« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
To Baltimore. To Philadelphia. To New York. Total. 1859-60.......
18,170 22,167 10,894 51,231 We close our review with the followiog abstract of the aggregate shipments of the past two seasops, exclusive of the shipments from the Manchester mills, of which we have no record :
From the dock. By steamers.
471,011 28.952 499,408 1858-59
425,975 51,231 477,206
CALIFORNIA TO NEW YORK, VIA CHINA, We find in the Alta Californian the following account of the route via China to New York, given on the experience of the writer. That part of the wor.d is yearly becoming more of interest to the Atlantic States, as to the whole country, and the matters described are of a useful character :
We left San Francisco in March, 1857, in a good clipper ship bound for Hongkong, and passing through the Sandwich Island group, arrived at the port of our destination in 51 days. From Hongkong we went to Macao by steamboat, and from the latter place to Singapore by sailing vessel. At Singapore we took passage for Suez, in one of the Peninsula and Oriental mail steamers, touching at Pulo Pinang, Poiut de Galle, (Ceylon,) and at Aden, in Arabia Petrea. At Ceylon there was a change of steamers, which allowed several days sojourn ashore. The passage across the Isthmus of Suez was effected in omnibuses, and occupied eighteen hours from the town of Suez to Grand Cairo. From the latter we went by railroad to Alexandria, where we found steamers belonging to the P. and 0. Steam Navigation Company, waiting to carry us to Marseilles or Southampton. The passage to Marseiles by these steamers occupies six-and-a-half days. They touch at Malta, and frequently steam within full view of the beautiful shores of Sardinia. Marseilles is 22 hours from Paris
We made arrangements before taking passage at Singapore that we should be allowed to “rest over” a fortnight at such points as we might desire, as for example, Egypt or Malta. The privilege was availed of only in Egypt. The prices of first-class passage from San Francisco to Paris being as follows :From San Francisco to Hongkong, sailing vessel..
$200 Hongkong to Macao, steamboat.. Macao to Singapore, sailing vessel...
70 Singapore to Marseilles, (through passage,) mail steamer.
504 Marseilles to Paris, railroad... Total cost of actual transportation...
*800 Hotel bills ashore average $3 per diem.
Were we to undertake the trip again, we would pursue something like the following plan, and advise others accordingly :
Leave San Francisco in August or September for Shangbae. This will allow you to benefit by the N. E. monsoon, in the voyages from Shanghae to the Red Sea. Also a visit of optional length at Shangbae, which is a much more interesting place to strangers than the more southern ports. From Shanghae to Hongkong, and from Hongkong to Singapore, during the prevalence of the N. E. monsoon, by availing opeself of passage by.sailing vessels, a considerable saving
of expense is made over the same travel in the steamers, and but little time lost, as a good clipper ought to make the passage in nearly the same time, and some. times even quicker, that the steamers. As some may be desirous of proceeding the whole distance by steam, I give the following as the list of steamer charges for first-class passage, (including wines, etc.,) from the different points, for the year 1857. These figures are liable to slight change from the fluctuations of exchange From Shanghae to Marseilles (through ticket)......
$596 Shanghae to Hongkong,
96 Hongkong to Marseilles, porti ns of the route...
600 Singapore to Marseilles, )
504 If the tickets are taken to Alexandria, Egypt, ingtead of to Marseilles. there is a reduction of $50 in consequence. This will allow the passenger to leave the boats of the P. and 0. Company, and take passage in the Austrian-Lloyd's line for Trieste, or a steamer for Constantinople, Greece, or Naples, thus admitting visits to any part of Southern Europe, and a passage by rail through Flo. rence, Switzerland, Germany, and along the Rhine to points within easy access of London or Paris. Should the passenger have much baggage, and wish to sail for Southampton direct from Alexandria, the cost of passage is augmented about $50 over that to Marseilles.
All the mail steamers plying between the different ports of the British Oriental Possessions belong to the same company. A pleasant detour can be made by taking a steamer from Singapore to Calcutta, and from there another to Ceylon, touching at Madras. At Ceylon change steamers, and proceed to Bombay, from whence a steamer leaves for Suez every fortnight. This will give a most thorough tour, but will involve an increased expenditure for passage money alove of about $300.
