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A M E RICAN REVIEW,
FOR SEPTEMBER, 1849.
SHORT CHAPTERS ON PUBLIC ECONOMY.
It arrived only at its perfect and full deConstitutionality.
velopment within the last few ages, and It is never to be lamented when men stands immoveable, by the accumulated are driven to search into the foundation of strength of all its past existence. It came the commonwealth ; as it is necessary for into perfect being, not by revolution, not the conduct of life that the divine and ab- by a change of principles, but by the nastract principles of virtue should have a tive force of an internal life, which impellconscious existence in the intellect, and ed it to throw off a foreign incumbrance, should be frequently agitated and discuss- and stand free in the vigor of independed; so, if we intend to maintain in their ant youth. It is a government of princioriginal purity and force, those ideas of ples, not of prescription, nor of forms. authority, of right, and of obedience, upon Its traditional forms are few; it did not which all government is founded, we must come down to us loaded with the corruptoften reflect, and induce others to reflect ions of former ages, to be maintained by upon them, in their simplicity. It is ne- the timid and condemned by the wise. cessary to revive and fortify the spirit of It is a government of necessity; it arose the Constitution by frequent recurrence to from necessity, and exists by necessity ; it the rights and opinions upon which it is therefore not subvertible while its moral rests; tracing these to their principles, and conditions exist. But the necessity which casting an historic glance upon those con- gave it birth is not that with which the ditions of society—those exigencies of hu- mathematics are conversant, nor the wants manity-from which they took their rise, and desires of the grosser nature of man. and through which they became appa- The necessity with which our laws are in rent; rights, in our own case, derived accordance is of a moral nature, and can be from a recognition of the imperious neces- found only in the operation of moral causes. sity of freedom to the full development of
In the course of history, philosophers our nature; principles, grounded in human observe series of events signifying the exnature, tested by the experience of all | istence and operation of certain divine and time, and suggested as rules of legislation moral laws, by which the superior destiny from an observation of the evils that arose of man is distinguished above his physical upon their absence. Ours is not an hypo- and
destiny. Governments thetical government; it was not erected founded like ours upon a recognition of upon an imaginary basis; the first fibres of of justice, of faith, of beneficence, of honits roots can be traced backward into the or, of liberty and of constancy, are imperdarkness of primeval liberty; its growth | ishable governments; and die only with has been gradual through many centuries. I the races which gave birth to them. VOL. IV.
rine and fire insurance, labor, wharfage, bro- has made it impossible to live comfortably in kerage, wholesale and retail profits, and profits this country by authorship. Literature is a of manufacture ; subject also to detention in poor and precarious occupation, book-selling Massachusetts, by speculators waiting for a on the contrary has been a good and a profitarise of price-a grand subject of contempla- ble one. The consequences are that the inteltion and argument for southern statesmen. ligence of America is, in great part, educated
Georgia has gone farther still in the race of and controlled by England and France. Soon -improvement, and has already 38 cotton mills; however, we shall have the booksellers in the the city of Augusta, by the enterprise and fore- same predicament with the authors. sight of its corporation, has provided a water of the strangest literary novelties of the day," power sufficient to move any number of mills. says the Republic, (July 12th,) " is the fact In addition to this, other factories are being es- that this country is now flooded with German tablished.
reprints, in English, of the standard classics of The consequences of these reforms and im- our tongue, which are sold at so cheap a rate, provements in the South can hardly be esti- as not only to force from the market English mated above their value; there will be, of editions, but to compete succ
accessfully with the course, a vast increase of the free white popu- | American." lation, who will not be slaveholders. The “ The pioneer of this enterprise in Germany capital of the State will be diverted from in- was the celebrated Tauchnitz, well known as vestment in slave property, and employed in a the publisher of those small and very accurate much more profitable kind of industry. The editions of the Greek and Roman classics, necessities of the poor white population will which have for fifteen or twenty years been keep down the price of labor for many years to used in all the higher schools of the country. come. A valuable class of foreign emigrants, Printed on fine and white paper, and with a mechanics and operatives, will be drawn toward | beautiful type, they compare at infinite advanthe South. Slaves will be gradually excluded | lage with the bad editions of the best authors, from inventive and mechanical occupations, with which booksellers and the reading portion which will pass into the hands of free white of the American people have too long been conmen; and while the current prejudices against tent. Before us are editions of Shakspeare, slavery in the minds of the poorer classes will Byron, Moore, Bulwer, and Sir Walter Scott, be by no means diminished, and a necessary together forming a collection of about sixty amelioration take place in the condition and volumes, each of which the publishers are able treatment of slaves, the state sovereignty itself, to send to America, pay duties, and sell at thirwill, at the same time, by the increase of wealth ty-one and a quarter cents per volume. The and power in the State, become better able to above are but a fifth portion of the works printprotect itself against the encroachments of for-ed by Tauchnitz, his library containing the eign reformers, and to subdue the great domes-chefs-d'auvre of the modern and fashionable autic evil of its institutions, by its own free and thors. These books are to be had of all the unassisted force. It will soon be beyond the German booksellers in the country, and, in power of any combination of free States to these days of bad type, and worse paper, are drive or compel the South into an unwilling re- luxuries." form of her institutions.
