good.

The chest of a miser might as well contain brass as gold, unless benevolence should pour it into the lap of distress, or generosity place it in the hands of merit.

That friendship, which makes the least noise, is often the most useful; and a prudent friend is generally of more service than a zealous one.

A man of virtue is an honour to his country, a glory to humanity, a satisfaction to himself, and a benefactor to the world. He is rich without oppression, charitable without ostentation, courteous without deceit, and brave without vice.

The greatest wisdom of speech is to know when, and what, and where to speak; the time, matter, and manner ; the next to it is silence. As we should never construe that in earnest which is spoken in jest, so we should not speak that in jest which may be construed in earnest.

As, amongst wise men, he is the wisest who thinks he knows least, so, amongst fools, he is the greatest who thinks he knows mest.

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