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The Turks are beaten

Meanwhile the new grand vizier Aftchi Ali L.C.1717. received orders to succour Belgrade, Whilst a prince Eugene was erecting his batteries and cutting off all communication with the town by before Belmeans of his feet, which was quite master of the the place Danube, the grand vizier left Nissa, and advanced to prince

Eugene. at the head of a hundred and fifty thousand men. He came and pitched his camp on the heights that surround Belgrade. This army, in which there were a hundred thousand regular troops, a numerous artillery, and the choice of the Tartars and of the timarians, was encamped in the form of an amphitheatre, and presented a most terrible and magnificent spectacle. Prince Eugene, who would by no means wait for them to come and force him in his lines, resolved to go and offer them battle. Without entering into particulars, which have been mentioned by so many historians, we shall content ourselves with saying, that prince Eugene put to Aight an army of double the force of his own (for he had left troops to guard his trenches), and that the Turks, notwithstanding their number and the advantage of their situation, abandoned the field of battle, after a fight of eight hours, leaving thirteen thousand dead on the spot, without counting the wounded, a hundred and thirty-one pieces of cannon, thirty inortars, and their tents pitched, which offered to the victorious army an abundant booty. Prince Eugene, all wounded as he was (for the only fault of this great general was to expose himself


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1.C.1717. like a common soldier), entered the tent of the
Heg. 1129.

grand vizier, as he had done after the battle of
Peterwaradin, to return thanks to God, and have
his wound dressed. He retained this rich pavi-
lion for his share, as a trophy of one of the most
glorious victories that he had ever gained. The
cannon had not yet made any impression on the
walls of the town; but the garrison was fo weak-
ened by famine and terror, that, after the first
afsault, the bashaw desired to capitulate, and ob-
tained the honors of war for his garrison ; but
the troops that had been put to fight retired in
confusion into the small towns which border upon
the Save. The consternation was fo general
among the Turks, that the grand vizier, who had
appointed Nissa for the rendezvous of his routed
army, could hardly assemble thirty thousand men

J.C. 1718.

These news, being arrived at Adrianople, con-
Heg.1130. vinced the fultan and his caimacan Ibrahim of
make pro- the necessity of making a peace at any rate.
posals for a
peace, not- This minister would fain convince the divan of
Ing the op. it likewise. Having drawn in this assembly a
the mufti, striking picture of the wretched situation to which
who is de- the Porte was reduced, he gave 'to understand,

that the grand feignior was determined to give
up the places which the Austrians had taken; and
that, whatever repugnancy he might have to
leave the barriers of his European dominions in
the hands of his neighbours,' he found himself
constrained to fubmit to circumstances, and to

The Turks


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wait for a more fortunate period to endeavour to J.C. 1718.

Heg. 1130 recover Belgrade and Temeswar,

The mufti, who was better acquainted with the Alcoran than the strength of the empire, declared, that towns consecrated to Iflamism by a great number of mosques could not, without infringing the law, be left in the hands of the Infidels ; and in the heat of his zeal he called God and Mahomet to witness the opposition which he, che chief of the ulerna, made to this ignominious peace in the name of the whole body of effendis. The caimacan replied to the interpreter of the Alcoran by the Alcoran itself, that necessity opposed this law which he wished to enforce, and that Mahomet said in express terms he had never meant to oblige Mussulmen to do imposibilities. “Demon“ strate to us, this impossibility then,” answered the mufti : “ when you shall have proved to us " that there is no money in the public treasury,

or in that of the sultans, or in those of the .“ mosques: that there are no more true Mussul“ men who are willing to enlist under the standard “ of Mahomet for the service of God and the glory “ of the prophet, then I will give my fetfa to « authorise this disgraceful treaty." The caimacan, being justly alarmed at the authority which Mussa effendi (that was the name of the mufti) assumed, and the spirit of revolt that he might inftil, not only into the ulema, but even into the people, made his master sensible of the necessity to depose this dangerous fanatic. The


J.C. 1718. mufti was sent for to the seraglio, under
Heg.11 30.

pretence of conferring with the emperor, where he was deposed and sent, with three of the most turbulent of his effendis, to one of the castles of the Dardanelles. Ibrahim wrote immediately to the grand vizier from the sultan, to enter upon a negotiation with prince Eugene, who was not only generalissimo of the emperor's armies, but likewise president of his council of war.

The Turks would willingly have separated the cause of the Germans from that of the Venetians. Though the latter had almost-always been as forcunate as their allies, and had taken, this campaign, three places in Albania and several vessels in a naval engagement, the Turks would have made a more advantageous peace with each nation fe. parately; but prince Eugene replied to the first overtures of the grand vizier, that his imperial majesty would not listen to any proposals but conjointly with the republic his ally, to whom the most strict justice should be rendered; that, for the surety of the treaty, the emperor was desirous likewise that Great Britain and Holland should be mediators. These conditions, which were no other than might have been expected, no way astonished Achmet III.; but when, by prince Eugene's second dispatch, he found that Charles VI., taking advantage of the consternation of the Turks, demanded, not oniy Belgrade and Temeswar, to which Ire was already adding new


vizier is

The cai.




fortifications, but that he would have likewise, 1.C. 1718.

Heg. 1130 as an indemnity for the expences of the war, Bosnia and Servia on the right of the Danube, and Walachia from the river Moldaw to the Niester, and that the Morea should be restored to the Venetians, he resigned himself to the inoft violent despair, protesting that he would rather lose his fceptre, than consent to a peace which would for ever dishonor his reign. As the nego

The grand tiation had thus far been carried on by Aftchi deposed. Ali, the sultan thought that this grand vizier, who had been beaten by prince Eugene with an takes the inferior force, was so much contemned by his vanquilher, that the latter would never offer any thing but disgraceful conditions whilst he saw him at the head of the empire. The grand vizier received orders at Niffa, where he then was, to deliver up the seals; which the.caimacan Ibrahim was forced to accept. Aftchi Ali thought himself happy to be reduced to a simple fangiacate at the extremity of Alia; and his successor, having united the state of prime minister to the power and authority which he had enjoyed a long time, sought the means to procure his master a less disgraceful peace.

Notwithstanding the general discouragement, the empire was far from being reduced to the last extremity, as the Germans and the major part of the subjects of the Porte supposed it. Achmer, Riches iait who was a very covetuous prince, had hoarded up raglio. a great deal of money, which he could not prevail




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