When Germany does all our publishing and
printing, England all our manufacturing; when The Necessity for Protection to American Book France makes our hats and shoes, and the EngPublishers.
lish philosophers regulate our politics, what The vast number of foreign books and peri
an intellectual, happy, shrewd, and prosperous odicals reprinted and sold cheap in America, people we shall be !
Last Lenres of American History; comprising, under consideration with its sister tongues, or Histories of the Mexican War, and Califor- with its mother tongue, where the existence of nia. Bv EMMA WILLARD. New York : this is certain. But in a grammar for young George P. Putnam, 155 Broadway.
people, such comparisons must be in a great
measure useless; and all that can be done Mrs. Willard in her preface to this history, with advantage, is to apply to the language unobserves,“ Washington Irving once said in con- der consideration such principles as may have versation, “pure truth is as difficult to be ob- been established by comparative philology. The tained as pure water; though clear in appear- present grammar does not lay claim to novelty, ance, it is ever found by the chemist to contain for the author has purposely abstained from extraneous substances. In recording the por- making any material alteration in the arrangetion of my country's history, here presented to ment usually adopted in grammars for schools; the public, I can only say, that pure truth has partly because he thinks that such alterations been my earnest aim; for history is truth, and as have recently been introduced in school truth is history. I am not conscious of any grammars are little calculated to benefit the prejudices, or prepossessions, either as it re- learner, and partly because he is of opinion spects individuals, parties, or sects, by means that sound information can be given without of which, I should incline to error or be led i obliging the teacher to abandon the order to astray. And I have spared no pains in my which he has been accustomed from his youth, power, to make myself acquainted with the and which he may, not always be able or wilstate of facts concerning which I have written. ling to abandon. Bat doubtless there are mistakes; for what book ever existed which had none? There may be errors of the press ; authorities may mislead; and that mind must be clear indeed, which never misapprehends. But whenever History of Queen Elizabeth. By JACOB ABan error is found, of whatever nature, and BOTT. With engravings. New York: Harwhether pointed out by a friend to serve, or a
per & Brothers. foe to injure, that error will be corrected as soon as discovered.” Mrs. Willard writes clearly This history is one of a most valuable seand interestingly, and her book is a valuable ries—the author and the publishers are entitled addition to our American bistory.
to much praise. The narratives are not tales founded upon history, but history itself, without any embellishment or deviation from the strict
truth. The author has availed himself of the Grammar of the Latin Language. By Leon- best sources of information within his reach. FAED SCHutz, Rector of the High School, Edinburgh. Philadelphia: Lea & Blan
. chard. 1819.
A Grammar is a classified collection of the Manual of Ancient Geography and History. rule of laws regulating the language of which
By WILHELM Putz, Principal Tutor at the :: professes to be an exposition. Every lan- Gymnasium of Düren. Translated from the
Edited by the Rev. THOMAS guage is subject to changes, either for the betles or for the worse; and although in the case
KIRCHIEVER ARNOLD, M. A., Rector of Lynof a deal language a grammarian must consider
don, etc. Revised and corrected from the ad diastrate it mainly as it was at the time of
London edition. New York: D. Appleton & as most perfect development, still he cannot
Co., Broadway. Philadelphia: G. S. Apsvond taking into consideration the earlier and pleton, Chestnut street. ater forms of words and expressions ; for in many instances the language, in its perfect This is a very useful book, and contains a vaie, cannot be fully explained without re- clear and definite outline of the history of the Caree being had to those forms of speech, out principal nations of antiquity; and to render it of which it has arisen. Very great advantages more clear, a concise geography of each counmay also be derived, especially in the etymo- try has been added. Professor Greene fur. bugical part, from a comparison of the language | nishes a well-written preface.