Hotel bills, as I have already stated, are at an average of $3 per day. Washing and incidentals are light, unless you purchase largely of curiosities and knickpacks. Suppose 15 days are spent at each of the following places :-Shanghae, Hongkong, Calcutta, Bombay, Egypt, the hotel bills can be safely calculated at $270, and incidentals at $150 more. These resting places can be increased or done away with at will, and the expenses, therefore, be either augmented or diminished accordingly. First class passage on the steamers from Havre, Southampton, or Liverpool, ranges from $100 to $160.
No one should leave Singapore without visiting one or more of the putmeg plantations in the vicinity.
Point de Galle, Ceylon, will repay a two or three days' visit. Although many fine precious stones can be purchased here, the stranger should be on bis guard, and not purchase of the jewelry peddlers who besiege him at every step.
Having arrived at Suez, the traveler will find stages in readiness to convey him to Cairo, which he will reach after 18 hours' ride. Should the Mediterranean steamer not be in waiting at Alexandria, a few hours may be spent upon the day of arrival in visiting the principal objects of interest in Cairo.
After arriving at Alexandria, a few hours will suffice to see all that is there of interest. One piece of advice before leaving the subject of Egypt: Eschew dragomen as far as possible.
The amount of money required for the journey will vary much, according to
the taste and habits of the traveler, the time spent at the various ports, the number of presents bought for friends at home, etc. In China and at Singapore, silver dollars are indispensable, and are at 15 to 25 per cent premium, American, and even British, gold being at a heavy discount. The traveler, on leaving San Francisco, had better take what money he will want with him, in Mexican or Peruvian dollars, for use until he is about to leave Singapore, at which place he can readily and profitably convert his spare dollars into English sovereigns. Should it be desired to have money orders, or drafts, sent from home to meet the voyager upon his route, Singapore or Alexandria are the best points to select. The same may be said of them as the best to meet ordinary letters from home. Singapore is about 55 days distant, by mail, from New York. DUNCAN, SHERMAN & Co., of New York, draw bills negotiable by the Oriental Banking Company's houses at Singapore, Galle, Bombay, Hongkong, or Calcutta.
The best hotel at Singapore is the “ Adelphi,” although the “London " has the greatest reputation, and the greatest crowd. At Alexandria, the “ Peninsula and Oriental” is the best by far. Its rival, the “ Hotel d'Europe,” although patronized by the bulk of English travelers, is far inferior. The remarks about these hotels are made after personal experience in them all.
In China, and at other points along the route, most travelers are in the habit of buying silks, crapes, ivory work, curiosities, etc., for presents. These bad better be packed in camphor-wood trunks, and left for shipment in some clipper sailing to the United States, as to undertake to carry them home with one's baggage would give an inconceivable amount of trouble when passing the custom-houses of Europe.
Passports are not necessary until reaching the ports of continental Europe. They can be readily obtained of the American consul at Alexandria. If the traveler has already obtained one, it is necessary at Alexandria to have it rise by the American consul, and also by the consular representatives of whatever European State he intends to pass through. Should the voyage be made from Alexandria to Southampton direct, no passports are required.
As the greater part of the route wil} be within the tropics, plenty of light summer clothes will be needed, as well as a large supply of shirts. Light clothing of excellent quality can be purchased in China at low rates.
The shortest time by steam Irom Hongkong to England is about 48 days.
BRITISH TRADE WITH RUSSIA. The London Times of the 16th of June says :-Our exports to Russia have vastly extended in the last ten years; and are now on a considerably larger scale than they were before the Crimean war. The total value of British and Irish produce exported to Russia has been as follows since June, 1850 :Years. Exports. Years.
£1,454,771 1855... 1851.. 1,289,704 1856..
£1,595,237 1852.. 1,099,917 1857..
3,098,819 1853.. 1,228,404 1858.
3,092,499 1854.. 54,301 1859..
4,039,199 It thus appears that, in a commercial point of view, the late war has not entailed any serious results upon us as respects our exports to Russia, and that, on
the contrary, the Russiavs have become better customers than ever. The total value of our imports from Russia was £1,299,547 in 1854; £20,173 in 1855; £9,999.579 in 1856 ; £9,929,104 in 1857; £8,452,979 in 1858; and £9,695,737 in 1859. The quantity of grain imported from Russia is now very considerable, and it is a noteworthy circumstance that the increase which has taken place in this respect has been attended with a corresponding increase in our exports. The following bave been the yearly importations of grain and meal from Russia, in imperial quarters, since 1850 :Years.
Total. 1850... 953,029 1855..
174 1851. 1,334,417 | 1856..
1,215,714 1852.. 1,301,826 1857.....
2,011,217 1853.. 1,706,887 | 1858......
2,282,393 1854.. 708,703 1859......
2,404,491 We used to hear, in protectionist times, a great deal about the drain of gold which it was said would certainly follow increased importations of corn; but while in 1850 we took 363,779 quarters of grain from the northern ports of Russia, and exported thither gold and silver bullion and specie to the amount of £1,103,902, in 1859 we received from the same northern ports 1,020,461 quarters of corn, and exported thither bullion to the amount of only £122,287. So much for theory reduced to practice.
JAPANESE TRADE. The conference between the New York Chamber of Commerce and the embassy was productive of some interesting information. The following were the topics introduced by the embassy, as officially stated by the Committee of the Chamber:-
1. As to the nature and objects of the Chamber of Commerce, and whether it has any connection with the government ?
2. As to any duty levied by the United States on goods exported to foreign countries?
3. What were the duties on foreign imports? 4. What discrimination, if any, is made between foreigners and citizens of the United States as to duties charged them on importations from abroad ?
5. Whether foreigners had the same privileges and terms as citizens in the purchase of goods?
6. Whether the government of the United States has the right to prohibit the export of specific articles to other countries ?
7. Whether the rates of freight charged by American vessels depended at all or were affected by the longer or shorter duration of the voyage ?
In reply to the inquiry as to the price of farm hands and common laborers in Japan, the information was not very definite, but the inference drawn was that the prices were somewhat higher than in China.
Full answers were given to these and subordinate questions, and a deep interest was evinced on the part of the ambassadors in the replies given, and especially as to the magoitude of the commerce of this port with China, and with other nations.
In reply to the questions propounded by the Committee, the following was the substance of their remarks :
1. That the mines of gold, silver, and copper in Japan were a monopoly of the government.
2. That they rarely got out more copper than was wanted for home use, and occasionally only did a surplus exist for export.
3. That the coal mines are owned partly by the government and partly by wealthy individuals.
4. That there exist no appliances for working the coal mines to any great depth.
5. That the tra districts of Japan were extensive ; and that the production could be greatly increased if the foreign demand required it.
6. That in Japan, their preference was for green teas, and that they had some doubt whether the kinds of tea grown in Japan would suit the American markets.
When Mr. Low stated that he had received samples of the Japan teas, and that the qualities were approved of, the ambassadors expressed their surprise and pleasure.
7. Rice is abundantly cultivated in Japan, and forms a chief article of food. The export is generally prohibited, uvder the belief that a large export would advance prices, and thus operate oppressively on the common people.
8. In answer to the inquiry of the Committee, as to whether tea could be packed in the style of the Chinese, with a lining of lead, they replied that they had lead in abundance, but it was not applied to such use.
In reply to the question as to the production of raw silk in Japan it was observed that the cultivation for home use was still going on; and that the production could be largely increased if trade with other nations demanded it.
As the evening drew near its close, it was deemed advisable that a more detailed series of inquiries should be presented in writing, to which the Committee of the Chamber would make full replies ; and also submit questions on their part, which would elicit ipformation regarding the trade and resources of Japan.
BRITISH IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
£97,104,726 £18.6148,478 £115,833,704 £152,591,513 1855...
95,688,085 21,012,956 116,701,041 143,660,335 1856...
115,826,948 23,393,405 139,220,353 172,544,154 1857
1:22,066,107 24,108,194 146,174,301 187,844,441 1858...
116,608,756 23,174,023 139,782,779 164,583,832 1859...
130,440,427 25,203,163 155,6 13,590 179,334,981 The difference of £23,691,391 between the imports and exports in 1859, is accounted for by the fact that the value of the exports as declared by the merchants in England, on shipment, necessarily excludes not only the charges for freight. insurance, shipping, and landing incident to the conveyance of the goods to a foreign port and their delivery there, but also the profit attendant on their transfer from one country to another, while the value assigned to the inports, on the other hand, being computed from the prices which the goods bear in that market, must include both the charges just enumerated and the profit realized by the impo